Online Questionnaires and Interviews as a Successful Tool to Explore Foreign Sports Fandom

Online Questionnaires and Interviews as a Successful Tool to Explore Foreign Sports Fandom

Anthony K. Kerr (University of Technology-Sydney UTS, Australia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-406-4.ch014
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Globalisation and advances in communications technology have greatly expanded the potential marketplace for professional teams, especially for those sports internationally popular. As a result, many team brands profit from millions of satellite fans, or supporters, worldwide. However, the reasons satellite supporters identify with their team remain largely unexplored. Therefore, this chapter describes three studies designed to examine the team identification of these supporters and highlights how mixed methods can be successfully employed online to engage with distant sports fans.
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In a competitive sports marketplace, satellite supporters represent significant revenue streams. For instance, 20 percent of merchandise sold through the National Basketball Association’s (NBA) official website are to overseas fans (Eisenberg, 2003); Japanese baseball fans were expected to spend $USD500 million on New York Yankees tickets and souvenirs in support of their countryman, Hideki Matsui (Whiting, 2003); and Real Madrid now earns 60 percent of merchandise revenue from international markets, up from 10 percent only five years ago (Jones, Parkes, & Houlihan, 2006). Furthermore, the greater the degree of identification between an individual and their chosen team, or “the extent to which a fan feels psychologically connected” (Wann, Melnick, Russell, & Pease, 2001, p. 3), the more likely they are to attend their team’s games (Fink, Trail, & Anderson, 2002; Fisher, 1998; Wann & Branscombe, 1993); monitor their team in the media (Fisher, 1998; James & Trail, 2005); purchase team merchandise (Fisher & Wakefield, 1998; Greenwood, 2001; James & Trail, 2005); and to both recognise (Gwinner & Swanson, 2003; Lascu, Giese, Toolan, Guehring, & Mercer, 1995) and purchase (Gwinner & Swanson, 2003; Madrigal, 2000, 2004) products from team sponsors.

The complex nature of sports fandom also has implications for the choice of suitable methods. While studies on the sports fan have traditionally favoured quantitative methods, there is now greater acceptance of a qualitative approach. Furthermore, mixed methods, Jones (1997b) claimed, can provide “a fuller understanding of the sports fan”. Although the use of mixed methods to explore sports fandom is becoming increasingly popular, its adoption is still relatively limited. In addition, although there have been attempts to examine sports fans through the Internet, using for instance online surveys (Nash, 2000), online message boards (End, 2001; Lewis, 2001; Mitrano, 1999), and online ‘interviews’ (Heinonen, 2002; Mitrano, 1999; Silk & Chumley, 2004), it is still a relatively recent approach.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Graham Cuskelly
Nigel Pope, Kerri-Ann L. Kuhn, John J.H. Forster
Chapter 1
John J.H. Forster
One of the major forces shaping modern sport is the application of digital technology. This is transforming the mass consumption, distribution... Sample PDF
Digital Technologies and the Intensification of Economic and Organisational Mechanisms in Commercial Sport
Chapter 2
Sean Reilly, Peter Barron, Vinny Cahill, Kieran Moran, Mads Haahr
The area of computer-augmented sports is large and complex and spans several disciplines. This chapter presents a general-purpose taxonomy of... Sample PDF
A General-Purpose Taxonomy of Computer-Augmented Sports Systems
Chapter 3
Veljko Potkonjak, Miomir Vukobratovic, Kalman Babkovic, Branislav Borovac
This chapter relates biomechanics to robotics. The mathematical models are derived to cover the kinematics and dynamics of virtually any motion of a... Sample PDF
Dynamics and Simulation of General Human and Humanoid Motion in Sports
Chapter 4
Brendan Burkett
Monitoring of player activity within a competition is currently a reality within some high performance sporting teams, and the demand and level of... Sample PDF
Technologies for Monitoring Human Player Activity Within a Competition
Chapter 5
Chee Kwang Quah, Michael Koh, Alex Ong, Hock Soon Seah, Andre Gagalowicz
Through the advancement of electronics technologies, human motion analysis applications span many domains. Existing commercially available magnetic... Sample PDF
Video-Based Motion Capture for Measuring Human Movement
Chapter 6
Amin Ahmadi, David D. Rowlands, Daniel A. James
Tennis is a popular game played and viewed by millions of people around the world. There is a large impetus for players to improve their game and... Sample PDF
Technology to Monitor and Enhance the Performance of a Tennis Player
Chapter 7
Daniel A. James, Andrew Busch, Yuji Ohgi
The testing and monitoring of elite athletes in their natural training and performance environment is a relatively new area of development that has... Sample PDF
Quantitative Assessment of Physical Activity Using Inertial Sensors
Chapter 8
Volker Wulf, Florian ‘Floyd’ Mueller, Eckehard F. Moritz, Gunnar Stevens, Martin R. Gibbs
Augmenting existing sports experiences with computing technology is increasingly gaining attention due to its potential for performance enhancement.... Sample PDF
Computer Supported Collaborative Sports: An Emerging Paradigm
Chapter 9
Florian ‘Floyd’ Mueller
Recent advances in computing technology have contributed to a new trend that merges digital gaming with physical sports activities and combines the... Sample PDF
Digital Sport: Merging Gaming with Sports to Enhance Physical Activities Such as Jogging
Chapter 10
Lauren Silberman
Just at the moment when gaming has achieved broad cultural acceptance, a new way of using commercial sport video games is emerging, which adds a new... Sample PDF
Double Play: How Video Games Mediate Physical Performance for Elite Athletes
Chapter 11
Donald P. Roy, Benjamin D. Goss
The explosion of fantasy sports and the dearth of research about it create a need for investigation in this relatively new form of sport... Sample PDF
A League of Our Own: Empowerment of Sport Consumers Through Fantasy Sports Participation
Chapter 12
Jean-Pierre Dussault, Michael Greenspan, Jean-François Landry, Will Leckie, Marc Godard, Joseph Lam
We introduce pool and its variants, and describe the challenges of computationally simulating the game to create a robot capable of selecting and... Sample PDF
Computational and Robotic Pool
Chapter 13
Scott Bingley, Stephen Burgess
Sport plays a major part in the Australian psyche with millions of people participating every year. However organised sport at the local or social... Sample PDF
A Framework for the Adoption of the Internet in Local Sporting Bodies: A Local Sporting Association Example
Chapter 14
Anthony K. Kerr
Globalisation and advances in communications technology have greatly expanded the potential marketplace for professional teams, especially for those... Sample PDF
Online Questionnaires and Interviews as a Successful Tool to Explore Foreign Sports Fandom
Chapter 15
Gaoqi He, Zhigeng Pan, Weimin Pan, Jianfeng Liu
Virtual reality and the Olympic Games Museum are used to create a virtual digital Olympic museum (VDOM). This is available solely through the medium... Sample PDF
Virtual Digital Olympic Museum
Chapter 16
Kerri-Ann L. Kuhn
A multi-billion dollar industry, electronic games have been experiencing strong and rapid growth in recent times. The world of games is not only... Sample PDF
The Market Structure and Characteristics of Electronic Games
Chapter 17
Beth A. Cianfrone, James J. Zhang
This chapter introduces the new and unique sport promotional format of sport video game sponsorships and in-game advertising. Information on the... Sample PDF
Sport Video Game Sponsorships and In-Game Advertising
Chapter 18
Mark Lee, Rajendra Mulye, Constantino Stavros
This chapter reports a recent research study involving a sports video game which sought to provide an overview on the use of in-game advertising... Sample PDF
In-Game Advertising: Effectiveness and Consumer Attitudes
Chapter 19
Monica D. Hernandez, Sindy Chapa
The authors’ study examined factors affecting Mexican adolescent’s memory of brand placements contained in advergames. Specifically, two concerns... Sample PDF
The Effect of Arousal on Adolescent's Short-Term Memory of Brand Placements in Sports Advergames
Chapter 20
Ellen L. Bloxsome, Nigel K. Ll. Pope
This chapter presents marketers, sporting management and sports organizations with a technique for analyzing consumer schemas associated with... Sample PDF
Schemas of Disrepute: Digital Damage to the Code
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