The development of classical and contemporary informatics, the cross fertilization between computer science, systems science, cybernetics, computer/software engineering, cognitive science, neuropsychology, knowledge engineering, and life science, has led to a new research field known as Cognitive Informatics (Wang, 2002a/2003a/2003b/2004/2006a/2007b; Wang, Johnston, & Smith, 2002; Wang & Kinsner, 2006). An important branch of cognitive informatics is neural informatics (Wang, 2007b), which reduces cognitive informatics theories and the studies on the internal information processing mechanisms of the brain onto the neuron and physiological level.
Key Terms in this Chapter
Memorization: A cognitive process of the brain at the metacognitive layer that establishes (encodes and retains) and reconstructs (retrieves and decodes) information in LTM.
Functional Model of LTM: A Hierarchical Neural Cluster (HNC) model with partially connected neurons via synapses.
Dynamic Neural Cluster Model: The LTM is dynamic. New neurons (to represent objects or attributes) are assigning, and new connections (to represent relations) are creating and reconfiguring all the time in the brain.
Knowledge Model: The internal memory or the representation of learning results in the form of the OAR structure that can be updated by concept compositions between the existing OAR and the newly created sub-OAR (sOAR),
Neural Informatics: A new interdisciplinary enquiry of the biological and physiological representation of information and knowledge in the brain at the neuron level and their abstract mathematical models.
Knowledge: In the narrow sense, knowledge is acquired information in LTM or acquired skills in ABM through learning. In the broad sense, knowledge is acquired information in forms of abstract knowledge, behavior, experience, and skills through learning in LTM or ABM.
Relational Model of Memory: A logical memory model that states information is represented and retained in the memory by relations, which is embodied by the synaptic connections among neurons.
Hierarchical Abstraction Model (HAM): The abstract levels of cognitive information of both the objects and their behaviors can be divided into five levels such as those of analogue objects, diagrams, natural languages, professional notations, and mathematics.
Cognitive Models of Memory (CMM): The architecture of human memory is parallel configured by the Sensory Buffer Memory (SBM), Short-Term Memory (STM), Long-Term Memory (LTM), and Action-Buffer Memory (ABM).