The orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission technique can efficiently deal with multi-path propagation effects especially in broadband radio channels. It also has a high degree of system flexibility in multiple access schemes by combining the conventional TDMA, FDMA, and CDMA approaches with the OFDM modulation procedure, which is especially important in the uplink of a multi-user system. In OFDM-FDMA schemes carrier synchronization and the resulting sub-carrier orthogonality plays an important role to avoid any multiple access interferences (MAI) in the base station receiver. An additional technical challenge in system design is the required amplifier linearity to avoid any non-linear effects caused by a large peak-to-average ratio (PAR) of an OFDM signal. The OFDM transmission technique is used for the time being in some broadcast applications (DVB-T, DAB, DRM) and wireless local loop (WLL) standards (HIPERLAN/2, IEEE 802.11a) but OFDM has not been used so far in cellular communication networks. The general idea of the OFDM scheme is to split the total bandwidth into many narrowband sub-channels which are equidistantly distributed on the frequency axis. The sub-channel spectra overlap each other but the sub-carriers are still orthogonal in the receiver and can therefore be separated by a Fourier transformation. The system flexibility and use of sub-carrier specific adaptive modulation schemes in frequency selective radio channels are some advantages which make the OFDM transmission technique a strong and technically attractive candidate for the next generation of mobile communications. The objective of this chapter is to describe an OFDM-based system concept for the fourth generation (4G) of mobile communications and to discuss all technical details when establishing a cellular network which requires synchronization in time and frequency domain with sufficient accuracy. In this cellular environment a flexible frequency division multiple access scheme based on OFDM-FDMA is developed and a radio resource management (RRM) employing dynamic channel allocation (DCA) techniques is used. A purely decentralized and self-organized synchronization technique using specific test signals and RRM techniques based on co-channel interference (CCI) measurements has been developed and will be described in this chapter.