Neo-Symbiosis: The Next Stage in the Evolution of Human Information Interaction

Neo-Symbiosis: The Next Stage in the Evolution of Human Information Interaction

Douglas Griffith (General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems, USA) and Frank L. Greitzer (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 12
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-170-4.ch007
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The purpose of this article is to re-address the vision of human-computer symbiosis as originally expressed by J.C.R. Licklider nearly a half-century ago and to argue for the relevance of this vision to the field of cognitive informatics. We describe this vision, place it in some historical context relating to the evolution of human factors research, and observe that the field is now in the process of re-invigorating Licklider’s vision. A central concept of this vision is that humans need to be incorporated into computer architectures. We briefly assess the state of the technology within the context of contemporary theory and practice, and we describe what we regard as this emerging field of neo-symbiosis. Examples of neo-symbiosis are provided, but these are nascent examples and the potential of neo-symbiosis is yet to be realized. We offer some initial thoughts on requirements to define functionality of neo-symbiotic systems and discuss research challenges associated with their development and evaluation. Methodologies and metrics for assessing neo-symbiosis are discussed.
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In 1960, J.C.R. Licklider wrote in his paper “Man-Machine Symbiosis,”

The hope is that in not too many years, human brains and computing machines will be coupled together very tightly, and that the resulting partnership will think as no human brain has ever thought and process data in a way not approached by the information-handling machines we know today (p. 5).

This statement is breathtaking for its vision — especially considering the state of computer technology at that time, that is, large mainframes, punch cards, and batch processing. The purpose of this article is to re-address Licklider’s vision and build upon his ideas to inform contemporary theory and practice within the broader field of human factors as well as to offer a historical perspective for the emerging field of cognitive informatics.

It is curious to note that Licklider did not use the term symbiosis again, but he did introduce more visionary ideas in a symbiotic vein. A paper he co-authored with Robert Taylor, titled “The Computer As a Communication Device,” made the bold assertion, “In a few years, men will be able to communicate more effectively through a machine than face to face” (p. 21). Clearly the time estimate was optimistic, but the vision was noteworthy. Licklider and Taylor described the role of the computer in effective communication by introducing the concept of “On-Line Interactive Vicarious Expediter and Responder” (OLIVER), an acronym that by no coincidence was chosen to honor artificial intelligence researcher and the father of machine perception, Oliver Selfridge. OLIVER would be able to take notes when so directed, and would know what you do, what you read, what you buy and where you buy it. It would know your friends and acquaintances and would know who and what is important to you. This paper made heavy use of the concept of “mental models,” relatively new to the psychology of that day. The computer was conceived of as an active participant rather than as a passive communication device. Remember that when this paper was written, computers were large devices used by specialists. The age of personal computing was off in the future.

Born during World War II, the field of human factors engineering (HFE) gained prominence for its research on the placement of controls — commonly referred to as knobology within the field of HFE, which was an unjust characterization. Many important contributions were made to the design of aircraft, including controls and displays. With strong roots in research on human performance and human errors, the field gained prominence through the work of many leaders in the field who came out of the military: Alphonse Chapanis, a psychologist and a Lieutenant in the U.S. Air Force; Alexander Williams, a psychologist and naval aviator; Air Force Colonel Paul Fitts; and J.C.R. Licklider. Beginning with Chapanis, who realized that “pilot errors” were most often cockpit design errors that could be corrected by the application of human factors to display and controls, these early educators were instrumental in launching the discipline of aviation psychology and HFE that led to worldwide standards in the aviation industry. These men were influential in demonstrating that the military and aviation industry could benefit from research and expertise of the human factors academic community; their works (Fitts, 1951a) were inspirational in guiding research and design in engineering psychology for decades. Among the most influential early articles in the field that came out of this academic discipline was George Miller’s (1956) “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity to Process Information,” which heralded the field of cognitive science and application of quantitative approaches to the study of cognitive activity and performance.

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Table of Contents
Yingxu Wang
Chapter 1
Yingxu Wang
Cognitive Informatics (CI) is a transdisciplinary enquiry of the internal information processing mechanisms and processes of the brain and natural... Sample PDF
The Theoretical Framework of Cognitive Informatics
Chapter 2
Withold Kinsner
This chapter provides a review of Shannon and other entropy measures in evaluating the quality of materials used in perception, cognition, and... Sample PDF
Is Entropy Suitable to Characterize Data and Signals for Cognitive Informatics?
Chapter 3
Ismael Rodríguez, Manuel Núñez, Fernando Rubio
Finite State Machines (FSM) are formalisms that have been used for decades to describe the behavior of systems. They can also provide an intelligent... Sample PDF
Cognitive Processes by using Finite State Machines
Chapter 4
Yingxu Wang
An interactive motivation-attitude theory is developed based on the Layered Reference Model of the Brain (LRMB) and the Object-Attribute-Relation... Sample PDF
On the Cognitive Processes of Human Perception with Emotions, Motivations, and Attitudes
Chapter 5
Qingyong Li, Zhiping Shi, Zhongzhi Shi
Sparse coding theory demonstrates that the neurons in the primary visual cortex form a sparse representation of natural scenes in the viewpoint of... Sample PDF
A Selective Sparse Coding Model with Embedded Attention Mechanism
Chapter 6
Yingxu Wang
Theoretical research is predominately an inductive process, while applied research is mainly a deductive process. Both inference processes are based... Sample PDF
The Cognitive Processes of Formal Inferences
Chapter 7
Douglas Griffith, Frank L. Greitzer
The purpose of this article is to re-address the vision of human-computer symbiosis as originally expressed by J.C.R. Licklider nearly a... Sample PDF
Neo-Symbiosis: The Next Stage in the Evolution of Human Information Interaction
Chapter 8
Ray E. Jennings
Although linguistics may treat languages as a syntactic and/or semantic entity that regulates both language production and comprehension, this... Sample PDF
Language, Logic, and the Brain
Chapter 9
Yingxu Wang, Guenther Ruhe
Decision making is one of the basic cognitive processes of human behaviors by which a preferred option or a course of actions is chosen from among a... Sample PDF
The Cognitive Process of Decision Making
Chapter 10
Tiansi Dong
This chapter proposes a commonsense understanding of distance and orientation knowledge between extended objects, and presents a formal... Sample PDF
A Commonsense Approach to Representing Spatial Knowledge Between Extended Objects
Chapter 11
Natalia López, Manuel Núñez, Fernando L. Pelayo
In this chapter we present the formal language, stochastic process algebra (STOPA), to specify cognitive systems. In addition to the usual... Sample PDF
A Formal Specification of the Memorization Process
Chapter 12
Yingxu Wang
Autonomic computing (AC) is an intelligent computing approach that autonomously carries out robotic and interactive applications based on goal- and... Sample PDF
Theoretical Foundations of Autonomic Computing
Chapter 13
Witold Kinsner
Numerous attempts are being made to develop machines that could act not only autonomously, but also in an increasingly intelligent and cognitive... Sample PDF
Towards Cognitive Machines: Multiscale Measures and Analysis
Chapter 14
Amar Ramdane-Cherif
Cognitive approach through the neural network (NN) paradigm is a critical discipline that will help bring about autonomic computing (AC). NN-related... Sample PDF
Towards Autonomic Computing: Adaptive Neural Network for Trajectory Planning
Chapter 15
Lee Flax
We give an approach to cognitive modelling, which allows for richer expression than the one based simply on the firing of sets of neurons. The... Sample PDF
Cognitive Modelling Applied to Aspects of Schizophrenia and Autonomic Computing
Chapter 16
Yan Zhao, Yiyu Yao
Classification is one of the main tasks in machine learning, data mining, and pattern recognition. Compared with the extensively studied automation... Sample PDF
Interactive Classification Using a Granule Network
Chapter 17
Mehdi Najjar, André Mayers
Encouraging results of last years in the field of knowledge representation within virtual learning environments confirms that artificial... Sample PDF
A Cognitive Computational Knowledge Representation Theory
Chapter 18
Du Zhang
A crucial component of an intelligent system is its knowledge base that contains knowledge about a problem domain. Knowledge base development... Sample PDF
A Fixpoint Semantics for Rule-Base Anomalies
Chapter 19
Christine W. Chan
This chapter presents a method for ontology construction and its application in developing ontology in the domain of natural gas pipeline... Sample PDF
Development of an Ontology for an Industrial Domain
Chapter 20
Václav Rajlich, Shaochun Xu
This article explores the non-monotonic nature of the programmer learning that takes place during incremental program development. It uses a... Sample PDF
Constructivist Learning During Software Development
Chapter 21
Witold Kinsner
Many scientific chapters treat the diversity of fractal dimensions as mere variations on either the same theme or a single definition. There is a... Sample PDF
A Unified Approach to Fractal Dimensions
Chapter 22
Du Zhang, Witold Kinsner, Jeffrey Tsai, Yingxu Wang, Philip Sheu, Taehyung Wang
The 2005 IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Informatics (ICCI’05) was held during August 8th to 10th 2005 on the campus of University of... Sample PDF
Cognitive Informatics: Four Years in Practice
Chapter 23
Yiyu Yao, Zhongzhi Shi, Yingxu Wang, Witold Kinsner, Yixin Zhong, Guoyin Wang
Cognitive informatics (CI) is a cutting-edge and multidisciplinary research area that tackles the fundamental problems shared by modern informatics... Sample PDF
Toward Cognitive Informatics and Cognitive Computers: A Report on IEEE ICCI'06
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