Online Consumer Behavior

Online Consumer Behavior

Ronald E. Goldsmith (Florida State University, USA)
Copyright: © 2006 |Pages: 5
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59140-563-4.ch063
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Abstract

One convenient way of describing consumer behavior both off-line and online is to present the topic as a model representing the steps typical consumers go through when they acquire the goods and services they desire. These steps are Need Recognition, Information Search, Pre-purchase Alternative Evaluation, Purchase, Consumption and Post Consumption Evaluation (Blackwell, Miniard & Engel, 2001). Although not every consumer goes through every step for every purchase, this model is a useful heuristic for organizing the study of consumer behavior and serves as a way to describe online consumer behavior as well. In the Need Recognition stage consumer behavior is stimulated by needs and wants. Needs are the abstract categories that consumers require in order to survive, function and thrive. Wants are the specific objects or mechanisms that consumers learn will enable them to satisfy their needs. Consumer needs are few, universal and inborn. Wants are acquired through individual learning histories defined by the time, place and context of the consumers’ life. Consequently, wants are many, individual and varied. Each consumer is born with the same needs and learns what will satisfy those needs through the experience of being reared within a specific society, time and place. Marketers recognize that consumers have shared needs and seek to develop brands as the specific want-satisfying ways in which consumers can gratify their needs. Table 1 presents a summary of consumer needs and wants (Foxall & Goldsmith, 1997). Physiological needs derive from the fact that consumers are physiological creatures. The social needs come from the fact that consumers are social animals. Hedonic needs describe the needs consumers have for pleasurable sensations for the five senses. Experiential needs arise because consumers are saturated with feelings and emotions that they constantly seek to modify. Cognitive needs come from the curious, inquiring cerebral cortex that wants to know about its environment. Finally, consumers have egos, a sense of self-identity, they want to express, usually through symbols. Each consumer is born with these mind/body “systems” and spends much time and energy seeking to satisfy the requirements these systems impose. Products (goods, services and information) can be multidimensional (Freiden, Goldsmith, Hofacker, & Takacs, 1998). That is, consumption of a given product can simultaneously satisfy more than one need, as buying and wearing an item of clothing protects the wearer from the elements (physiological), attracts the opposite sex (social), is comfortable to the skin (hedonic), makes the wearer feel sexy (experiential) and represents the self-concept and values of the wearer (psychological). Consuming a news magazine might satisfy cognitive needs as well as psychologically symbolic ones; the reader acquires some desired information and shows that he/she is a responsible citizen. Moreover, consumers might buy many different products to satisfy the same needs, as where designer brand names are wanted for clothing, furniture, perfumes and cars to symbolize social status. This theory of motivation can be used to explain the motivations for participation in virtual communities. Belonging to a virtual community fulfills some of the social need for belonging and fellowship. Group participation can yield feelings of fun, excitement and pleasure. The community can be an important source of information that can satisfy the cognitive need to know. Membership can be used symbolically to express identity. Thus, much like the consumption of goods, services

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Editorial Advisory Board
Preface
Subhasish Dasgupta
Acknowledgments
Chapter 1
Chang-Tsun Li
Pervasive services of virtual communities and digital governments are achievable only if trust, privacy and security can be secured and... Sample PDF
Biometrics in Virtual Communities and Digital Governments
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Chapter 2
István Mezgar
Information processing and communication technologies are developing so rapidly today that it can said that there is a communication technology... Sample PDF
Building Trust in Virtual Communities
$37.50
Chapter 3
Henry de Vos, Carla Verwijs
Many examples are known of companies that have established communities (Siemens, IBM, Shell, Unilever). Mostly, these communities have an internal... Sample PDF
Business Advantage of Community Knowledge
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Chapter 4
Susan A. Baim
In studying the broad spectrum of business-focused virtual communities in operation on the Internet today, there are two categorizations that are... Sample PDF
Business Applications of Virtual Communities
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Chapter 5
Roy Rada
Three high-level observations set the stage: • Cancer is a major cause of death • Health-related concerns drive the greatest use of the Internet... Sample PDF
Cancer Patient-to-Patient Online Discussion Groups
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Chapter 6
Cãlin Gurau
The development of the World Wide Web has created new opportunities for interpersonal interaction. The Internet allows one-to-one (e-mail)... Sample PDF
Codes of Ethics in Virtual Communities
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Chapter 7
Seungyeon Han, Janette R. Hill
The use of the World Wide Web (Web) for teaching and learning in higher education has increased exponentially in the last five years. Traditional... Sample PDF
Collaboration, Communication, and Learning in a Virtual Community
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Chapter 8
Ozgul Unal, Ersin C. Kaletas, Hamideh Afsarmanesh, H. Hakan Yakali, Louis O. Hertzberger
With the increasing need for collaboration in different science domains, a lot of research activities are now focused on the mechanisms and... Sample PDF
Collaborative Information Management System for Science Domains
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Chapter 9
Lynne D. Roberts, Leigh M. Smith, Clare M. Pollock
The Internet provides access to a range of virtual communities accessible by individuals across the world. While social interaction is likely to be... Sample PDF
Communicating in Synchronous Text-Based Virtual Communities
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Chapter 10
Lisa Link, Daniela Wagner
Computer-mediated communication (CMC) can be simply defined as “communication that takes place between human beings via the instrumentality of... Sample PDF
Computer-Mediated Communication in Virtual Learning Communities
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Chapter 11
Lee Moh Shan, Juliana Sutanto, Atreyi Kankanhalli
Virtual communities have been studied using various perspectives (Hagel & Armstrong, 1997; Jones, 1998; Rheingold, 1993). Amongst these, Hagel and... Sample PDF
Converting Online Community Visitors into Online Consumers
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Chapter 12
Huayin Si, Chang-Tsun Li
Although the development of multimedia processing techniques has facilitated the enrichment of information content, and the never-ending expansion... Sample PDF
Copyright Protection in Virtual Communities through Digital Watermarking
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Chapter 13
Farook Sattar, Dan Yu
Today, the Internet is a worldwide broadcasting capability, a mechanism for information dissemination and a medium for collaboration and interaction... Sample PDF
Copyright Protection through Digital Watermarking
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Chapter 14
Sana Debbabi, Serge Baile
Why examine the concept of telepresence? A number of emerging technologies, including virtual reality, simulation, home theater, state-of-the-art... Sample PDF
Creating Telepresence in Virtual Mediated Environments
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Chapter 15
Scott P. Schaffer, Therese M. Schmidt
The prevalence of global software development and new product development teams is on the increase, and such teams face unique challenges... Sample PDF
Cross-Disciplinary Learning in Virtual Teams
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Chapter 16
Scott P. Schaffer, Melissa Lee Price, Therese M. Schmidt
Software development teams that work together well, particularly those that can operate virtually, are an enormous competitive advantage for... Sample PDF
Cross-Disciplinary Virtual Design Teams
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Chapter 17
Eulace Scott Rhoten
“Since ancient times philosophers, politicians, and social critics have debated the nature of community” (Parrish, 2002, p. 260; Bunn, 1998).... Sample PDF
Cultural Diversity and the Digital Divide
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Chapter 18
Cultural Presence  (pages 95-101)
Erik M. Champion
In many text-based virtual communities, confusion exists between the notion of social presence and cultural presence. While social presence may be... Sample PDF
Cultural Presence
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Chapter 19
Li Xiao
With exponential growth of virtual communities, more and more studies are carried out to examine how they change people’s life (Bieber et al., 2002;... Sample PDF
Culture in Virtual Communities
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Chapter 20
Kirk St. Amant
Online media often create new communication situations. That is, few formal rules govern cyberspace exchanges. For this reason, participants in... Sample PDF
Cyber Rhetoric and Online Ethos
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Chapter 21
Cyberspace  (pages 110-115)
Josh Lepawsky, Kyonghwan Park
Cyberspace is the geographies made possible by the adoption of computer technologies into everyday life. At first, this broad description and its... Sample PDF
Cyberspace
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Chapter 22
Catherine M. Ridings
The rise of the Internet has spawned the prolific use of the adjective “virtual.” Both the popular press and scholarly researchers have written... Sample PDF
Defining "Virtual Community"
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Chapter 23
Neil C. Rowe
An important problem in online communities is detection of deception by their members. Deception is a form of manipulation, and can have many varied... Sample PDF
Detecting and Responding to Online Deception
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Chapter 24
Panagiotis Damaskopoulos, Rimantas Gatautis
This article explores key sets of drivers of formation of virtual communities in transition economies with particular reference to recent... Sample PDF
Developing Virtual Communities in Transition Economies
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Chapter 25
Karen South Moustafa
It has been estimated that managers spend the majority of their day in face-to-face communication (McKinnon & Bruns, 1992; Rice & Shook, 1990), and... Sample PDF
Differences in the Use of Media Across Cultures
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Chapter 26
Jane Moon
This article provides an overview of the trend in Internet usage; in particular, the trend that relates particularly to health-information-seeking... Sample PDF
Discussing Health Issues on the Internet
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Chapter 27
Susan A. Baim
On many college and university campuses, the use of distance learning continues to grow with academic courses and programs that have all, or at... Sample PDF
Distance Learning Applications Using Virtual Communities
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Chapter 28
Susan A. Baim
Over the last decade, the Internet has emerged as an important channel for marketing products and/or services to consumers around the world.... Sample PDF
Draw to Participate in Virtual Communities
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Chapter 29
Sheng-Uei Guan
Despite the rapid growth of e-commerce and the hype surrounding it, the potential of the Internet for truly transforming commerce is largely... Sample PDF
E-Commerce Product Selection and Evaluation Services
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Chapter 30
Chris Kimble, Feng Li
Globalization is an issue currently affecting many organizations and is one that has profound consequences for the nature of work (Karimi &... Sample PDF
Effective Virtual Working though Communities of Practice
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Chapter 31
E-Leadership  (pages 161-165)
David Gurr
Advances in information and communication technology (ICT) are changing organizations, with old practices being altered and new practices, spaces... Sample PDF
E-Leadership
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Chapter 32
E-Learning Models  (pages 166-173)
Eulace Scott Rhoten
As global e-learning grows, all types of organizations are getting involved. - Kaplan Although distance learning is not for everyone, many have... Sample PDF
E-Learning Models
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Chapter 33
Chris Blackmore, Emmy van Deurzen, Diby Tantam
We have conducted a series of action research projects on elearning in recent years, funded by grants from the European Commission. The SEPT project... Sample PDF
E-Learning vs. Traditional Teaching Methods
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Chapter 34
Sheng-Uei Guan
With electronic commerce revolutionizing the traditional way of doing business, electronic auction service has been one of the many business models... Sample PDF
An Electronic Auction Service Framework Based on Mobile Software Agents
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Chapter 35
Robin Teigland, Molly McLure Wasko
Recent advances in ICT have led to the emergence of online social structures where the primary purpose is knowledge exchange. Using... Sample PDF
Electronic Networks of Practice and Communities of Practice
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Chapter 36
Anzela Huq
Recent trends in the technical development of information systems and their implementation have influenced academics to focus on specific aspects... Sample PDF
Engaging Organisational Culture to Overcome Social Barriers in Virtual Communites
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Chapter 37
Jing Wang, Kholekile Gwebu
The past decade has seen dramatic changes in the modern organization with virtual organizations (VOs) becoming an increasingly common form of... Sample PDF
Establishing and Sustaining Trust in Virtual Organizations
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Chapter 38
Neil C. Rowe
Deception is an infrequent but inevitable part of human social interaction. Deception fulfills important human social needs despite its... Sample PDF
Ethics of Deception in Virtual Communities
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Chapter 39
Molly McLure Wasko, Robin Tiegland
Recent advances in IS have led to the development of electronic networks that enable thousands of geographically dispersed individuals, who are... Sample PDF
Examining Social Structure in an Electronic Network of Practice
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Chapter 40
Chu Jong, Pruthikrai Mahatanankoon
Internet technology has extended human social interactions across geographical boundaries. Using information and communication technology (ICT) as... Sample PDF
Extending Online Communities through Virtual Parrallell Systems
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Chapter 41
Susan A. Baim
Local, state and federal governments face a continuing need to supply increased amounts of information to their constituencies. Requests for... Sample PDF
Government Applications of Virtual Communities
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Chapter 42
Grey Market Informatics  (pages 223-227)
Kirk St. Amand
International outsourcing often involves virtual communities in which globally dispersed co-workers use online media to collaborate on projects.... Sample PDF
Grey Market Informatics
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Chapter 43
Groupware and Team Aware  (pages 228-231)
Mohamed Daassi, Marc Favier
A well-known drawback of groupware systems is that they focus on technical aspects and neglect social aspects of technology use. Designers simply... Sample PDF
Groupware and Team Aware
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Chapter 44
Anne Zender
Communities of practice have always existed in some form. However, it was not until the late 20th century that they entered the lexicon of business.... Sample PDF
How an Association Evolved Using Communities of Practice
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Chapter 45
Niki Lambropoulos
Correspondence between everyday and scientific life is a blessing (Warren & Jahoda, 1966). Although virtual communities are nowadays widely... Sample PDF
Human Resources and Knowledge Management Based on E-Democracy
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Chapter 46
Hyperlink Analysis  (pages 243-247)
Mike Thelwall
Links between Web pages can be used as a source of information with which to identify types of Web based communities for which interlinking is... Sample PDF
Hyperlink Analysis
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Chapter 47
Antonio Cartelli
Every day, information and communication technologies (ICT) are extending their influence on knowing and transmitting knowledge. They act on... Sample PDF
ICT, CoLs, CoPs, and Virtual Communities
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Chapter 48
Glenn Russel
This article discusses virtual schools. It examines reasons for their growth, and relates criticism and support of virtual schools to the purposes... Sample PDF
Implications of Virtual Schooling for Socialization and Community
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Chapter 49
William Brescia
Recently, several strategies have been suggested for supporting and improving virtual discussions (Brescia, 2003; Bonk, Angeli, Malikowski, &... Sample PDF
Improving Discussion in Virtual Communities
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Chapter 50
Antonio Cartelli
It is well known that computers, information technology (IT), and information and communication technology (ICT) strongly influenced individuals and... Sample PDF
Influence on Knowledge Construction
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Chapter 51
Piyush Malik
As the Internet explosion has opened the doors to unprecedented avenues of e-Business for companies big and small, Customer Relationship Management... Sample PDF
Information Integrity for CRM in a Virtual World
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Chapter 52
Wenyuan Li, Kok-Leong Ong
Over the past decade, advances in the Internet and media technology have literally brought people closer than ever before. It is interesting to note... Sample PDF
Information Navigation and Knowledge Discovery in Virtual Communities
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Chapter 53
Mohamed Daassi, Chaouki Daassi, Marc Favier
Problems attributed to uncertainty and a lack of visibility about others’ activities and behaviors have led designers of multi-user interfaces to... Sample PDF
Integration Visualization Techniques in Groupware Interfaces
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Chapter 54
Chitu Okoli, Kevin Carillo
Intellectual property is an old concept, with the first recorded instances of patents (1449) and copyrights (1662) both occurring in England... Sample PDF
Intellectual Property Rights in Open Source Software Communities
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Chapter 55
Carlo Gabriel Porto Bellini, Lilia Maria Vargas
Internet-mediated communities (IMCs) emerge when people (their members) share interests and make use for some time of the same class of Internet... Sample PDF
Internet-Mediated Communities
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Chapter 56
John Campbell
As the Internet has become more accessible, there has been a substantial increase in the amount of investment advice and information that can be... Sample PDF
Investor Empowerment or Market Manipulation in Financial Virtual Communities
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Chapter 57
Gábor Hosszú
Collaborating and media-handling applications demand efficient and scalable methods for media streaming and group communication; however, such... Sample PDF
Mediacommunication Based on Application-Layer Multi-cast
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Chapter 58
The MENOS Organization  (pages 308-313)
A. Hassan, K. Henttonen, K. Blomqvist
Virtual forms of organizing are becoming ever more common forms of managing knowledge resources, because working in a virtual environment offers... Sample PDF
The MENOS Organization
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Chapter 59
Wen-Chen Hu, Hung-Jen Yang, Jyh-haw Yeh
With the introduction of the Internet, virtual communities have revolutionized traditional communities and boosted sharing and exchanges of... Sample PDF
Mobile Internet and Handheld Devices for Virtual Communities
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Chapter 60
Lynne D. Roberts, Leigh M. Smith, Clare M. Pollock
Once connected to the Internet, there is a myriad of virtual communities that an individual can connect to, interact within and become a member of.... Sample PDF
Modelling Stages of Behaviour in Social Virtual Communities
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Chapter 61
Shannon Roper, Sharmila Pixy Ferris
Many researchers have observed that the Internet has changed the concept of virtual communities (Barnes, 2001, 2003; Jones, 1995, 1998; Rheingold... Sample PDF
MOOS as Virtual Communities
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Chapter 62
Patrick Waterson
The subject of how to encourage people to share their knowledge has long been a theme within the domain of knowledge management. Early studies... Sample PDF
Motivation in Online Communities
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Chapter 63
Online Consumer Behavior  (pages 338-342)
Ronald E. Goldsmith
One convenient way of describing consumer behavior both off-line and online is to present the topic as a model representing the steps typical... Sample PDF
Online Consumer Behavior
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Chapter 64
Online Deception Types  (pages 343-345)
Neil C. Rowe
Like all societies, online communities can be victimized by deception by their members. It is helpful to identify the forms in which deception can... Sample PDF
Online Deception Types
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Chapter 65
Online Empathy  (pages 346-348)
Niki Lambropoulos
Scientific research on empathy started in the early 20th century. Only in 1992 did the development of cognitive neuroscience help di Pellegrino... Sample PDF
Online Empathy
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Chapter 66
Online Gaming  (pages 349-353)
Mark Griffiths, Mark N.O. Davies, Darren Chappell
Despite the rise of computer games as a leisure phenomenon, relatively little research has been conducted in this area. A majority of the research... Sample PDF
Online Gaming
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Chapter 67
Nancy White
Traditional face-to-face (F2F) group facilitation is a well-evolved practice. Roger Schwarz defined it as “a process in which a person who is... Sample PDF
Online Group Facilitation Skills
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Chapter 68
Lionel Mew
Online Social Networking Web sites are Internet sites that facilitate building of personal social networks online. Young people throughout the... Sample PDF
Online Social Networking for New Researched Opportunities
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Chapter 69
Kevin Carillo, Chitu Okoli
Open source software (OSS) development has continued to appear as a puzzling and enigmatic phenomenon and has drawn increasing attention as its... Sample PDF
Open Source Software Communities
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Chapter 70
Sofiane Sahraoui
Two major research publications have recently dedicated special issues to the emerging field of OSS (Research policy, 2003; Management Science... Sample PDF
Open-Source Software Issues
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Chapter 71
S. H. Kwok, Y. M. Cheung, K. Y. Chan
A recent survey revealed that 18 millions American Internet users, or approximately 14% of total American Internet population have peer-to-peer... Sample PDF
Peer-to-Peer Technology for File Sharing
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Chapter 72
Elias C. Efstathiou, George C. Polyzos
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) ratified the initial version of the standard for Wireless Local Area Networks known as... Sample PDF
Peer-to-Peer Wireless Network Confederation
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Chapter 73
Odej Kao, Ulf Rerrer
Internet applications nowadays are part of our everyday life. Gathering information from any networked site in the world, exchanging documents... Sample PDF
Peer-to-Peer-Based Collaboration for Virtual Communities
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Chapter 74
Ori B. Kushnir
Data was collected from two communities: a smaller community with approximately 200 participants, but where the number of participants is precisely... Sample PDF
Predicting Activity Levels in Virtual Communities
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Chapter 75
Lynne D. Roberts, Leigh M. Smith, Clare M. Pollock
Sense of community has traditionally been associated with groupings of people from geographical locations (e.g., villages, suburbs, towns, and... Sample PDF
Psychological Sense of Community in Virtual Communities
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Chapter 76
Alfred P. Rovai, Louis B. Gallien Jr.
Distance education has burgeoned over the past decade and it continues to rapidly expand. The National Center for Educational Statistics reports... Sample PDF
Racial Issues in the Virtual Classroom
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Chapter 77
Miguel-Angel Sicilia, Elena Sanchez-Alonso
The Semantic Web vision described by Berners-Lee, Hendler and Lassila (2001) represents an approach to enhancing the current World Wide Web with... Sample PDF
Representing Virtual Communities for Advanced Services
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Chapter 78
Miguel-Angel Sicilia, Elena Sanchez-Alonso
The evolution of Web-based learning has fostered the search for methods and technologies that enable a degree of reuse of learning contents and... Sample PDF
Reusable Learning Resources for Virtual Learning Environments
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Chapter 79
Elisa Bertino, Anna Cinzia Squicciarini, Elena Ferrari
A virtual community is a composition of heterogeneous and independently designed subsystems, sharing services, resources, information, and knowledge... Sample PDF
Sanctioning Mechanisms in Virtual Communities
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Chapter 80
Niki Lambropoulos
An online community is identified as a group of people who come together for a particular purpose guided by policies and supported by Computing... Sample PDF
Sociability and Usability for Active Participation
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Chapter 81
Hakikur Rahman
nformation has been defined as a set of data, facts, and figures that have been processed in such a way that they become meaningful. They make... Sample PDF
Social Impact of Virtual Networking
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Chapter 82
Benay P. Dara-Abrams
While work has been conducted across geographical distances as long as humans have been engaged in work, advances in technology as well as changes... Sample PDF
Success of Virtual Environments
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Chapter 83
Luis M. Camarinha-Matos, Filipa Ferrada
An important application context for virtual communities is elderly care. One of the key challenges facing modern societies is the increasing speed... Sample PDF
Supporting a Virtual Community for the Elderly
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Chapter 84
Technology-Based Models  (pages 434-438)
Linda A. Brown
Asynchronous Learning Networks (ALNs) are based upon communication between people that does not occur simultaneously. The most familiar examples of... Sample PDF
Technology-Based Models
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Chapter 85
Jo Ann Calzonetti, Aimée de Chambeau
College and university faculty and students prefer the convenience of anytime, anyplace access to scholarly materials when conducting research and... Sample PDF
Telework and the Academic Librarian
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Chapter 86
Karen South Moustafa
Trust is a relationship between individuals. It requires that one individual believe that the other person or an idea is is ethical based on ethical... Sample PDF
Trust Between Managers and Subordinates in Virtual Communities
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Chapter 87
Eric Turner
In any virtual community, issues of trust can dictate the level of interaction among participants within that community. In business-to-business... Sample PDF
Trust in B2B E-Commerce Virtual Communities
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Chapter 88
Eun G. Park
Trust is one of the key factors that emerged as a significant concept in virtual communities. Trust is so complicated that it is hard to define in... Sample PDF
Trust in Virtual Communities
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Chapter 89
István Mezgar
Based on the results of the information and communications technologies (ICTs), a new “digital” economy is arising. This new economy needs a new set... Sample PDF
Trust in Virtual Organizations
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Chapter 90
Susan A. Baim
With the exception of virtual communities that exist solely for purposes of social interaction, members of a virtual community are generally... Sample PDF
Understanding Knowledge Bases and Building Membership in Virtual Communities
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Chapter 91
Kyonghwan Park, Josh Lepawsky
Along with rapid innovations in IT technology for the last few decades, the world of online games has emerged as one of the most exemplary and... Sample PDF
Understanding Virtual Communities in Online Games
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Chapter 92
Heshan Sun, Xue Xiao
Driven by market competitiveness enhancement, service improvement, and working effectiveness promotion, more and more organizations have realized... Sample PDF
User Acceptance of Virtual Technologies
$37.50
Chapter 93
Hung Chim
The Bulletin Board System (BBS), when it first appeared in the middle 1970s, was essentially “a personal computer, not necessarily an expensive one... Sample PDF
User Trust in BBS Comunities
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Chapter 94
Alexei Sourin
Nanyang in Chinese means “south seas”¾a reference to the Southeast Asian region. Back in the 1940s and 1950s, many Chinese from mainland China... Sample PDF
Virtual Campus of Nanyan Technological University
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Chapter 95
Aybüke Aurum, Oya Demirbilek
As we enter the third millennium, many organizations are forced to constantly pursue new strategies to differentiate themselves from their... Sample PDF
Virtual Collaborative Design
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Chapter 96
Kosonen Miia, Cavén-Pöysä Outi, Kirsimarja Blomqvist
E-democracy, digital democracy, and e-government are all phenomena that are developing together with ICT sector growth and rapid public-service... Sample PDF
Virtual Communities and Local Youth E-Democracy
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Chapter 97
Catherine M. Ridings
Imagine a neighborhood where young children can play freely in the streets and various backyards without direct parental oversight, the implication... Sample PDF
Virtual Communities and Social Capital Theory
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Chapter 98
Krzysztof Juszczyszyn
The World Wide Web (WWW) is a global, ubiquitous, and fundamentally dynamic environment for information exchange and processing. By connecting vast... Sample PDF
Virtual Communities and the Alignment of Web Ontologies
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Chapter 99
Deidra Fryer, Eric Turner
Americans, and to some extension, the greater world, appear to have an obsession with celebrity. We often find ourselves defined not by our deeds... Sample PDF
Virtual Communities for Development
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Chapter 100
Vasanthi Srinivasan
Virtual community (VC) as a concept and reality poses some fundamental challenges to the discipline of politics. First, the term virtual undermines... Sample PDF
Virtual Communities' Impact on Politics
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Chapter 101
Françoise Dushinka Brailovsky Signoret
Have you ever felt desperate because of mutually inclusive demands on your time? For example: You have to meet with your case group for a Master of... Sample PDF
Virtual Communities in MBA
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Chapter 102
Dimitris Dardaras, Bill Karakostas
Although it is difficult to measure the e-commerce economy precisely, its size is estimated to be relatively small (some $26 billion United States)... Sample PDF
Virtual Communities in Banking Customer Retention
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Chapter 103
James Isaak
Experience with virtual communities such as Yahoo Groups, Community Zero, Blackboard and WebCT and working with ad hoc and formal groups (such as... Sample PDF
Virtual Communities Wish List
$37.50
Chapter 104
Chingning Wang, Kangning Wei, Michelle L. Kaarst-Brown
Virtual community is a virtual meeting place where individuals with common areas of interests share information, ideas, experiences, and feelings... Sample PDF
Virtual Community as New Marketing Channel
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Chapter 105
Lee Moh Shan, Juliana Sutanto, Atreyi Kankanhalli, Bernard C.Y. Tan
Virtual communities were initially recognized as social phenomena. This is evident from the definition of virtual community as “a social aggregation... Sample PDF
Virtual Community Models in Relation to E-Business Models
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Chapter 106
Ta-Tao Chuang
The last decade has witnessed the remarkable transformation of social networks in which people communicate and associate with one another via the... Sample PDF
Virtual Community Sustainability
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Chapter 107
Sheng-Uei Guan
With the ever-increasing amount of available online resources in general, information overload has become a very real problem. One possible solution... Sample PDF
Virtual Marketplace for Agent-Based Electronic Commerce
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Chapter 108
Kam Hou Vat
A central issue in the practice of organizational learning concerns the relation between knowledge of individuals and knowledge on the level of an... Sample PDF
Virtual Organizing Online Communities in Support of Knowledge Synthesis
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Chapter 109
Virtual Places  (pages 556-561)
Erik M. Champion
Communities identify and are identified by not just the clothes they wear or by the language they speak, or even by the way they greet each other.... Sample PDF
Virtual Places
$37.50
Chapter 110
Vladimír Modrák, Jozef Novák Marcincin
After applications of virtual reality (VR) in the realm of flight simulators and computer games a need to exercise these technologies in industry is... Sample PDF
Virtual Reality Technology in Computer-Aided Production Engineering
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Chapter 111
Françoise Dushinka Brailovsky Signoret
“Nothing can be loved or hated unless it is first known” (da Vinci, quoted by Powell, 2004, p.1). As human beings, we are always afraid about the... Sample PDF
Virtual Reality User Acceptance
$37.50
Chapter 112
Kangning Wei, Chingning Wang
It is a considerable challenge for most of today’s organizations to cope with the rapidly changing business environment, such as global competition... Sample PDF
Virtual Teams Classification
$37.50
Chapter 113
Samantha Bax
The Internet has enabled individuals to communicate across continents and also through temporal spaces, making both place and time irrelevant to... Sample PDF
Virtually Finding Community in the Third Space
$37.50
Chapter 114
Qingyu Zhang
With the escalating need for global and flexible interactions in an increasingly networked society, virtual communities as a new model are becoming... Sample PDF
Web Services and Virtual Communities
$37.50
Chapter 115
Pei-Di Shen, Chia-Wen Tsai
Knowledge is a limitless resource in the knowledge-based economy; therefore, organizations should learn, store, transfer and apply knowledge to add... Sample PDF
Web-Based Knowledge Management Model
$37.50
About the Editor
Index of Key Terms