Norm Emergence in Multi-Agent Societies

Norm Emergence in Multi-Agent Societies

Bastin Tony Roy Savarimuthu (University of Otago, New Zealand), Maryam Purvis (University of Otago, New Zealand) and Stephen Cranefield (University of Otago, New Zealand)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 12
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-576-4.ch012
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Abstract

Norms are shared expectations of behaviours that exist in human societies. Norms help societies by increasing the predictability of individual behaviours and by improving cooperation and collaboration among members. Norms have been of interest to multi-agent system researchers, as software agents intend to follow certain norms. But, owing to their autonomy, agents sometimes violate norms, which needs monitoring. In order to build robust MAS that are norm compliant and systems that evolve and adapt norms dynamically, the study of norms is crucial. Our objective in this chapter is to propose a mechanism for norm emergence in artificial agent societies and provide experimental results. We also study the role of autonomy and visibility threshold of an agent in the context of norm emergence.
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Background

In this section, we describe different types of norms and the treatment of norms in multi-agent systems. We also describe the work related to norm emergence.

Types of Norms

Due to multidisciplinary interest in norms, several definitions for norms exist. Habermas (1985), one of the renowned sociologists, identified norm regulated actions as one of the four action patterns in human behaviour. A norm to him means fulfilling a generalized expectation of behaviour, which is a widely accepted definition for social norms. Researchers have divided norms into different categories. Tuomela (1995) has categorized norms into the following categories.

  • r-norms (rule norms)

  • s-norms (social norms)

  • m-norms (moral norms)

  • p-norms (prudential norms)

Rule norms are imposed by an authority based on an agreement between the members (e.g., one has to pay taxes). Social norms apply to large groups such as a whole society (e.g., one should not litter). Moral norms appeal to one’s conscience (e.g., one should not steal or accept bribe). Prudential norms are based on rationality (e.g., one ought to maximize one’s expected utility). When members of a society violate the societal norms, they may be punished. Many social scientists have studied why norms are adhered. Some of the reasons for norm adherence include:

  • Fear of authority;

  • Rational appeal of the norms; and

  • Feelings such as shame, embarrassment and guilt that arise because of nonadherence.

Elster (1989) categorizes norms into consumption norms (e.g., manners of dress), behaviour norms (e.g., norm against cannibalism), norms of reciprocity (e.g., gift-giving norm), norms of cooperation (e.g., voting and tax compliance) and so forth.

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Table of Contents
Preface
Dariusz Król, Ngoc Thanh Nguyen
Chapter 1
Juliusz L. Kulikowski
In this chapter, a concept of using incomplete or fuzzy ontologies in decision making is presented. A definition of ontology and of ontological... Sample PDF
Logical Inference Based on Incomplete and/or Fuzzy Ontologies
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Chapter 2
Amelia Badica, Costin Badica, Elvira Popescu
The Web is designed as a major information provider for the human consumer. However, information published on the Web is difficult to understand and... Sample PDF
Using Logic Programming and XML Technologies for Data Extraction from Web Pages
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Chapter 3
Andreas Jacobsson, Paul Davidsson
This chapter introduces a formal model of virtual enterprises, as well as an analysis of their creation and operation. It is argued that virtual... Sample PDF
A Formal Analysis of Virtual Enterprise Creation and Operation
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Chapter 4
Donat Orski
The chapter concerns a class of systems composed of operations performed with the use of resources allocated to them. In such operation systems... Sample PDF
Application of Uncertain Variables to Knowledge-Based Resource Distribution
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Chapter 5
Clive Fencott
This chapter undertakes a methodological study of virtual environments (VEs), a specific subset of interactive systems. It takes as a central theme... Sample PDF
A Methodology of Design for Virtual Environments
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Chapter 6
Salvador Sanchez-Alonso, Dirk Frosch-Wilke
In current organizations, the models of knowledge creation include specific processes and elements that drive the production of knowledge aimed at... Sample PDF
An Ontological Representation of Competencies as Codified Knowledge
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Chapter 7
Marcos De Oliveira, Martin Purvis
In the distributed multi-agent systems discussed in this chapter, heterogeneous autonomous agents interoperate in order to achieve their goals. In... Sample PDF
Aspects of Openness in Multi-Agent Systems: Coordinating the Autonomy in Agent Societies
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Chapter 8
Kostas Kolomvatsos, Stathes Hadjiefthymiades
The field of Multi-agent systems (MAS) has been an active area for many years due to the importance that agents have to many disciplines of research... Sample PDF
How Can We Trust Agents in Multi-Agent Environments? Techniques and Challenges
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Chapter 9
Mariusz Nowostawski
The concept of autonomy is one of the central concepts in distributed computational systems, and in multi-agent systems in particular. With diverse... Sample PDF
The Concept of Autonomy in Distributed Computation and Multi-Agent Systems
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Chapter 10
Maryam Purvis, Toktam Ebadi, Bastin Tony Roy Savarimuthu
The objective of this research is to describe a mechanism to provide an improved library management system using RFID and agent technologies. One of... Sample PDF
An Agent-Based Library Management System Using RFID Technology
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Chapter 11
Sharmila Savarimuthu, Martin Purvis, Maryam Purvis, Mariusz Nowostawski
Societies are made of different kinds of agents, some cooperative and uncooperative. Uncooperative agents tend to reduce the overall performance of... Sample PDF
Mechanisms to Restrict Exploitation and Improve Societal Performance in Multi-Agent Systems
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Chapter 12
Bastin Tony Roy Savarimuthu, Maryam Purvis, Stephen Cranefield
Norms are shared expectations of behaviours that exist in human societies. Norms help societies by increasing the predictability of individual... Sample PDF
Norm Emergence in Multi-Agent Societies
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Chapter 13
Scott A. DeLoach, Madhukar Kumar
This chapter provides an overview of the Multi-agent Systems Engineering (MaSE) methodology for analyzing and designing multi-agent systems. MaSE... Sample PDF
Multi-Agent Systems Engineering: An Overview and Case Study
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Chapter 14
František Capkovic
An alternative approach to modeling and analysis of agents’ behaviour is presented in this chapter. The agents and agent systems are understood here... Sample PDF
Modeling, Analysing, and Control of Agents Behaviour
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Chapter 15
Martin Tabakov
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Using Fuzzy Segmentation for Colour Image Enhancement of Computed Tomography Perfusion Images
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Chapter 16
Giovanni Vincenti, Goran Trajkovski
This chapter presents an innovative approach to the field of information fusion. Fuzzy mediation differentiates itself from other algorithms, as... Sample PDF
Fuzzy Mediation in Shared Control and Online Learning
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Chapter 17
Adam Jatowt, Yukiko Kawai, Katsumi Tanaka
The Web is a useful data source for knowledge extraction, as it provides diverse content virtually on any possible topic. Hence, a lot of research... Sample PDF
Utilizing Past Web for Knowledge Discovery
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Chapter 18
Dariusz Król
In this chapter, we propose a generic framework in C# to distribute and compute tasks defined by users. Unlike the more popular models such as... Sample PDF
Example-Based Framework for Propagation of Tasks in Distributed Environments
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Chapter 19
Xia Xie, Jin Huang, Song Wu, Hai Jin, Melvin Koh, Jie Song, Simon See
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Survey on the Application of Economic and Market Theory for Grid Computing
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About the Contributors