Networking has become an important aspect of modern life in recent years either in sciences or interpersonal relations. Networks are studied as new forms of social organization in the sociology of science and technology, in the economics of network industries and network technologies, in business administration and in public policy. In the context of social sciences, scientists have recognized that network concept is not completely new. For example, German sociologist Georg Simmel (1858- 1918) notes an original theoretical stimulus, which he describes as a network idea drawing upon formal sociology. By contrast, popular French anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss (b. 1908) conceived society “as a network of different types of orders;” and he suggested that these orders themselves could be classified according organizing principles, “by showing the kind of relationships which exist among them, how they interact with one another on both synchronic and diachronic level” (Kenis & Schneider, 1991). Corruption’s negative impact is not in doubt. It diverts resources from their planned usage, destroys economic systems, and makes a country inefficient when competing with other countries. Corruption exerts an especially hard toll on the lives of the poor by decreasing employment possibilities, causing higher prices, and demanding additional fees for government financed public goods (Dvorak, 2006).
Key Terms in this Chapter
Networking: A specific set of social relations (or linkages) connecting social entities. Entities may be individuals, groups, organizations, words, ideas, concepts, production units, resources, and so forth.
Corruption: The misuse of public power for private benefit.
Integrity: The quality of being honest and firm in your moral principles and in what you do.
Bribe: Obtaining of money or favours by public decision makers (politicians or public servant) in return for preferential treatment or government service.
Relations (or linkages): Between the entities may be communications, resources, exchange of information and control, trust, participation, membership, advice, and so forth.