This chapter examines the role of open source software (OSS) in international outsourcing practices that involve the transfer of knowledge work from one nation to another. Included in this examination are discussions of the benefits and the limitations of OSS use in outsourcing. The chapter also presents organization-specific and industry-wide strategies for effective OSS use in outsourcing situations. The chapter then concludes with a discussion of areas of international outsourcing where OSS might have important future applications or effects. The purpose of such an examination is to provide readers with the knowledge and the insights needed to make effective decisions related to the use of OSS in international outsourcing situations.