Multiple Description Coding with Application in Multimedia Watermarking

Multiple Description Coding with Application in Multimedia Watermarking

Minglei Liu (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore) and Ce Zhu (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 22
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-262-6.ch026
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Digital watermarking is a useful and powerful tool for multimedia security such as copyright protection, tamper proofing and assessment, broadcast monitoring, and fingerprinting. Many multimedia services are provided through wire/wireless communications, where transmission errors are present. Robustness of watermarking is a major concern during the transmission of watermarked multimedia messages. Multiple description coding (MDC) is a promising method for robust transmission of information over non-prioritized and unpredictable networks. As a source coding scheme, multiple description coding has been extensively studied and applied in audio, image, and video sources. It is also interesting to find that multiple description coding can be applied in multimedia watermarking. Recently several multiple description watermarking schemes have been developed which have exhibited some advantages. In this chapter, the concept, design algorithms, and some applications of multiple description coding are reviewed. Particularly, the application of MDC in watermarking, known as multiple description watermarking, is elaborated based on recent research results.
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Digital multimedia information (text, audio, image and video) and applications have widely penetrated into our every-day lives in last decades. Advances in wireless communication, mobile computing and networking are providing us with business demands and opportunities for multimedia services. This has given rise to the urgent need for the creation and application of new methods for multimedia security. Digital watermarking is a useful and powerful tool for multimedia security applications such as copyright protection, tamper proofing and assessment, broadcast monitoring and fingerprinting (Kundur, 2001). However, the watermark could be damaged by incidental/intentional attacks during transmission. The robustness of the extracted watermark is a major challenge in the watermarking application. On the other hand, as one of the efficient error resilient encoding techniques, multiple description coding attempts to overcome transmission loss in applications where transmission channels are imperfect. Many audio, image and video applications using multiple description coding have been developed. In view of the strong error resilience of MDC, it is reasonable to applying multiple description coding in watermarking to improve the robustness of the extracted watermark. In this chapter, recent research results on the multiple description watermarking are surveyed.

This chapter is organized as follows. Section 2 introduces the concept, design algorithms, and some applications of multiple description coding. In Section 3, multiple description watermarking frameworks are categorized and discussed based on recent research results. Concluding remarks are given in Section 4.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Watermarking Attacks: Incidental or unintentional processes during transmission or delivery of the watermarked media are called attacks.

Multiple Description Coding: As one of error resilient encoding techniques, multiple description coding (MDC) attempts to overcome the retransmission problem in applications where transmission channels may not be perfect. A multiple description encoder generates two or more streams (known as descriptions) for one source. These streams are transmitted over separate channels respectively, and each can be individually decoded with a certain level of fidelity. Since these streams are also designed to complement each other, the incremental reconstruction quality is achievable with more received descriptions.

Watermarking: Watermarking is a well-known technique used to hide data or information imperceptibly within image, audio, or video so that valuable contents can be protected.

Multimedia Security: Multimedia communication plays an important role in multiple areas in today’s society including politics, economics, industries, militaries, entertainment, etc. It is of ultimost importance to secure multimedia data by providing confidentiality, integrity, and identity or ownership. Multimedia security addresses the problems of digital watermarking, data encryption, multimedia authentication, digital rights management, etc.

Multiple Description Watermarking Framework: It is a framework that applies multiple description algorithms to watermarking systems.

Iterative Coding of Multiple Description: Iterative coding of multiple description (ICMD) is a complicated MD algorithm, which is mainly designed to overcome channel impairments by using the correlation between the descriptions. Two correlated bit streams are decoded using two decoders which iteratively exchange soft information between each other.

Multiple Description Quantization: Multiple description quantization (MDQ) is one kind of multiple description algorithms. MDQ generally uses an index assignment function to create two or more representations for a symbol. Typical MD quantization algorithms include MD scalar quantization, MD lattice vector quantization, etc.

Complete Chapter List

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Borko Furht
Shiguo Lian, Yan Zhang
Shiguo Lian, Yan Zhang
Chapter 1
Pramod A. Jamkhedkar, Gregory L. Heileman
Rights expression languages (RELs) form a central component of digital rights management (DRM) systems. The process of development of RELs... Sample PDF
Rights Expression Languages
Chapter 2
Deepali Brahmbhatt, Mark Stamp
This chapter presents a digital rights management (DRM) system designed for streaming media. A brief, general introduction to DRM is also provided... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management for Streaming Media
Chapter 3
Jean-Henry Morin
This chapter introduces and discusses much needed alternatives to the traditional either/or debate on total security of secure multimedia... Sample PDF
Rethinking DRM Using Exception Management
Chapter 4
Mercè Serra Joan, Bert Greevenbosch, Anja Becker, Harald Fuchs
This chapter gives an overview of the Open Mobile AllianceTM Digital Rights Management (OMA DRM) standard, which allows for the secure distribution... Sample PDF
Overview of OMA Digital Rights Management
Chapter 5
Hugo Jonker, Sjouke Mauw
The use of Digital Rights Management (DRM) systems involves several stakeholders, such as the content provider, the license provider, and the user... Sample PDF
Discovering the Core Security Requirements of DRM Systems by Means of Objective Trees
Chapter 6
Pallavi Priyadarshini, Mark Stamp
Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks have proliferated and become ubiquitous. A school of thought has emerged that harnessing the established user-base and... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management for Untrusted Peer-to-Peer Networks
Chapter 7
L. Badia, A. Erta, U. Malesci
Traditional analog video surveillance systems technology has recently become inadequate to face the massive demand of security systems consisting of... Sample PDF
Pervasive Video Surveillance Systems Over TCP/IP Networks
Chapter 8
Ramya Venkataramu, Mark Stamp
Digital Rights Management (DRM) technology is used to control access to copyrighted digital content. Apple employs a DRM system known as Fairplay in... Sample PDF
P2PTunes: A Peer-to-Peer Digital Rights Management System
Chapter 9
Nicolas Anciaux, Luc Bouganim, Philippe Pucheral
This chapter advocates the convergence between Access Control (AC) models, focusing on the granularity of sharing, and Digital Right Management... Sample PDF
A Hardware Approach for Trusted Access and Usage Control
Chapter 10
Ionut Florescu
Regarding fundamental protocols in cryptography, the Diffie-Hellman (Diffie and Hellman, 1976) public key exchange protocol is one of the oldest and... Sample PDF
A Summary of Recent and Old Results on the Security of the Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Protocol in Finite Groups
Chapter 11
Guojun Wang, Yirong Wu, Geyong Min, Ronghua Shi
Secret sharing aims at distributing and sharing a secret among a group of participants efficiently. In this chapter, we propose a plane-based access... Sample PDF
Secret Sharing with k-Dimensional Access Structure
Chapter 12
Supavadee Aramvith, Rhandley D. Cajote
Presently, both wireless communications and multimedia communications have experienced unequaled rapid growth and commercial success. Building on... Sample PDF
Wireless Video Transmission
Chapter 13
M. Hassan Shirali-Shahreza, Mohammad Shirali-Shahreza
Establishing hidden communication is an important subject of discussion that has gained increasing importance recently, particularly with the... Sample PDF
A Survey of Information Hiding
Chapter 14
Fan Zhang
The digital multimedia, including text, image, graphics, audio, video, and so forth, has become a main way for information communication along with... Sample PDF
Digital Watermarking Capacity and Detection Error Rate
Chapter 15
Digital Watermarking  (pages 277-297)
Aidan Mooney
As Internet usage continues to grow, people are becoming more aware of the need to protect the display and presentation of digital documents.... Sample PDF
Digital Watermarking
Chapter 16
Pradeep K. Atrey, Abdulmotaleb El Saddik, Mohan Kankanhalli
Digital video authentication has been a topic of immense interest to researchers in the past few years. Authentication of a digital video refers to... Sample PDF
Digital Video Authentication
Chapter 17
Tieyan Li
The multimedia community is moving from monolithic applications to more flexible and scalable proliferate solutions. Security issues such as access... Sample PDF
Flexible Multimedia Stream Authentication
Chapter 18
K-G Stenborg
Media that is distributed digitally can be copied and redistributed illegally. Embedding an individual watermark in the media object for each... Sample PDF
Scalable Distribution of Watermarked Media
Chapter 19
Hafiz Malik
This chapter provides critical analysis of current state-of-the-art in steganography. First part of the this chapter provides the classification of... Sample PDF
Critical Analysis of Digital Steganography
Chapter 20
Esther Palomar, Juan M.E. Tapiador, Julio C. Hernandez-Castro, Arturo Ribagorda
Perhaps the most popular feature offered by Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks is the possibility of having several replicas of the same content... Sample PDF
Secure Content Distribution in Pure P2P
Chapter 21
Andreas U. Schmidt, Nicolai Kuntze
Security in the value creation chain hinges on many single components and their interrelations. Trusted Platforms open ways to fulfil the pertinent... Sample PDF
Trust in the Value-Creation Chain of Multimedia Goods
Chapter 22
Goo-Rak Kwon, Sung-Jea Ko
The objective of this chapter introduces an advanced encryption of MP3 and MPEG-4 coder with a quality degradation-based security model. For the MP3... Sample PDF
Copyright Protection of A/V Codec for Mobile Multimedia Devices
Chapter 23
Frank Y. Shih, Yi-Ta Wu
Steganography is the art of hiding secret data inside other innocent media file. Steganalysis is the process of detecting hidden data which are... Sample PDF
Digital Steganography Based on Genetic Algorithm
Chapter 24
Guangjie Liu, Shiguo Lian, Yuewei Dai, Zhiquan Wang
Image steganography is a common form of information hiding which embeds as many message bits into images and keep the introduced distortion... Sample PDF
Adaptive Image Steganography Based on Structural Similarity Metric
Chapter 25
Shiguo Lian
Video watermarking technique embeds some information into videos by modifying video content slightly. The embedded information, named watermark, may... Sample PDF
A Survey on Video Watermarking
Chapter 26
Minglei Liu, Ce Zhu
Digital watermarking is a useful and powerful tool for multimedia security such as copyright protection, tamper proofing and assessment, broadcast... Sample PDF
Multiple Description Coding with Application in Multimedia Watermarking
Chapter 27
Hsuan T. Chang, Chih-Chung Hsu
This chapter introduces a pioneer concept in which multiple images are simultaneously considered in the compression and secured distribution... Sample PDF
Fractal-Based Secured Multiple-Image Compression and Distribution
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