An Ontological Representation of Competencies as Codified Knowledge

An Ontological Representation of Competencies as Codified Knowledge

Salvador Sanchez-Alonso (University of Alcalá, Spain) and Dirk Frosch-Wilke (University of Applied Sciences, Germany)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 14
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-576-4.ch006
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In current organizations, the models of knowledge creation include specific processes and elements that drive the production of knowledge aimed at satisfying organizational objectives. The knowledge life cycle (KLC) model of the Knowledge Management Consortium International (KMCI) provides a comprehensive framework for situating competencies as part of the organizational context. Recent work on the use of ontologies for the explicit description of competency-related terms and relations can be used as the basis for a study on the ontological representation of competencies as codified knowledge, situating those definitions in the KMCI lifecycle model. In this chapter, we discuss the similarities between the life cycle of knowledge management (KM) and the processes in which competencies are identified and assessed. The concept of competency, as well as the standard definitions for this term that coexist nowadays, will then be connected to existing KLC models in order to provide a more comprehensive framework for competency management in a wider KM framework. This paper also depicts the framework’s integration into the KLC of the KMCI in the form of ontological definitions.
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Models of knowledge creation inside organizations are considered as dynamic processes of development that evolve over time (Cavaleri & Reed, 2000). These models provide a breakdown of the creation process in terms of concrete processes and elements that drive the overall production of knowledge as targeted to satisfy organizational expectations. For example, the knowledge life cycle (KLC) model of the Knowledge Management Consortium International (KMCI, distinguishes the knowledge processing environment (KPE) from the business processing environment (BPE), describing the latter as the context of actual usage and field assessment of the claims formulated, produced and evaluated in the former. As the KPE is divided into two sub-processes, namely knowledge production (KP) and knowledge integration, the existence of a BPE emphasizes the fact that knowledge codified in artefacts as part of KP processes and disseminated as part of KI processes will be subject to further validation in actual business experience.

Previous work has shown KLC models as a comprehensive framework for situating learning-oriented artefacts in an organizational context (Sanchez-Alonso & Frosch-Wilke, 2005; Sicilia, 2005). The work of Sicilia (2005) has demonstrated that the design and creation of learning resources as described by Downes (2004) is not essentially different from knowledge production. The integration processes, in particular, might be considered to subsume programmed organizational learning activities. Thinking about learning as an outcome of the need to acquire new competencies, learning activities inside the organization can be considered enablers of knowledge acquisition activities. In this context, the concept of competency becomes essential in the KLC model, both as a prerequisite to perform knowledge acquisition activities and as an outcome of these kinds of activities. Furthermore, meta-claims about the knowledge produced—in the case of competencies—may be interpreted as the recording of usage conditions, hypotheses, and assumptions on the acquisition of the competencies evaluated. In consequence, the concepts related with competency management can be put in connection with existing KLC models, in an attempt to provide a comprehensive framework for reuse-oriented competency management and KM. In this chapter, we approach the integration of concepts related to competencies into the framework of the KLC. This would clarify the relationships between knowledge management and competency definition standard efforts. The method to develop the conceptual integration is that of engineering an initial ontological description for the main concepts, connecting them to existing ontological databases. This continues existing work described by Sicilia, Lytras, Rodríguez, and García (2006) regarding the ontological description of learning activities as an extension of the ontology of KM described recently by Holsapple and Joshi (2004).

Formal ontologies (Baader, Calvanese, McGuinness, Nardi, & Patel-Schneider, 2003) are a vehicle for the representation of shared conceptualizations that is useful for technology-intensive organizations. Ontologies based on description logics (Gruber, 1995) or related formalisms provide the added benefit of enabling certain kinds of reasoning over the terms, relations, and axioms that describe the domain. A pragmatic benefit of the use of formal ontologies is that it is accompanied by a growing body of semantic Web (Berners-Lee, Lassila, & Hendler, 2001) tools, techniques, and knowledge. Previous work considered here as a point of departure (Sicilia, García, Sánchez-Alonso, & Rodríguez, 2004) has described the integration of e-learning technology concepts with the OpenCyc knowledge base, the open source version of the Cyc system (Lenat, 1995).

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Table of Contents
Dariusz Król, Ngoc Thanh Nguyen
Chapter 1
Juliusz L. Kulikowski
In this chapter, a concept of using incomplete or fuzzy ontologies in decision making is presented. A definition of ontology and of ontological... Sample PDF
Logical Inference Based on Incomplete and/or Fuzzy Ontologies
Chapter 2
Amelia Badica, Costin Badica, Elvira Popescu
The Web is designed as a major information provider for the human consumer. However, information published on the Web is difficult to understand and... Sample PDF
Using Logic Programming and XML Technologies for Data Extraction from Web Pages
Chapter 3
Andreas Jacobsson, Paul Davidsson
This chapter introduces a formal model of virtual enterprises, as well as an analysis of their creation and operation. It is argued that virtual... Sample PDF
A Formal Analysis of Virtual Enterprise Creation and Operation
Chapter 4
Donat Orski
The chapter concerns a class of systems composed of operations performed with the use of resources allocated to them. In such operation systems... Sample PDF
Application of Uncertain Variables to Knowledge-Based Resource Distribution
Chapter 5
Clive Fencott
This chapter undertakes a methodological study of virtual environments (VEs), a specific subset of interactive systems. It takes as a central theme... Sample PDF
A Methodology of Design for Virtual Environments
Chapter 6
Salvador Sanchez-Alonso, Dirk Frosch-Wilke
In current organizations, the models of knowledge creation include specific processes and elements that drive the production of knowledge aimed at... Sample PDF
An Ontological Representation of Competencies as Codified Knowledge
Chapter 7
Marcos De Oliveira, Martin Purvis
In the distributed multi-agent systems discussed in this chapter, heterogeneous autonomous agents interoperate in order to achieve their goals. In... Sample PDF
Aspects of Openness in Multi-Agent Systems: Coordinating the Autonomy in Agent Societies
Chapter 8
Kostas Kolomvatsos, Stathes Hadjiefthymiades
The field of Multi-agent systems (MAS) has been an active area for many years due to the importance that agents have to many disciplines of research... Sample PDF
How Can We Trust Agents in Multi-Agent Environments? Techniques and Challenges
Chapter 9
Mariusz Nowostawski
The concept of autonomy is one of the central concepts in distributed computational systems, and in multi-agent systems in particular. With diverse... Sample PDF
The Concept of Autonomy in Distributed Computation and Multi-Agent Systems
Chapter 10
Maryam Purvis, Toktam Ebadi, Bastin Tony Roy Savarimuthu
The objective of this research is to describe a mechanism to provide an improved library management system using RFID and agent technologies. One of... Sample PDF
An Agent-Based Library Management System Using RFID Technology
Chapter 11
Sharmila Savarimuthu, Martin Purvis, Maryam Purvis, Mariusz Nowostawski
Societies are made of different kinds of agents, some cooperative and uncooperative. Uncooperative agents tend to reduce the overall performance of... Sample PDF
Mechanisms to Restrict Exploitation and Improve Societal Performance in Multi-Agent Systems
Chapter 12
Bastin Tony Roy Savarimuthu, Maryam Purvis, Stephen Cranefield
Norms are shared expectations of behaviours that exist in human societies. Norms help societies by increasing the predictability of individual... Sample PDF
Norm Emergence in Multi-Agent Societies
Chapter 13
Scott A. DeLoach, Madhukar Kumar
This chapter provides an overview of the Multi-agent Systems Engineering (MaSE) methodology for analyzing and designing multi-agent systems. MaSE... Sample PDF
Multi-Agent Systems Engineering: An Overview and Case Study
Chapter 14
František Capkovic
An alternative approach to modeling and analysis of agents’ behaviour is presented in this chapter. The agents and agent systems are understood here... Sample PDF
Modeling, Analysing, and Control of Agents Behaviour
Chapter 15
Martin Tabakov
This chapter presents a methodology for an image enhancement process of computed tomography perfusion images by means of partition generated with... Sample PDF
Using Fuzzy Segmentation for Colour Image Enhancement of Computed Tomography Perfusion Images
Chapter 16
Giovanni Vincenti, Goran Trajkovski
This chapter presents an innovative approach to the field of information fusion. Fuzzy mediation differentiates itself from other algorithms, as... Sample PDF
Fuzzy Mediation in Shared Control and Online Learning
Chapter 17
Adam Jatowt, Yukiko Kawai, Katsumi Tanaka
The Web is a useful data source for knowledge extraction, as it provides diverse content virtually on any possible topic. Hence, a lot of research... Sample PDF
Utilizing Past Web for Knowledge Discovery
Chapter 18
Dariusz Król
In this chapter, we propose a generic framework in C# to distribute and compute tasks defined by users. Unlike the more popular models such as... Sample PDF
Example-Based Framework for Propagation of Tasks in Distributed Environments
Chapter 19
Xia Xie, Jin Huang, Song Wu, Hai Jin, Melvin Koh, Jie Song, Simon See
In this chapter, we present a survey on some of the commercial players in the Grid industry, existing research done in the area of market-based Grid... Sample PDF
Survey on the Application of Economic and Market Theory for Grid Computing
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