An Ontology-Based e-Learning Scenario

An Ontology-Based e-Learning Scenario

WenYing Guo (Zhejiang Gongshang University, China)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-342-5.ch005
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Selecting appropriate learning services for a learner from a large number of heterogeneous knowledge sources is a complex and challenging task. This chapter illustrates and discusses how Semantic Web technologies can be applied to e-learning system to help learner in selecting appropriate learning course or retrieving relevant information. It firstly presents the main features of e-learning scenario and the ontology on which it is based; then illustrates the scenario ontology with the training domain and the application domain. Finally, it presents Semantic Querying and Semantic Mapping approach.
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E-learning is a critical support mechanism for organizations and individuals to enhance their skills. The incredible velocity and volatility of today’s markets require just-in-time methods for supporting the need-to- know of employees, partners and distribution paths. New styles of e-learning are the new challenges for the next century and will be driven by the requirements of the new economy.

Recent advances in technologies for e-learning provide learners with a broad variety of learning content available. Numerous documents resources may be used during e-learning. Some are internal and made by several actors implied in the e-learning, others are available on the web: on-line courses, course supports, slides, bibliographies, frequently asked questions, lecture notes, etc. Learner may choose between different lecture providers and learning management systems to access the learning content. On the other hand, the increasing variety of the learning material influences effort needed to select a course or training package. Adaptive support based on learner needs, background and other characteristics can help in selecting appropriate learning and during learning.

In order to better support humans in carrying out their various tasks with the web. Semantic web technologies are used to enable machines to interpret and process information. It could offer more flexibility in e-learning systems. Many of so far developed semantic web technologies provide us with tools for describing and annotating resources on the web in standardized ways, such as XML, RDF, XTM, OWL, DAML-S, and RuleML. These offer a way to make such components mobile and accessible within the wide sea of web information and applications. Personalisation is becoming increasingly important in the educational Semantic Web context by enabling shared content and services to be tailored to the needs of individual users (learners, content creators, providers, and instructors). The ambitious target is to offer manageable, extendable and standardised infrastructure for complementing and collaborating learning applications tailored to the needs of individual users.

Ontologies are a way of representing formal and shared information. They can be used to index data indicating their meaning, thereby making their semantics explicit and machine- accessible. They also can be used in e-learning as a formal means to describe the organization of universities and courses and to define services. An e-learning ontology should include descriptions of educational organizations (course providers), courses and people involved in the learning process.

This paper represents our effort toward a problem of semantic solution in e-learning system. It is organized as follows: Section 2 reviews the related works, Section 3 describes Metadata and Ontologies concepts. Section 4 shows our e-learning scenario. Section 5 describes our ontology design and representation. Section 6 shows our semantic querying and semantic mapping approach. Section 7 gives conclusions and future works.


Among the variety of modern trends in educational technology development, the application of ontological research is probably one of the most fashioned and rapidly evolving. After the first dedicated workshop in 1999, more and more workshops and special journal issues have been brought out. Numerous papers in related conferences, journals, and books have been published.

Kay (1999) and Chen and Mizoguchi (1999) noted the advantage of using ontologies for learner/user models. Mizoguchi and Bourdeau (2000) studied how ontologies can help to overcome problems in artificial intelligence in education. Razmerita et al. (2003) proposed a generic ontology-based user modelling architecture. Mitrovic and Devedzic (2004) proposed the M-OBLIGE model for building multitutor ontology-based learning environments. The model allows domain expertise to be shared and can be used as a framework for integrating multiple tutors on the web. Moreale and Vargas-Vera (2004) developed an e-learning services architecture offering semantic- based services to students and tutors, in particular, ways to browse and obtain information through WS.

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Associate Editors
Table of Contents
Mahbubur Rahman Syed
Mahbubur Rahman Syed
Chapter 1
Hiroshi Takeda, Hisashi Yaginuma, Hajime Kiyohara, Akira Tokuyasu, Masami Iwatsuki, Norio Takeuchi, Hisato Kobayashi, Kazuo Yana
This article describes a new automatic digital content generation system we have developed. Recently some universities, including Hosei University... Sample PDF
Automatic Digital Content Generation System for Real-Time Distance Lectures
Chapter 2
Filomena Ferrucci, Giuseppe Scanniello, Genoveffa Tortora
In this chapter the authors present E-World, an e-learning platform able to manage and trace adaptive learning processes which are designed and... Sample PDF
E-World: A Platform for the Management of Adaptive E-Learning Processes
Chapter 3
Judy C.R. Tseng, Wen-Ling Tsai, Gwo-Jen Hwang, Po-Han Wu
In developing traditional learning materials, quality is the key issue to be considered. However, for high technical e-training courses, not only... Sample PDF
An Efficient and Effective Approach to Developing Engineering E-Training Courses
Chapter 4
Te-Hua Wang, Flora Chia-I Chang
The sharable content object reference model (SCORM) includes a representation of distance learning contents and a behavior definition of how users... Sample PDF
A SCORM Compliant Courseware Authoring Tool for Supporting Pervasive Learning
Chapter 5
WenYing Guo
Selecting appropriate learning services for a learner from a large number of heterogeneous knowledge sources is a complex and challenging task. This... Sample PDF
An Ontology-Based e-Learning Scenario
Chapter 6
Dan Phung, Giuseppe Valetto, Gail E. Kaiser, Tiecheng Liu, John R. Kender
The increasing popularity of online courses has highlighted the need for collaborative learning tools for student groups. In this article, we... Sample PDF
Adaptive Synchronization of Semantically Compressed Instructional Videos for Collaborative Distance Learning
Chapter 7
Jing Chen, Qing Li, Ling Feng
The abundance of knowledge-rich information on the World Wide Web makes compiling an online etextbook both possible and necessary. In our previous... Sample PDF
Refining the Results of Automatic e-Textbook Construction by Clustering
Chapter 8
Yueting Zhuang, Xiafen Zhang, Weiming Lu, Fei Wu
Chinese brush calligraphy is a valuable civilization legacy and a high art of scholarship. It is still popular in Chinese banners, newspaper... Sample PDF
Chinese Brush Calligraphy Character Retrieval and Learning
Chapter 9
William K. Cheung, Anders I. Mørch, Kelvin C. Wong, Cynthia Lee, Jiming Liu, Mason H. Lam
In this article we investigate the use of latent semantic analysis (LSA), critiquing systems, and knowledge building to support computer-based... Sample PDF
Grounding Collaborative Learning in Semantics-Based Critiquing
Chapter 10
Giuliana Dettori, Paola Forcheri, Maria Grazia Ierardi
Learning Objects (LOs) are increasingly considered potentially helpful to improve teachers’ work and to spread innovation in the school system.... Sample PDF
Improving the Usefulness of Learning Objects by Means of Pedagogy-Oriented Design
Chapter 11
Frederick W.B. Li, Rynson W.H. Lau, Taku Komura, Meng Wang, Becky Siu
Human motion animation has been one of the major research topics in the field of computer graphics for decades. Techniques developed in this area... Sample PDF
Adaptive Animation of Human Motion for E-Learning Applications
Chapter 12
Gennaro Costagliola, Vittorio Fuccella
On-Line Testing is that sector of e-learning aimed at assessing learner’s knowledge through e-learning means. In on-line testing, due to the... Sample PDF
eWorkbook: An On-Line Testing System with Test Visualization Functionalities
Chapter 13
Brian Stewart, Derek Briton, Mike Gismondi, Bob Heller, Dietmar Kennepohl, Rory McGreal, Christine Nelson
Athabasca University—Canada’s Open University evaluated learning management systems (LMS) for use by the university. Evaluative criteria were... Sample PDF
Choosing MOODLE: An Evaluation of Learning Management Systems at Athabasca
Chapter 14
Damien Clark, Penny Baillie-de Byl
Computer aided assessment is a common approach used by educational institutions. The benefits range into the design of teaching, learning, and... Sample PDF
Enhancing the IMS QTI to Better Support Computer Assisted Marking
Chapter 15
Ali Dashti, Maytham Safar
Distance education created new challenges regarding the delivery of large size isochronous continuous streaming media (SM) objects. In this paper... Sample PDF
Streaming of Continuous Media for Distance Education Systems
Chapter 16
Manjulika Srivastava, Venugopal Reddy
The question why some learners successfully study through distance mode and others do not is increasingly becoming important as open and distance... Sample PDF
How Did They Study at a Distance? Experiences of IGNOU Graduates
Chapter 17
Gwo-Jen Hwang, Ting-Ting Wu, Yen-Jung Chen
The prosperous development of wireless communication and sensor technologies has attracted the attention of researchers from both computer and... Sample PDF
Ubiquitous Computing Technologies in Education
Chapter 18
S. Grunwald, B. Hoover, G.L. Bruland
In this chapter the authors describe the implementation of an emerging virtual learning environment to teach GIS and spatial sciences to distance... Sample PDF
An eLearning Portal to Teach Geographic Information Sciences
Chapter 19
Maria Manuela Cunha, Goran D. Putnik
Individualised open and distance learning at the university continuing education and post-graduate education levels is a central issue of today. The... Sample PDF
A Changed Economy with Unchanged Universities? A Contribution to the University of the Future
Chapter 20
Richard Y.D. Xu, Jesse S. Jin
This article presents a schematic application of computer vision technologies to e-learning that is synchronous, peer-to-peer-based, and supports an... Sample PDF
Rationale, Design and Implementation of a Computer Vision-Based Interactive E-Learning System
Chapter 21
Dorothée Rasseneur-Coffinet, Georgia Smyrniou, Pierre Tchounikine
This article presents an approach and tools that can help learners appropriate a Web-based learning curriculum and become active participants in... Sample PDF
Supporting Learners' Appropriation of a Web-Based Learning Curriculum
Chapter 22
Gwo-Jen Hwang, Hsiang Cheng, Carol H.C. Chu, Judy C.R. Tseng, Gwo-Haur Hwang
In the past decades, English learning has received lots of attention all over the world, especially for those who are not native English speakers.... Sample PDF
Development of a Web-Based System for Diagnosing Student Learning Problems on English Tenses
Chapter 23
Chi-Syan Lin, C. Candace Chou, Ming-Shiou Kuo
The paper outlines a new paradigm and its underlying rationales for implementing networked learning environments that is emerging from new... Sample PDF
Inhabited Virtual Learning Worlds and Impacts on Learning Behaviors in Young School Learners
Chapter 24
Rory McGreal, Terry Anderson
Any view of e-learning in Canada must be informed by the uniquely Canadian feature of provincial jurisdiction over education. Therefore any... Sample PDF
Research and Practice of E-Learning in Canada 2008
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