Multirobot Team Work with Benevolent Characters: The Roles of Emotions

Multirobot Team Work with Benevolent Characters: The Roles of Emotions

Sajal Chandra Banik (Saga University, Japan), Keigo Watanabe (Saga University, Japan), Maki K. Habib (Saga University, Japan) and Kiyotaka Izumi (Saga University, Japan)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-354-8.ch004
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Abstract

Multi-robot team work is necessary for complex tasks which cannot be performed by a single robot. To get the required performance and reliability, it is necessary to develop a proper cooperative task. The robots need to be intelligent enough to adjust with dynamic workload and environment. Benefits can be amplified from a team if benevolence combines with cooperation. The benevolence behaviors among the team members are extra benefits to the society. There is a flexible relation among intelligence, benevolence and emotions. We describe an emotion model to be used for each of the members of a multi-robot team. In respect of some drawbacks with the existing approaches, we present an emotion based multi-robot cooperation with some benevolent characters.
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1. Introduction

Multi-robot system is one of the main topics in research area to different application fields. Significant benefits like reliability, performance and economic value can be had by engaging multi-robot system instead of a single robot. In addition to that, a good level of robustness, fault tolerance and flexibility can be had from multi-robot due to task sharing among the members.

Multi-robot system is usually used to distribute the activities and intelligence among the members and this distributing process depends on the complexity of problems. If the task is too complex then it is needed to divide into small tasks and distribute these segmented tasks to members of team. A robot can have a satisfactory role by performing the assigned small task with the limited ability and knowledge.

The advantages of team work are widely acceptable and applicable from a small group to organization level. Until now, several team work theories and models (Scerri et al., 2002; Kitano et al., 1999; Tambe, 1997) have been developed considering coordination methods, communication methods among the team members, their forms and reforming methods, etc. The roles of emotions and effects of coordination for human team have already been investigated and supported by many psychologists. But, the roles of emotions and appliance for pure agent team have not been studied adequately, although some limited research results strongly support the importance of emotion for pure agent system (Nair et al., 2005; Sceutz, 2004; Gage, 2004; Murphy et al., 2002). During the cooperation among the team, it needs to develop different behaviours among the agents of which benevolence is one of the important behaviour for the welfare of the team. In this chapter, we will conjecture about how multiagent team can augment their capabilities for coordination with benevolent characters through the introduction of emotions.

While performing task in a group, it needs to have some agreements of cooperation and benevolent actions to increase the group/overall performance (as shown in Figure 1). The degree of benevolence depends on the cooperation level, situation and type of action, etc. So, what is benevolent agent? To what extend an agent should be benevolent? What is the role of benevolence for a Multi-agent system (MAS) system? When is benevolence useful or fruitless for action performing agent and its colleague? Such kinds of inquiries are continuously arising when benevolence concept is being considered to be applied for AI system. Is there any relation between benevolence and emotional state? Thinking about the incorporation of benevolence into MAS is a good idea to be considered as a research topic. In this chapter, we will discuss how emotional state affects benevolence characters and the roles of emotion for team work considering multi-robot system. In the following section, we will discuss about benevolent agents and their characters.

Figure 1.

Multiagent, cooperation and benevolence

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2. Benevolent Agent

In generally, benevolent actions are necessary for task/goal sharing to acquire with ease. There is no common agreement to define benevolent agent. Definitions of benevolent agent from different researchers are slightly split into their concepts. Philosophers and biologists relate benevolence as a pure concept of virtue, compassion and moral sentiments (Mohammed and Huhns, 2001). They describe ‘benevolence action’ as the doing of kind action to other from mere good will and without any obligation. Jennings and Kalenka (1999) suggested to select benevolence while describing a good decision making function. Some researchers considered benevolence as an important ‘phenomenon’ that exists in a team of autonomous agents from instance of agent’s emotions (Mohammed and Huhns, 2001).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Proximity Sensor: These sensors are able to detect nearby objects without any contact.

Multidisciplinary Research: The research about emotion and its application for AI is multidisciplinary research as it includes the knowledge from different branches of science.

Emotion Inducing Factors: These are the factors which induce the transition probabilities of the transition matrix in the Markovian emotion model.

Colleague Robot: Every robot working in team is a colleague to others and we called as colleague robot.

Perception: It is the subsystem of control structure of an agent through which it can gather and understand the information from working environment.

Benevolent Agent: These are the agents which are liable to help (benevolent action) others if necessary.

Moods: It is the long time effects of emotional states.

Markovian Emotion Model: This is a model of emotion based on stochastic approach where states are predefined discrete emotional states.

BMRS: It means benevolent multi-robot system in which all the robots have benevolent characters.

Field of View: It is the area of working environment based on sensor’s range from where information can be captured.

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Craig DeLancey
Preface
Jordi Vallverdú, David Casacuberta
Chapter 1
Oscar Deniz, Javier Lorenzo, Mario Hernández, Modesto Castrillón
Social intelligence seems to obviously require emotions. People have emotions, recognize them in others and also express them. A wealth of... Sample PDF
Emotional Modeling in an Interactive Robotic Head
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Chapter 2
Cyril Laurier, Perfecto Herrera
Creating emotionally sensitive machines will significantly enhance the interaction between humans and machines. In this chapter we focus on enabling... Sample PDF
Automatic Detection of Emotion in Music: Interaction with Emotionally Sensitive Machines
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Chapter 3
Christoph Bartneck, Michael J. Lyons
The human face plays a central role in most forms of natural human interaction so we may expect that computational methods for analysis of facial... Sample PDF
Facial Expression Analysis, Modeling and Synthesis: Overcoming the Limitations of Artificial Intelligence with the Art of the Soluble
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Chapter 4
Sajal Chandra Banik, Keigo Watanabe, Maki K. Habib, Kiyotaka Izumi
Multi-robot team work is necessary for complex tasks which cannot be performed by a single robot. To get the required performance and reliability... Sample PDF
Multirobot Team Work with Benevolent Characters: The Roles of Emotions
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Chapter 5
Matthias Scheutz, Paul Schermerhorn
Effective decision-making under real-world conditions can be very difficult as purely rational methods of decision-making are often not feasible or... Sample PDF
Affective Goal and Task Selection for Social Robots
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Chapter 6
Christopher P. Lee-Johnson, Dale A. Carnegie
The hypothesis that artificial emotion-like mechanisms can improve the adaptive performance of robots and intelligent systems has gained... Sample PDF
Robotic Emotions: Navigation with Feeling
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Chapter 7
C. Gros
All self-active living beings need to solve the motivational problem—the question of what to do at any moment of their life. For humans and... Sample PDF
Emotions, Diffusive Emotional Control and the Motivational Problem for Autonomous Cognitive Systems
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Chapter 8
Bruce J. MacLennan
This chapter addresses the “Hard Problem” of consciousness in the context of robot emotions. The Hard Problem, as defined by Chalmers, refers to the... Sample PDF
Robots React, but Can They Feel?
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Chapter 9
Mercedes García-Ordaz, Rocío Carrasco-Carrasco, Francisco José Martínez-López
It is contended here that the emotional elements and features of human reasoning should be taken into account when designing the personality of... Sample PDF
Personality and Emotions in Robotics from the Gender Perspective
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Chapter 10
Antoni Gomila, Alberto Amengual
In this chapter we raise some of the moral issues involved in the current development of robotic autonomous agents. Starting from the connection... Sample PDF
Moral Emotions for Autonomous Agents
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Chapter 11
Pietro Cipresso, Jean-Marie Dembele, Marco Villamira
In this work, we present an analytical model of hyper-inflated economies and develop a computational model that permits us to consider expectations... Sample PDF
An Emotional Perspective for Agent-Based Computational Economics
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Chapter 12
Michel Aubé
The Commitment Theory of Emotions is issued from a careful scrutiny of emotional behavior in humans and animals, as reported in the literature on... Sample PDF
Unfolding Commitments Management: A Systemic View of Emotions
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Chapter 13
Sigerist J. Rodríguez, Pilar Herrero, Olinto J. Rodríguez
Today, realism and coherence are highly searched qualities in agent’s behavior; but these qualities cannot be achieved completely without... Sample PDF
A Cognitive Appraisal Based Approach for Emotional Representation
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Chapter 14
Clément Raïevsky, François Michaud
Emotion plays several important roles in the cognition of human beings and other life forms, and is therefore a legitimate inspiration for providing... Sample PDF
Emotion Generation Based on a Mismatch Theory of Emotions for Situated Agents
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Chapter 15
Artificial Surprise  (pages 267-291)
Luis Macedo, Amilcar Cardoso, Rainer Reisenzein, Emiliano Lorini
This chapter reviews research on computational models of surprise. Part 1 begins with a description of the phenomenon of surprise in humans, reviews... Sample PDF
Artificial Surprise
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Chapter 16
Tom Adi
A new theory of emotions is derived from the semantics of the language of emotions. The sound structures of 36 Old Arabic word roots that express... Sample PDF
A Theory of Emotions Based on Natural Language Semantics
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Chapter 17
Huma Shah, Kevin Warwick
The Turing Test, originally configured as a game for a human to distinguish between an unseen and unheard man and woman, through a text-based... Sample PDF
Emotion in the Turing Test: A Downward Trend for Machines in Recent Loebner Prizes
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Chapter 18
Félix Francisco Ramos Corchado, Héctor Rafael Orozco Aguirre, Luis Alfonso Razo Ruvalcaba
Emotions play an essential role in the cognitive processes of an avatar and are a crucial element for modeling its perception, learning, decision... Sample PDF
Artificial Emotional Intelligence in Virtual Creatures
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Chapter 19
Sarantos I. Psycharis
In our study we collected data with respect to cognitive variables (learning outcome), metacognitive indicators (knowledge about cognition and... Sample PDF
Physics and Cognitive-Emotional-Metacognitive Variables: Learning Performance in the Environment of CTAT
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Chapter 20
Anthony G. Francis Jr., Manish Mehta, Ashwin Ram
Believable agents designed for long-term interaction with human users need to adapt to them in a way which appears emotionally plausible while... Sample PDF
Emotional Memory and Adaptive Personalities
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Chapter 21
Dorel Gorga, Daniel K. Schneider
The purpose of this contribution is to discuss conceptual issues and challenges related to the integration of emotional agents in the design of... Sample PDF
Computer-Based Learning Environments with Emotional Agents
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Chapter 22
Emotional Ambient Media  (pages 443-459)
Artur Lugmayr, Tillmann Dorsch, Pabo Roman Humanes
The “medium is the message”: nowadays the medium as such is non-distinguishable from its presentation environment. However, what is the medium in an... Sample PDF
Emotional Ambient Media
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Chapter 23
Jordi Vallverdú, David Casacuberta
During the previous stage of our research we developed a computer simulation (called ‘The Panic Room’ or, more simply, ‘TPR’) dealing with synthetic... Sample PDF
Modelling Hardwired Synthetic Emotions: TPR 2.0
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Chapter 24
Cecile K.M. Crutzen, Hans-Werner Hein
A vision of future daily life is explored in Ambient Intelligence (AmI). It follows the assumption that information technology should disappear into... Sample PDF
Invisibility and Visibility: The Shadows of Artificial Intelligence
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About the Contributors