Motivation and Multimedia Learning

Motivation and Multimedia Learning

Renae Low (University of New South Wales, Australia)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 19
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-158-2.ch009
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In the field of multimedia learning, although research on cognitive effects and their implications for instructional design is rich, research on the effects of motivation in a multimedia learning context is surprisingly scarce. Since one of the major goals of providing multimedia instruction is to motivate students, there is need to examine motivational elements. In this chapter, we focus on 4 major motivation theories–expectancy-value theory, self-efficacy, goal-setting and task motivation, and self-determination theory–and two motivation models–ARCS model and the integrated model of cognitive-motivational processes–that are derived from multimedia research; review the literature on motivation in multimedia learning contexts, suggest that researchers and practitioners take into account a number of essential aspects to ensure that motivation features incorporated in multimedia learning resources optimize learners’ experience; and point out future research directions in model building, hypothesis testing, examining individual differences, and carrying out longitudinal studies.
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The Need For Motivational Research In Multimedia Learning

It has been almost axiomatic since ancient times even before Aristotle and Confucius that meaningful learning is associated with motivation. However, despite the efforts of some experts in multimedia learning motivation (e.g., Astleitner & Hufnagl, 2003; Gao & Lehman, 2003; Keller & Suzuki, 2004; Song & Keller, 2001), research in multimedia learning at large has not taken motivational issues into account. Instructors may deem that multimedia material and associated operations are more interesting (e.g., text + pictures + sound) or more accessible (e.g., e-learning at the user’s convenient time) than conventional methods. The underlying assumption is that learners who have the opportunity to use multimedia resources should be highly motivated. However, if we scrutinize the literature, we will soon find that multimedia technology together with a certain type of course design may not lead to elevated motivation and superior learning performance. For instance, in a well-controlled study with initial motivational screen and randomization of subject assignment, online evaluation shows that medical students initially with positive attitudes towards computer-based learning (CBL) were not enthusiastic at the end of course, and learning outcomes were significantly affected by students’ prior knowledge but not by their CBL use (Hahne, Benndorf, Frey, & Herzig, 2005). The implication is that CBL may hold too much promise in a curriculum scenario, and that hasty implementation of such curriculum-driven CBL program may carry a risk of deteriorating students’ positive attitude towards CBL.

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Robert Zheng
Chapter 1
Renae Low
Our knowledge of human cognitive architecture has advanced dramatically in the last few decades. In turn, that knowledge has implications for... Sample PDF
Cognitive Architecture and Instructional Design in a Multimedia Context
Chapter 2
Peter E. Doolittle
This chapter addresses the role that working memory capacity (WMC) plays in learning in multimedia environments. WMC represents the ability to... Sample PDF
Multimedia Learning and Working Memory Capacity
Chapter 3
Anne E. Cook
This chapter focuses on issues dealing with the definition and measurement of cognitive load in multimedia and other complex learning activities.... Sample PDF
Measurement of Cognitive Load During Multimedia Learning Activities
Chapter 4
Stephen K. Reed
This chapter discusses a theoretical framework for designing multimedia in which manipulation, rather than perception, of objects plays the... Sample PDF
Manipulating Multimedia Materials
Chapter 5
Katharina Scheiter, Eric Wiebe, Jana Holsanova
Multimedia environments consist of verbal and visual representations that, if appropriately processed, allow for the construction of an integrated... Sample PDF
Theoretical and Instructional Aspects of Learning with Visualizations
Chapter 6
Florian Schmidt-Weigand
This chapter introduces eye tracking as a method to observe how the split of visual attention is managed in multimedia learning. The chapter reviews... Sample PDF
The Influence of Visual and Temporal Dynamics on Split Attention: Evidences from Eye Tracking
Chapter 7
Tad T. Brunyé, Tali Ditman, Jason S. Augustyn
Multiformat and modality interfaces have become popular and effective tools for presenting information in training and instructional systems.... Sample PDF
Spatial and Nonspatial Integration in Learning and Training with Multimedia Systems
Chapter 8
Mike DeSchryver
We claim that the Web has the potential to be a quintessential multimedia environment for complex learning, particularly in ill-structured domains.... Sample PDF
New Forms of Deep Learning on the Web: Meeting the Challenge of Cognitive Load in Conditions of Unfettered Exploration in Online Multimedia Environments
Chapter 9
Renae Low
In the field of multimedia learning, although research on cognitive effects and their implications for instructional design is rich, research on the... Sample PDF
Motivation and Multimedia Learning
Chapter 10
Min Liu, Paul Toprac, Timothy T. Yuen
The purpose of this study is to investigate students’ engagement with a multimedia enhanced problem-based learning (PBL) environment, Alien Rescue... Sample PDF
What Factors Make a Multimedia Learning Environment Engaging: A Case Study
Chapter 11
Michael J. Hannafin, Richard E. West, Craig E. Shepherd
This chapter examines the cognitive demands of student-centered learning from, and with, Web-based multimedia. In contrast to externally-structured... Sample PDF
The Cognitive Demands of Student-Centered, Web-Based Multimedia: Current and Emerging Perspectives
Chapter 12
Lloyd P. Rieber
This chapter presents a review of research on the use and role of interactive simulations for learning. Contemporary theories of learning... Sample PDF
Supporting Discovery-Based Learning within Simulations
Chapter 13
Gina J. Mariano
The role and promotion of transfer in multimedia instructional environments is an oft-neglected concept in instructional multimedia research.... Sample PDF
Fostering Transfer in Multimedia Instructional Environments
Chapter 14
Kirsten R. Butcher, Sebastian de la Chica, Faisal Ahmad, Qianyi Gu, Tamara Sumner, James H. Martin
This chapter discusses an emerging theme in supporting effective multimedia learning: developing scalable, cognitively-grounded tools that customize... Sample PDF
Conceptual Customization for Learning with Multimedia: Developing Individual Instructional Experiences to Support Science Understanding
Chapter 15
Mingming Zhou
We suggest that multimedia environments can benefit from learning as well as offer significant capacity to serve as research purposes. Because... Sample PDF
Designing Multimedia to Trace Goal Setting in Studying
Chapter 16
Alan D. Koenig, Robert K. Atkinson
The first part of this chapter explores how narrative can be used as a cognitive aid in educational video games. It discusses how narrative is... Sample PDF
Using Narrative and Game-Schema Acquisition Techniques to Support Learning from Educational Games
Chapter 17
Marian J.A.J. Verhallen
Advanced digital storybooks offer, in addition to an oral rendition of text, the possibility of enhancing story content through the use of video. In... Sample PDF
How Literacy Emerges from Living Books in the Digital Era: New Chances for Young Linguistically Disadvantaged Children
Chapter 18
Wolff-Michael Roth
To learn by means of analogies, students have to see surface and deep structures in both source and target domains. Educators generally assume that... Sample PDF
Emergence of Analogies in Collaboratively Conducted Computer Simulations
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