The protection of privacy is a function of many variables: culture, politics, and point of view. Practically all countries have introduced laws regulating these problems. Terrorist attacks culminating with the destruction of the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington indicated a need to change these regulations. Therefore, this chapter defines the notion of privacy and cites typical regulations related to the protection of privacy and the interception of private communications and documents. This discussion terminates with a presentation of a worldwide prognosis in this field.