Multi-Tier Knowledge-Based System Accessing Learning Object Repository Using Fuzzy XML

Multi-Tier Knowledge-Based System Accessing Learning Object Repository Using Fuzzy XML

Priti Srinivas Sajja (Sardar Patel University, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-788-1.ch028
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Quality of an e-Learning solution depends on its content, services offered by it and technology used. To increase reusability of common learning material which is accessed by multiple applications, there is a need for user-friendly and cost-effective knowledge-based approach. This chapter discusses basic concepts of learning object repositories; presents work done so far and establishes the need of knowledgebased access of the learning repositories to improve cost-benefit ratio of an e-Learning solution. For this purpose, a multi-tier knowledge-based system accessing a fuzzy XML learning object repository is described with architectural framework and detailed methodology. The working of course tier, reusable LO tier, presentation tier, fuzzy interface tier and application tier is discussed in detail with an example to identify learners’ level and determine presentation sequence accordingly. The chapter concludes by discussing the advantages and questions related to further enhancement.
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Educational technology is now experiencing drastic changes with the advancements of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Lot of automated learning platforms like instruction material are available in the form of Compact Disks (CD), website or stand alone personal computer system to help large group of learners and instructors. Platform like the Internet provides high accessibility of learning material in reusable fashion. Besides such reusability and high degree of availability of learning material electronically, learners and practitioners of the educational field demand the extended functionalities which helps them in assisting their routine operations.

For any electronically learning support system, it is obvious that there is a need for good content of the domain/area, better services and technological support (Sajja, 2008). All these three aspects, which strengthens a learning solution are interrelated and required to be strengthen. Technological support and services achieved for an e-Learning solution has no value without proper content. Rich content embedded with good services increases degree of satisfaction of users and help in improving overall quality of the system.

The typical services which learners need can be summarized as - user friendly access of the material, customized presentation of learning material, practice tutorials and drills, and record keeping. Practitioners need to publish their material, update and access the solved assignments submitted by the learners besides some administrative and monitoring tasks. These services are common to every domain and can be better supported with the technology and tools provided by ICT like Internet and Personal Computers. e-Learning content available on the Internet platform provides access advantages like anytime, anywhere and to anybody. However, there is a lot of redundant instructional material stored in different formats (ontologies); as the services and content are tightly embedded with each other. Even if the content is different, some typical services remain same. This leads to the need of a cost-effective solution, which provides a set of typical services accessing a learning object repository in knowledge-based way. The centrally available learning object repository contains small reusable objects of learning material called learning objects can be used by various applications through a multi tier knowledge-based system. This increases the reusability of the services and content and increase the cost-effectiveness of the e-Learning solution.

Initial session of this chapter describes necessary fundamentals of e-Learning, Learning Objects (LO) and Learning Object Repositories (LOR). Discussion of these topics includes a brief introduction to e-Learning, LO, its characteristics and typical components with learning object schema. This introduction also covers examples and standards of Learning Object Schema. Further the chapter defines LOR and elaborates its need. It highlights structure of LOR along with interoperability issues. A few commercially used LORs as examples are given here. Another important aspect regarding development life cycle of an LOR is also discussed with necessary diagrams. This initial part of the chapter explains the usefulness of the LOR based approach for e-Learning by introducing forms, technology and existing scenario of the filed. The need of accessing LOR in a knowledge-based fashion using a multi-tier framework is justified by presenting work done so far in the field.

Though reusable LORs increase flexibility of usage and cost-effectiveness of an e-Learning solution, still there is a need of technique and services which helps in storage, retrieval and usage of the learning content in effective and user friendly way. Moreover, there are some more demands from learners’ perspectives to meet the high quality standards they expect from an ideal e-Learning solution. One of them is the style of presentation and another is the way the system interacts with learners. Customized representation in the media of learner’s choice and friendly interaction together plays an important role in increasing scope and usability of the e-Learning solution. This can be achieved if the learning objects are accompanied with some meaningful ‘knowledge’ component along with them showing how and when they would be utilized. That is the learning objects contain the instructional material along with a kind of metadata giving additional knowledge about their utility.

Key Terms in this Chapter

LO: Learning Object

E-Learning: Learning that depends on or is enhanced by electronic communication using the latest Information and Communication Technologies (like the Internet).

XML: eXtensible Markup Language

LOR: A Learning Object Repository (LOR) is an organized collection of lower level reusable LOs enabling users to find and reuse learning objects.

LO Schema: Typical framework to represent LO content

HTML: Hyper Text Markup Language

Fuzzy Logic: Fuzzy logic is a multi-valued logic based on fuzzy sets. This type of logic is very nearer to the way how humans are identifying and categorizing things into the classes whose boundaries are not fixed.

Knowledge-Based System: Knowledge-Based Systems (KBS) are productive tools of Artificial Intelligence (AI) working in a narrow domain to impart quality, effectiveness and knowledge-based approach in decision-making process. The major components of a KBS are knowledge base to document domain and control knowledge, inference engine to refer and generate new knowledge, self learning to learn from cases and outcomes, explanation and reasoning to justify the actions taken by the system, and friendly user interface.

RDF: Resource Description Framework

Complete Chapter List

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List of Reviewers
Table of Contents
Harrison Hao Yang, Steve Chi-Yin Yuen
Harrison Hao Yang, Steve Chi-Yin Yuen
Chapter 1
Chien Yu, Wei-Chieh Wayne Yu, Chun Fu Lin
Dramatic changes in information and communication technologies (ICTs) provide a powerful force forthe growth of e-learning. E-learning has become... Sample PDF
Computer-Mediated Learning: What Have We Experienced and Where Do We Go Next?
Chapter 2
Clara Pereira Coutinho, João Batista Bottentuit Jr.
In this chapter the authors analyze issues and ideas regarding the next generation of e-Learning, which is already known as e-Learning 2.0 or social... Sample PDF
From Web to Web 2.0 and E-Learning 2.0
Chapter 3
Chaka Chaka
This chapter contends that both Web 2.0 and the Semantic Web (the SW) serve as critical enablers for e-learning 2.0. It also maintains that the SW... Sample PDF
E-Learning 2.0: Web 2.0, the Semantic Web and the Power of Collective Intelligence
Chapter 4
Jianxia Du, Yunyan Liu, Robert L. Brown
An online learning community can be a place for vibrant discussions and the sharing of new ideas in a medium where content constantly changes. This... Sample PDF
The Key Elements of Online Learning Communities
Chapter 5
Ke Zhang, Curtis J. Bonk
This chapter reviews the characteristics of learners of different generations. In particular, it compares their differences in terms of learning... Sample PDF
Generational Learners & E-Learning Technologies
Chapter 6
Robin M. Roberts
The relationship between the Digital or Millennium Generation and Web 2.0 is investigated focusing on how post-secondary students just entering... Sample PDF
The Digital Generation and Web 2.0: E-Learning Concern or Media Myth?
Chapter 7
Jeffrey Hsu, Karin Hamilton
Adult learners have a set of specific and unique needs, and are different from traditional college students. Possessing greater maturity, interest... Sample PDF
Adult Learners, E-Learning, and Success: Critical Issues and Challenges in an Adult Hybrid Distance Learning Program
Chapter 8
Dazhi Yang, Jennifer C. Richardson
Past studies indicate that students demonstrate different online interaction styles, which consist of the ways or habits students acquire knowledge... Sample PDF
Online Interaction Styles: Adapting to Active Interaction Styles
Chapter 9
Yuliang Liu
Learner satisfaction and learning is currently a very important topic in online instruction and learning. Blignaut and Trollip (2003) proposed six... Sample PDF
Strategies for Providing Formative Feedback to Maximize Learner Satisfaction and Online Learning
Chapter 10
Bo Kyeong Kim, Youngkyun Baek
Web 2.0 is changing the paradigm of using the Internet which is affecting the e-learning paradigm. In this chapter, e-learning 2.0 and its... Sample PDF
Exploring Ideas and Possibilities of Second Life as an Advanced E-Learning Environment
Chapter 11
Jeannine Hirtle, Samuel Smith
Communities of practice (CoP’s)—much touted and studied as a mechanism for teacher education and professional development—may offer environments for... Sample PDF
When Virtual Communities Click: Transforming Teacher Practice, Transforming Teachers
Chapter 12
Luiz Fernando de Barros Campos
This chapter investigates whether information technology tools typical of Web 2.0 can support Knowledge Management (KM) practices in organizations.... Sample PDF
Could Web 2.0 Technologies Support Knowledge Management in Organizations?
Chapter 13
Colleen Carmean
Anytime and all-the-time access to electronic resources, artifacts and community have changed learning practices in the workplace as surely as it... Sample PDF
E-Learning Design for the Information Workplace
Chapter 14
Paraskevi Mentzelou, Dimitrios Drogidis
The aims of Greek education system is to give to students the ability to develop the required skills, character and values that will enable them to... Sample PDF
The Impact of Information Communication Technology (ICT) to the Greek Educational Community
Chapter 15
Richard Hartshorne, Haya Ajjan, Richard E. Ferdig
In this chapter, the authors provide evidence for the potential of various Web 2.0 applications in higher education through a review of relevant... Sample PDF
Faculty Use and Perceptions of Web 2.0 in Higher Education
Chapter 16
Susanne Markgren, Carrie Eastman, Leah Massar Bloom
In this chapter, the authors explore the role of academic librarians in the e-learning 2.0 environment. Librarians are excellent partners in... Sample PDF
Librarian as Collaborator: Bringing E-Learning 2.0 Into the Classroom by Way of the Library
Chapter 17
Betül C. Özkan
Because of the ways students learn and make sense of world change, higher education institutions try to re-conceptualize this change process and... Sample PDF
Implementing E-Learning in University 2.0: Are Universities Ready for the Digital Age?
Chapter 18
Hsiu-Ting Hung
The focus of the chapter is two-fold: on one hand, it seeks theoretical understanding of literacy as social practice; on the other hand, it explores... Sample PDF
New Literacies in New Times: A Multimodal Approach to Literacy Learning
Chapter 19
Rajani S. Sadasivam, Katie M. Crenshaw, Michael J. Schoen, Raju V. Datla
The e-learning 2.0 transformation of continuing education of healthcare professionals (CE/CME) will be characterized by a fundamental shift from the... Sample PDF
Transforming Continuing Healthcare Education with E-Learning 2.0
Chapter 20
Brian Smith, Peter Reed
The excitement of Web 2.0 and E-learning 2.0 is upon us. As the use of social networking sites and other Web 2.0 tools continue to increase... Sample PDF
Mode Neutral: The Pedagogy that Bridges Web 2.0 and e-Learning 2.0
Chapter 21
F. R. Nordengren, Ann M. York
This chapter is a practical overview of both the theoretical, evidence-based research in pedagogy and the anecdotal, experience-based practices of... Sample PDF
Dispatches from the Graduate Classroom: Bringing Theory and Practice to E-Learning
Chapter 22
Kathryn Kennedy, Jeff Boyer, Catherine Cavanaugh, Kara Dawson
Using the theoretical framework of “craft” highlighted by Richard Sennett (2008) in The Craftsman, this chapter focuses on constructionism and the... Sample PDF
Student-Centered Teaching with Constructionist Technology Tools: Preparing 21st Century Teachers
Chapter 23
Clara Pereira Coutinho
In this chapter the author presents the results of a project developed in pre-service and in-service teacher education programs at the Minho... Sample PDF
Challenges for Teacher Education in the Learning Society: Case Studies of Promising Practice
Chapter 24
Pearl Chen
This chapter reviews the current state of theory and practice of experience design and suggests that the notion of experience should be regarded as... Sample PDF
From Memorable to Transformative E-Learning Experiences: Theory and Practice of Experience Design
Chapter 25
Carl Scott, Youmei Liu, Madhuri Kumar
This chapter will examine the relationship between a constructivist teaching approach and online learning experiences in the Virtual Worlds of... Sample PDF
Authentic Learning in Second Life: A Constructivist Model in Course Design
Chapter 26
C. Candace Chou
This study explores student views of various E-Learning tools as teaching and learning media in an online course for pre-service and in-service... Sample PDF
Student Perceptions and Pedagogical Applications of E-Learning Tools in Online Course
Chapter 27
Steve Chi-Yin Yuen, Harrison Hao Yang
Enhancing the substantial interaction in e-learning courses can be a challenge to instructors. The chapter gave an overview of online interaction... Sample PDF
Using Blogfolios to Enhance Interaction in E-Learning Courses
Chapter 28
Priti Srinivas Sajja
Quality of an e-Learning solution depends on its content, services offered by it and technology used. To increase reusability of common learning... Sample PDF
Multi-Tier Knowledge-Based System Accessing Learning Object Repository Using Fuzzy XML
Chapter 29
Ivan Angelov, Sathish Menon, Michael Douma
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Finding Information: Factors that Improve Online Experiences
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