OMACS: A Framework for Adaptive, Complex Systems

OMACS: A Framework for Adaptive, Complex Systems

Scott A. DeLoach (Kansas State University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-256-5.ch004
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Abstract

This chapter introduces a suite of technologies for building complex, adaptive systems. It is based in the multi-agent systems paradigm and uses the Organization Model for Adaptive Computational Systems (OMACS). OMACS defines the knowledge needed about a system’s structure and capabilities to allow it to reorganize at runtime in the face of a changing environment and its agent’s capabilities. However, the OMACS model is only useful if it is supported by a set of methodologies, techniques, and architectures that allow it to be implemented effectively on a wide variety of systems. To this end, this chapter presents a suite of technologies including (1) the Organization-based Multiagent Systems Engineering (O-MaSE) methodology, (2) a set of policy specification techniques that allow an OMACS system to remain flexible while still providing guidance, and (3) a set of architectures and algorithms used to implement OMACSbased systems. The chapter also includes the presentation of a small OMACS-based system.
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Background

Computational organization theory uses mathematical and computational techniques to study both human and artificial organizations (Carley 1999). While organizational concepts are not exclusive to computational organization theory, results from the field are illuminating. Specifically, they suggest that organizations tend to adapt to increase performance or efficiency, that “the most successful organizations tend to be highly flexible” (Carley 1998), and that the best organizational designs are highly application and situation dependent (Carley, 1995). Recently, the notion of separating the agents populating a multiagent system from the system organization (Zambonelli, Jennings, & Woodridge, 2001) has become well-accepted. While agents play roles within the organization, they do not constitute the organization. The organization itself is part of the agent’s environment and defines the social setting in which the agent must exist. An organization includes organizational structures as well as policies, which define the requirements for system creation and operation.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Organization-Based Agent (OBA) Architecture: an architecture for implementing agents capable of reasoning within an OMACS organization.

Reorganization: The transition from one organizational state to another.

Organization Model for Adaptive Computational Systems (OMACS): A model that defines the knowledge needed about a system’s structure and capabilities to allow it to reorganize at runtime in the face of a changing environment and its agent’s capabilities.

Organization-Based Multiagent Systems Engineering (O-MaSE): A framework for creating compliant processes that support the development of OMACS-based systems

Capability: An atomic entities used to define a skill or capacity of agents.

Agent: An entity that perceives and can perform actions upon its environment, which includes humans as well as artificial (hardware or software) entities.

Role: Defines a position within an organization whose behavior is expected to achieve a particular goal or set of goals.

Policy: A specification of desired system behavior that can be used to specify either (1) what the system should do or (2) what the system should not do.

Goal: A desirable state of the world or the objective of a computational process.

Goal Model for Dynamic Systems (GMoDS): a set of models for capturing system level goals and for using those goals at runtime to allow the system to adapt to dynamic problems and environments.

Complete Chapter List

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Foreword
Liz Sonenberg
Preface
Virginia Dignum
Acknowledgment
Virginia Dignum
Chapter 1
Virgina Dignum
Agent Organization can be understood from two perspectives: organization as a process and organization as an entity. That is, organization is... Sample PDF
The Role of Organization in Agent Systems
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Chapter 2
Luciano R. Coutinho, Jaime S. Sichman, Olivier Boissier
In this chapter, we discuss the concepts of agent organization, organizational model, and review some existing organizational models. Before the... Sample PDF
Modelling Dimensions for Agent Organizations
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Chapter 3
Jacques Ferber, Tiberiu Stratulat, John Tranier
In this chapter, we stress the importance of thinking a MAS in all its aspects (agents, environment, interactions, organizations, and institutions)... Sample PDF
Towards an Integral Approach of Organizations in Multi-Agent Systems
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Chapter 4
Scott A. DeLoach
This chapter introduces a suite of technologies for building complex, adaptive systems. It is based in the multi-agent systems paradigm and uses the... Sample PDF
OMACS: A Framework for Adaptive, Complex Systems
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Chapter 5
Christopher Cheong, Michael Winikoff
Although intelligent agents individually exhibit a number of characteristics, including social ability, flexibility, and robustness, which make them... Sample PDF
Hermes: Designing Flexible and Robust Agent Interactions
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Chapter 6
Viara Popova, Alexei Sharpanskykh
This chapter introduces a formal framework for modeling and analysis of organizations. It allows representing and reasoning about all important... Sample PDF
A Formal Framework for Organization Modeling and Analysis
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Chapter 7
Maksim Tsvetovat
Agent-based approaches provide an invaluable tool for building decentralized, distributed architectures and tying together sets of disparate... Sample PDF
Describing Agent Societies: A Declarative Semantics
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Chapter 8
Davide Grossi, Frank Dignum
In this chapter we investigate how organizations can be represented as graphs endowed with formal semantics. We distinguish different dimensions of... Sample PDF
Structural Aspects of Organizations
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Chapter 9
Virgina Dignum, Frank Dignum
Organization concepts and models are increasingly being adopted for the design and specification of multi-agent systems. Agent organizations can be... Sample PDF
A Logic for Agent Organizations
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Chapter 10
Cristiano Castelfranchi
This chapter presents organizations as a macro-micro notion and device; they presuppose autonomous proactive entities (agents) playing the... Sample PDF
Grounding Organizations in the Minds of the Agents
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Chapter 11
Paolo Torroni, Pinar Yolum, Munindar P. Singh, Marco Alberti, Federico Chesani, Marco Gavanelli, Evelina Lamma, Paola Mello
Organizational models often rely on two assumptions: openness and heterogeneity. This is, for instance, the case with organizations consisting of... Sample PDF
Modelling Interactions via Commitments and Expectations
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Chapter 12
Gita Sukthankar, Katia Sycara, Joseph A. Giampapa, Christopher Burnett
This chapter discusses the problem of agent aiding of ad-hoc, decentralized human teams so as to improve team performance on time-stressed group... Sample PDF
Communications for Agent-Based Human Team Support
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Chapter 13
Bob van der Vecht, Frank Dignum, John-Jules Ch. Meyer
This chapter discusses how autonomous agents can adopt organizational rules into their reasoning process. Agents in an organization need to... Sample PDF
Autonomous Agents Adopting Organizational Rules
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Chapter 14
Nicoletta Fornara, Marco Colombetti
The specification of open interaction systems is widely recognized to be a crucial issue, which involves the problem of finding a standard way of... Sample PDF
Specifying Artificial Institutions in the Event Calculus
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Chapter 15
Francesco Viganò, Marco Colombetti
Institutions have been proposed to explicitly represent norms in open multi-agent systems, where agents may not follow them and which therefore... Sample PDF
Verifying Organizations Regulated by Institutions
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Chapter 16
Mehdi Dastani, Nick A.M. Tinnemeier, John-Jules Ch. Meyer
Multi-agent systems are viewed as consisting of individual agents whose behaviors are regulated by an organizational artifact. This chapter presents... Sample PDF
A Programming Language for Normative Multi-Agent Systems
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Chapter 17
Antônio Carlos da Rocha Costa, Graçaliz Pereira Dimuro
This chapter presents the Population-Organization model, a formal tool for studying the organization of open multi-agent systems and its functional... Sample PDF
A Minimal Dynamical MAS Organization Model
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Chapter 18
Shaheen Fatima, Michael Wooldridge
This chapter presents an adaptive organizational policy for multi-agent systems called TRACE. TRACE allows a collection of multi-agent organizations... Sample PDF
A Framework for Dynamic Agent Organizations
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Chapter 19
Alexander Artikis, Dimosthenis Kaponis, Jeremy Pitt
We have been developing a framework for executable specification of norm-governed multi-agent systems. In this framework, specification is a... Sample PDF
Dynamic Specifications for Norm-Governed Systems
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Chapter 20
Marco Lamieri, Diana Mangalagiu
In this chapter we present a model of organization aimed to understand the effect of formal and informal structures on the organization’s... Sample PDF
Interactions Between Formal and Informal Organizational Networks
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Chapter 21
Steven Okamoto, Katia Sycara, Paul Scerri
Intelligent software personal assistants are an active research area with the potential to revolutionize the way that human organizations operate... Sample PDF
Personal Assistants for Human Organizations
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Chapter 22
Sachin Kamboj, Keith S. Decker
This chapter presents an approach to organizational-self design (OSD), a method of designing organizations at run-time in which the agents are... Sample PDF
Organizational Self-Design in Worth-Oriented Domains
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Chapter 23
Olivier Bonnet-Torrès, Catherine Tessier
This chapter focuses on a Petri Net-based model for team organization and monitoring. The applications considered are missions performed by several... Sample PDF
A Formal Petri Net Based Model for Team Monitoring
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About the Contributors