In today’s information society, electronic tools, such as computer networks for the rapid transfer of data and composite databases for information storage and management, are critical in ensuring effective environmental management. In particular environmental policies and programs for federal, state, and local governments need a large volume of up-to-date information on the quality of water, air, and soil in order to conserve and protect natural resources and to carry out meteorology. In line with this, the utilization of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is crucial to preserve and improve the quality of life. In handling tasks in the field of environmental protection a range of environmental and technical information is often required for a complex and mutual decision making in a multidisciplinary team environment. In this regard e-government provides a foundation of the transformative ICT initiative which can lead to better environmental governance, better services, and increased public participation in environmental decision- making process.
Key Terms in this Chapter
E-Government: E-government refers to the processes and structures pertinent to the electronic delivery of government services to the public.
Environmental Informatics: Environmental informatics is a field of applied computer science that develops and uses the techniques of information processing for environmental protection, research, and engineering.
Online Environmental Information System: Online environmental information system is a Web-based system for making environmental information transparent and instantaneously accessible to the public.
Environmental Information System: Environmental information system is an extended geographic information system that serves as a tool to capture, save, and present spatial, time-related, and content-specific data and at the same time to describe the condition of the environment in terms of negative impacts and risks.
E-Democracy: E-democracy refers to the processes and structures that encompass all forms of electronic communication between government and the citizen.
E-Business: E-business refers to a broader definition of e-commerce, not just buying and selling but also servicing customers and collaborating with business partners and conducting electronic transactions within an organizational entity.
Geographical Information System: Geographical information system refers to a system for managing spatial data and associated attributes. It is a computer system capable of integrating, storing, editing, analyzing, and displaying geographically referenced information.