Ontology Based Context-Aware Adaptation Approach

Ontology Based Context-Aware Adaptation Approach

Tarak Chaari (LAAS-CNRS, France), Mohamed Zouari (IRISA-INRIA, France) and Frédérique Laforest (LIRIS-CNRS, France)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-290-9.ch002
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Abstract

Pervasive information systems aim to make information available anywhere and at anytime. These systems should be used in different contexts depending on the environment of the user, her/his profile and her/his device. Consequently, one of the main problems of such information systems is the adaptation to context. In this chapter, the authors propose a comprehensive and open strategy that guarantees the adaptation of applications to context on three facets: (i) the services offered to the user, (ii) the multimedia contents returned by these services, and (iii) their presentation to the user. Service adaptation consists of modules that intercept the application’s service calls and modify their behavior using a list of functional adaptation operators. Data adaptation consists in transforming or replacing the non-usable multimedia service outputs in the considered context situation. Presentation adaptation consists in automatically generating the complete code of the user interface that guarantees the interaction with the adapted data and services. The authors’ adaptation strategy has achieved two goals: (i) incrementally integrate context awareness in the application and (ii) guarantee the adaptation starting from a simple description of the services offered to the user. They have validated this strategy by developing a platform that guarantees applications adaptation to context. They used Java, OSGi and Web service technologies to implement this platform. They have also successfully tested our adaptation approach on a home healthcare application concerning dialyzed persons.
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Introduction

Pervasive information systems aim to providing information to users anywhere and at anytime taking account of her/his environment. Accessing web-based applications on a mobile terminal from anywhere (list of fuel stations around), using a collaborative system based on a highly dynamic peer to peer MANET architecture (collaborative writing of a tourism guide on site) or using the legacy information system in new user environments (home patients directly connected to the hospital information system) are examples of these systems. One common difficulty for establishing such systems is their context-awareness, i.e. they must have the ability to manage their utilization contexts and to adapt their behavior to their changes.

Despite a rich landscape in adaptation related contributions, a complete and generic context-aware adaptation approach is still missing (Kjaer, K. E. 2007). The existing solutions are generally proposed to incrementally create adaptive resources. They are not suitable for adapting existing systems to new utilization contexts. Moreover, the existing contributions remain very specific to proprietary models and to ad hoc needs. Like in (Rosa, L., Lopes, A. & Rodrigues, L. 2008), we target the establishment of adaptive systems where “adaptation logic can be separated from the application core. When an application needs to adapt, it is usually not because its core domain has changed but rather a non-functional requirement or behavior of some services within the application, such as the network communication protocol, needs to change.”

In our opinion, to establish a generic context-aware adaptation approach, we need:

  • Models and tools to describe the adaptation source (i.e. context)

  • Models and tools to describe the adaptation target (applications, architectures, services, etc)

  • Adaptation means and tools to modify the adaptation target when context changes

  • Adaptation policies putting all the previous models and tools together

In this chapter, we present a generic and automatic ontology-based adaptation approach of existing applications to new utilization contexts. We apply our adaptation approach after the development of the applications by dynamically and automatically instantiating a software layer upon them. Our adaptation strategy is based on three main stages: service adaptation, content adaptation and user interface adaptation. Service adaptation consists in changing the behavior of the offered services to end users in order to be compatible with the utilization context of the application. Content adaptation is based on a set of transformations on the type, format and the properties of multimedia content returned by the services. Finally, user interface adaptation is the automatic generation of functional and correct user interfaces in their operating context. Our adaptation strategy is based on two ontologies describing the application architecture and its utilization context. To validate this strategy, we developed a prototype implementing its main stages to apply them on an existing medical application in order to adapt it to mobile phone utilizations.

This chapter is organized as follows: State of the art presents some interesting works related to context-awareness and adaptation. The following section entitled “Overview of our adaptation approach” gives a general overview of our context-aware adaptation approach. In section “Context Modeling”, we propose an ontology based model of the utilization context. In section “Application Modeling”, we present another ontology based model describing a user’s view of an application. In section “Our adaptation approach”, we detail how we use these models to establish a complete and a generic adaptation approach of services, multimedia content and user interfaces in context-aware applications. Finally, before concluding, we present our prototype implementing our adaptation principles and give a concrete case study to validate our context-aware adaptation approach.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Foreword
Thomas Strang
Foreword
Theo Kanter
Preface
Dragan Stojanovic
Acknowledgment
Dragan Stojanovic
Chapter 1
Davy Preuveneers, Koen Victor, Yves Vanrompay, Peter Rigole, Manuele Kirsch Pinheiro
In recent years, many researchers have studied context-awareness to support non-intrusive adaptability of context-aware applications. Context-aware... Sample PDF
Context-Aware Adaptation in an Ecology of Applications
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Chapter 2
Tarak Chaari, Mohamed Zouari, Frédérique Laforest
Pervasive information systems aim to make information available anywhere and at anytime. These systems should be used in different contexts... Sample PDF
Ontology Based Context-Aware Adaptation Approach
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Chapter 3
Florian Daniel
Adaptivity (the runtime adaptation to user profile data) and context-awareness (the runtime adaptation to generic context data) have been gaining... Sample PDF
Context-Aware Applications for the Web: A Model-Driven Development Approach
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Chapter 4
I. Roussaki, M. Strimpakou, C. Pils, N. Kalatzis, N. Liampotis
In ubiquitous computing environments, context management systems are expected to administrate large volumes of spatial and non-spatial information... Sample PDF
Distributed Context Management in Support of Multiple Remote Users
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Chapter 5
Jared Zebedee, Patrick Martin, Kirk Wilson, Wendy Powley
Pervasive computing presents an exciting realm where intelligent devices interact within the background of our environments to create a more... Sample PDF
An Adaptable Context Management Framework for Pervasive Computing
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Chapter 6
Yuanping Li, Ling Feng, Lizhu Zhou
Context is an essential element in mobile and ubiquitous computing. Users’ information needs can be better understood and supplied by means of... Sample PDF
Context-Aware Database Querying: Recent Progress and Challenges
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Chapter 7
Carsten Jacob, Heiko Pfeffer, Stephan Steglich
The idea of context-aware services has been around for a long time. The rise of user mobility enabled by well-equipped mobile devices, increasing... Sample PDF
Employing Context Information and Semantics to Advance Responsiveness in Service Composition
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Chapter 8
Heinz-Josef Eikerling, Pietro Mazzoleni
The authors present a holistic approach for the efficient design, implementation, and validation of context-aware mobile services. The according... Sample PDF
A Methodology for the Design, Development and Validation of Adaptive and Context-Aware Mobile Services
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Chapter 9
Stefan Dietze, Alessio Gugliotta, John Domingue
Context-awareness is highly desired, particularly in highly dynamic mobile environments. Semantic Web Services (SWS) address context-adaptation by... Sample PDF
Bridging the Gap between Mobile Application Contexts and Semantic Web Resources
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Chapter 10
Claudia Raibulet
Due to its nature, a mobile-enabled environment is very dynamic: reachable resources and services change very often. Users hardly know which... Sample PDF
Adaptive Resource and Service Management in a Mobile-Enabled Environment
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Chapter 11
Nahuel Lofeudo, Andrés Fortier, Gustavo Rossi
Mobile context-aware applications have specific needs regarding data communications and position sensing, that current standard hardware is still... Sample PDF
Kindergarten: A Novel Communication Mechanism for Mobile Context-Aware Applications
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Chapter 12
Laurent Gomez, Annett Laube, Alessandro Sorniotti
Access control is the process of granting permissions in accordance to an authorization policy. Mobile and ubiquitous environments challenge... Sample PDF
Access Control in Mobile and Ubiquitous Environments
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Chapter 13
Amr Ali Eldin, Semir Daskapan, Jan van den Berg
With the growing interest in context-aware services, attention has been given to privacy and trust issues. Context-aware privacy architectures are... Sample PDF
Privacy Automation in Context-Aware Services
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Chapter 14
Adrien Joly, Pierre Maret, Fabien Bataille
These times, when the amount of information exponentially grows on the Internet, when most people can be connected at all times with powerful... Sample PDF
Leveraging Semantic Technologies towards Social Ambient Intelligence
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Chapter 15
Federica Paganelli, Dino Giuli
The delivery of real-time, context-aware, and personalized information to end-users for mobility support is a high-priority objective in improving... Sample PDF
An Evaluation of Context-Aware Infomobility Systems
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Chapter 16
Nikos Tsianos, Panagiotis Germanakos, Zacharias Lekkas, Constantinos Mourlas
The notion of context in context-aware applications is not merely an issue of external situational circumstances or device/channel properties, but... Sample PDF
Incorporating Human Factors in the Development of Context-Aware Personalized Applications: The Next Generation of Intelligent User Interfaces
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About the Contributors