A New Software Environment for 3D-Time Series Analysis

A New Software Environment for 3D-Time Series Analysis

Jorg Hendricks (University of Leipzig, Germany), Gert Wollny (Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain), Alexander Hemprich (University of Leipzig, Germany) and Thomas Hierl (University of Leipzig, Germany)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-292-3.ch002
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Abstract

This chapter presents a toolchain including image segmentation, rigid registration and a voxel based non-rigid registration as well as 3D visualization, that allows a time series analysis based on DICOM CT images. Time series analysis stands for comparing image data sets from the same person or specimen taken at different times to show the changes. The registration methods used are explained and the methods are validated using a landmark based validation method to estimate the accuracy of the registration algorithms which is an substantial part of registration process. Without quantitative evaluation, no registration method can be accepted for practical utilization. The authors used the toolchain for time series analysis of CT data of patients treated via maxillary distraction. Two analysis examples are given. In dentistry the scope of further application ranges from pre- and postoperative oral surgery images (orthognathic surgery, trauma surgery) to endodontic and orthodontic treatment. Therefore the authors hope that the presented toolchain leads to further development of similar software and their usage in different fields.
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Introduction

In this chapter, the authors present and validate a toolchain that allows the analysis of changes in a patient or specimen based on a series of DICOM CT images taken at different times by using image segmentation, voxel based rigid and non-rigid registration, as well as 3D visualization. This time series analysis of medical images enables the full three-dimensional comparison of two or more data sets of the same person or specimen, e.g., the comparison of pre- and post treatment CT images. Such analysis helps to understand the underlying processes, that arise, for instance, from treatment.

One prominent example of treatment inducing changes of shape in patients is distraction osteogenesis (a method to correct severe maxillary hypoplasia or retrusion). In clinical practice, this planning is often based on computer tomography (CT) scans and the surgeon’s experience. Planning these procedures can be difficult if complex three-dimensional changes are to be performed (Berti et al., 2004), and as a first step towards an improved treatment planning, a thorough understanding of what is achieved and how the different structures have been moved is needed. Here a better understanding of the structural changes induced by the surgical therapy is desirable as a first step. Given a thorough understand of the procedure, a superior treatment planning and outcome could be achieved.

In dentistry, the scope of the presented toolchain generally ranges from pre- and postoperative oral surgery images (orthognathic surgery, trauma surgery) to endodontic and orthodontic treatment as well as the analysis of growth. The new tool is already part of our operation planning and visualization software. We concentrated on the time series analysis of routinely acquired pre- and postoperative CT-images of patients who were treated via maxillary distraction osteogenesis as no studies regarding the analysis of the complex three-dimensional mid-facial movements are available (Hierl et al., 2005). Furthermore, incorrect treatment planning may lead to a malpositioned midface and may necessitate further surgical intervention. At the end of this chapter we give some examples of the results of the time series analysis performed. Finally validation of the registration methods is performed. This means showing that our registration algorithm applied consistently succeeds with an average error acceptable for the application. In the near future the toolchain will be improved and integrated into a multifunctional planning tool. Furthermore, the range of data files will be enlarged. By now only DICOM files from CT or CBT (cone beam tomography) can be loaded. In the future polygon-based surfaces should be included, too.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Foreword
Petros Koidis
Preface
Andriani Daskalaki
Acknowledgment
Andriani Daskalaki
Chapter 1
Demetrios J. Halazonetis
Cephalometric analysis has been a routine diagnostic procedure in Orthodontics for more than 60 years, traditionally employing the measurement of... Sample PDF
Software Support for Advanced Cephalometric Analysis in Orthodontics
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Chapter 2
Jorg Hendricks, Gert Wollny, Alexander Hemprich, Thomas Hierl
This chapter presents a toolchain including image segmentation, rigid registration and a voxel based non-rigid registration as well as 3D... Sample PDF
A New Software Environment for 3D-Time Series Analysis
$37.50
Chapter 3
Antheunis Versluis, Daranee Tantbirojn
Residual stress due to polymerization shrinkage of restorative dental materials has been associated with a number of clinical symptoms, ranging from... Sample PDF
Relationship Between Shrinkage and Stress
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Chapter 4
Andreas Vogel
This chapter introduces a computer-controlled method for mandible alignment. The exact positioning of the mandible in relation to the maxilla is... Sample PDF
An Objective Registration Method for Mandible Alignment
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Chapter 5
Thomas Hierl, Heike Huempfner-Hierl, Daniel Kruber, Thomas Gaebler, Alexander Hemprich, Gert Wollny
This chapter discusses the requirements of an image analysis tool designed for dentistry and oral and maxillofacial surgery focussing on 3D-image... Sample PDF
Requirements for a Universal Image Analysis Tool in Dentistry and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
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Chapter 6
N.A. Borghese, I. Frosio
This chapter shows how large improvement in image quality can be obtained when radiographs are filtered using adequate statistical models. In... Sample PDF
Denoising and Contrast Enhancement in Dental Radiography
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Chapter 7
Ralf K.W. Schulze
Established techniques for three-dimensional radiographic reconstruction such as computed tomography (CT) or, more recently cone beam computed... Sample PDF
3D Reconstructions from Few Projections in Oral Radiology
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Chapter 8
Shital Patel, Yos Morsi
Tooth loss due to several reasons affects most people adversely at some time in their lives. A biological tooth substitute, which could not only... Sample PDF
Advances and Trends in Tissue Engineering of Teeth
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Chapter 9
Wei-Bang Chen, Chengcui Zhang
Bacterial colony enumeration is an essential tool for many widely used biomedical assays. This chapter introduces a cost-effective and fully... Sample PDF
Automated Bacterial Colony Counting for Clonogenic Assay
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Chapter 10
Michele Jacotti, Domenico Ciambrone
In this chapter the authors describe a new system for guided surgery in implantology. The aim of this system is to have a “user friendly”... Sample PDF
A New System in Guided Surgery: The Flatguide(TM) System
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Chapter 11
Ferenc Pongracz
Intraoperative transfer of the implant and prosthesis planning in dentistry is facilitated by drilling templates or active, image-guided navigation.... Sample PDF
Visualization and Modelling in Dental Implantology
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Chapter 12
Antonios Zampelis, George Tsamasphyros
Biomechanical research has gained recognition in medical sciences. Osseointegrated dental implants, being medical devices functioning under constant... Sample PDF
Finite Element Analysis and its Application in Dental Implant Research
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Chapter 13
Amit Chattopadhyay, Tiago Coelho de Souza, Oscar Arevalo
Electronic Oral Health Records (EOHRs) contains all personal health information belonging to an individual and is entered and accessed... Sample PDF
Electronic Oral Health Records in Practice and Research
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Chapter 14
Maxim Kolesnikov, Arnold D. Steinberg, Milos Zefran
This chapter describes the haptic dental simulator developed at the University of Illinois at Chicago. It explores its use and advantages as an... Sample PDF
Haptic-Based Virtual Reality Dental Simulator as an Educational Tool
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Chapter 15
Anka Letic-Gavrilovic
In this chapter, the author will demonstrate and describe a project to develop a unique database with multilingual information and knowledge... Sample PDF
Digital Library for Dental Biomaterials
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Chapter 16
Petros Koidis, Marianthi Manda
The present chapter deals with the introduction and implementation of rapid prototyping technologies in medical and dental field. Its purpose is to... Sample PDF
Rapid Prototyping and Dental Applications
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Chapter 17
Hiroo Tamagawa, Hideaki Amano, Naoji Hayashi, Yasuyuki Hirose
In this chapter, the authors report the minimal set of characters from the Unicode Standard that is sufficient for the notation of human dentition... Sample PDF
Unicode Characters for Human Dentition: New Foundation for Standardized Data Exchange and Notation in Countries Employing Double-Byte Character Sets
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Chapter 18
Nikos Nikolaidis, Ioannis Marras, Georgios Mikrogeorgis, Kleoniki Lyroudia, Ioannis Pitas
The availability of datasets comprising of digitized images of human body cross sections (as well as images acquired with other modalities such as... Sample PDF
Virtual Dental Patient: A 3D Oral Cavity Model and its Use in Haptics-Based Virtual Reality Cavity Preparation in Endodontics
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About the Contributors