Opportunities and Challenges from Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) Technology

Opportunities and Challenges from Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) Technology

Ioannis Chochliouros (OTE S.A., General Directorate for Technology, Greece), Anastasia S. Spiliopoulou (OTE S.A., General Directorate for Technology, Greece), Stergios P. Chochliouros (Independent Consultant, Greece) and George Agapiou (Hellenic Telecommunications Organization S.A., Greece)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-014-1.ch151
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Abstract

The tremendous growth in the mobile communications sector has had a profound technical, economic/business, and social impact in Europe and worldwide (Chochliouros & Spiliopoulou, 2005). In particular, various sectors’ effects combined with the rapid expansion of (fixed) broadband wireless technologies have generated, in several instances, suitable prerequisites (and/or conditions) for further development and exploitation, to successfully realize a diversity of convergencebased opportunities (Chochliouros, Spiliopoulou, & Lalopoulos, 2004; Yoon, Yoon, & Lee, 2005). Mobile devices are currently used in virtually every domain of human activity (i.e., private, business, and governmental). While the relevant penetration levels are likely to continue to enlarge (in fact, mobile phone penetration has now reached well over two billion subscribers globally), the most important future evolutionary progress will be the development of innovative broadband facilities-applications. Potential offerings of third-generation mobile (3G) infrastructure (and of its enhancements), together with other modern wireless technologies, especially Radio Local Area Networks (RLANs) and Wi-Fis (Kumar, 2004; Siau & Shen, 2003) affect the growth of the modern economy. The fast expansion of these technologies creates a paradigm shift that will make possible the appearance (and the adoption) of new data services, able to combine the advantages of broadband with mobility features (Commission of the European Communities, 2004a). To this important perspective, all related applications can exercise an essential impact in various fields (technical, commercial, financial, regulatory, social, etc.) and, most significantly, they can produce considerable economic effects by potentially modifying the way that business is done. However, as most of the innovative electronic communications offerings can be accessed and exploited by converged means and resources, the “combined” usage of fixed and mobile infrastructures/facilities can be the basis for further development and progress. Moreover, if looking forward, the convergence of telecommunications-, broadcasting-, and Internet- based facilities will result in the proliferation of high-speed multimedia services, delivered over such networks/infrastructures. Recent market experiences have demonstrated that 2.5G/3G infrastructures (and RLANs) will coexist and provide complementary services (Commission of the European Communities, 2004b). Users can thus benefit themselves of high-speed wireless access when near a hot-spot, and receive 3G services over a broader area. Therefore, convergence of fixed and mobile services, through unified fixed/mobile offerings, is expected to bring additional opportunities for novelty.
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Unlicensed Mobile Access In The Context Of The Broader “Convergence” Efforts

As voice becomes even more of a commodity service and use of data services grows, network operators realize that they need to adopt converged (network-based) services and offer easier ways to roam across networks (Sutherland, 2007). The world scenery for wireless and mobile communications is changing very quickly (subsequent to international trends and practices) and consequently, a number of market operators of the wider electronic communications industry have nowadays focused their business priorities on the applicability/effectiveness of an increasing set of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC) initiatives (Merry, 2007), linked with modern and fascinating technological solutions (Lainé, Drevon, & Cannet, 2005).

The majority of these initiatives are expected to be suitably developed through the exploitation of “Unlicensed Mobile Access” (UMA) (or alternatively known as “Generic Access Network”-GAN) technology, which represents the first global standardized effort (supported by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project - 3GPP) for subscriber access to mobile circuit-, packet-, and IMS-based (IP Multimedia System) services over any IP-based access network (e.g., Wi-Fi, DSL (Digital Subscriber Line), Cable, Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH), etc.), including the Internet (More specifically, the related system was initially called “UMA” and then renamed to “GAN”).

Key Terms in this Chapter

RLAN (Radio Local Area Network): It is a local area network (LAN) using radio instead of wires. A LAN is a user-owned and -operated data transmission facility connecting a number of communicating devices (e.g., computers, terminals, word processors, printers, and storage units) within a single building or floor.

Seamless: Free from noticeable transitions (i.e., no end-user action is required; speech interruptions are short; service interruptions are short; incoming calls are not missed; packet sessions are maintained; services work identically).

Generic Access Network (GAN): It is a local area access technology that enables GSM and WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) service to be delivered over broadband and WLAN, at homes or in offices. End users can enjoy the same service as in the wide area network.

IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem): It is a standard that defines a generic architecture for offering multimedia services over any IP network. IMS specifies interoperability and is well integrated with existing voice and data networks, while adopting many of the key characteristics of the IT domain. It enables converged voice and data services in the mobile environment, built on Internet services, applications, and protocols.

Fixed-Mobile Convergence (FMC): It is currently one of the crucial strategic issues in the telecommunications industry. It is the way to connect the mobile phone to the fixed-line infrastructure. With the convergence between the mobile and fixed-line networks, telecommunications operators can provide services to users irrespective of their location, access technology, and terminal. This encompasses a wide range of services; however, they generally have the core of allowing the user or the network to take advantage of higher-speed, cheaper local unlicensed access networks in local environments for lower-value, high-volume transactions, such as cheaper calls or downloading larger files from home or office, while using the scarcer licensed spectrum for higher-value, lower-volume transactions, where customers are prepared to pay the mobile premium of licensed spectrum.

Handover: It refers to the ability for the subscriber to have an active session in progress (e.g., voice call) and be able to move from one domain to another without the session being interrupted or requiring manual intervention from the subscriber to reestablish a session.

QoS (quality of service): Measurement of transmission rates, error rates, priority, dedicated bandwidth, and other parameters relating to performance of data networks.

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication): A second-generation mobile system originally developed in Europe, using a time division multiple access (TDMA) radio interface combined with frequency division multiple access (FDMA); it is oriented to voice and circuit mode data.

Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA): It is the 3GPP global standard for subscriber access to mobile circuit, packet, and IMS-based services over any IP-based access network, including the Internet. With UMA, mobile operators can now leverage the cost and performance advantages of IP access technologies (e.g., DSL, Cable, Wi-Fi) to deliver high-quality, low-cost mobile voice and data services in the locations where subscribers spend most of their time.

VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol/IP): It refers to a class of technologies that enable the routing of voice calls over the Internet or any other IP network. VoIP is not a service, but a technology enabler used to implement services.

WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network): A generic term for different high-speed radio access modes in the 2.4 GHz to 5 GHz frequency bands.

Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity): Commonly-used synonym for WLAN; Wireless Fidelity is a popular term for wireless local area networks operating under IEEE Standard 802.11b in the 2.4 GHz range.

Mobile Virtual Network Operator (MVNO): is a company that provides mobile phone service but does not have its own frequency allocation of the radio spectrum, nor does it have all of the infrastructure required to provide mobile telephone service. MVNOs are roughly equivalent to the “switchless resellers” of the traditional landline telephone market. Switchless resellers buy minutes wholesale from the large long distance companies and retail them to their customers.

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Charles H. Fine
Preface
Margherita Pagani
Acknowledgment
Chapter 1
Margherita Pagani
The transition process from analog to digital system, above all in the broadcasting field, and the development of Third Generation standards in... Sample PDF
Accessibility, Usability, and Functionality in T-Government Services
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Ju Wang, Jonathan C.L. Liu
Recent years have witnessed the rapid progress in handheld devices. This has resulted in a growing number of mobile phones or PDAs that have a... Sample PDF
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Affective Computing  (pages 15-21)
Maja Pantic
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Affective Computing
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Chapter 6
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Blogs as Corporate Tools  (pages 128-133)
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Blogs in Education  (pages 134-139)
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Community of Production  (pages 224-229)
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Cross-Channel Cooperation  (pages 299-304)
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Mahesh S. Raisinghani
People have become accustomed to changes in their environment with every new generation of technology. It is through the shift in technology that... Sample PDF
Current Impact and Future Trends of Mobile Devices and Mobile Applications
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Chapter 44
Ralf Wagner
The majority of multimedia applications rely on hypermedia technologies, such as HTML, XML, or PHP (cf. Lang, 2005, for a review on design issues of... Sample PDF
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Chapter 45
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Chapter 46
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Chapter 47
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Chapter 48
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Chapter 49
Xin Luo, Merrill Warkentin
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Chapter 50
Digital Filters  (pages 364-372)
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Chapter 51
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Chapter 52
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Chapter 53
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Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) Evolution
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Chapter 54
Kuanchin Chen
Sharing, disseminating, and presenting data in digital format is not just a fad, but it is becoming part of our life. Without careful planning... Sample PDF
Digital Watermarking and Steganography
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Chapter 55
Distance Education  (pages 410-416)
Carol Wright
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Distance Education
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Chapter 56
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The rapid growth of information technology has opened up the possibilities of corporate learning and a completely new dimension to the progress in... Sample PDF
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Chapter 57
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Chapter 58
Juha Kettunen
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Chapter 59
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Chapter 60
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Chapter 61
Ioannis Chochliouros, Anastasia S. Spiliopoulou, Tilemachos D. Doukoglou, Stergios P. Chochliouros
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Chapter 62
Tiong T. Goh, Kinshuk, Kinshuk
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Chapter 63
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Chapter 64
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Chapter 65
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Chapter 66
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Chapter 67
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Chapter 68
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Chapter 69
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Chapter 70
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Chapter 71
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Chapter 72
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Chapter 73
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Chapter 74
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Chapter 75
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Chapter 76
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Chapter 77
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Chapter 78
Going Virtual  (pages 581-586)
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Chapter 79
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Chapter 81
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Chapter 82
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Chapter 84
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Chapter 87
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A good business to consumer environment can be developed through the creation of intelligent software agents (Guan, Zhi, & Maung, 2004; Soltysiak &... Sample PDF
Intelligent Personalization Agent for Product Brokering
$37.50
Chapter 96
Kirk St. Amant
Communication technologies are continually changing ideas of the “office.” One of the most interesting of these developments is the virtual office—a... Sample PDF
Interacting Effectively in International Virtual Offices
$37.50
Chapter 97
Kamel Karoui
With the interconnection of computers in networks, particularly through the Internet, it becomes possible to connect applications on distant... Sample PDF
Interaction between Mobile Agents and Web Services
$37.50
Chapter 98
Margherita Pagani
Interactive television (iTV) can be defined as the result of the process of convergence between television and the new interactive digital... Sample PDF
Interactive Digital Television
$37.50
Chapter 99
Hakikur Rahman
With the extended application of information technologies, the conventional education system has crossed the physical boundaries to reach the... Sample PDF
Interactive Multimedia Technologies for Distance Education in Developing Countries
$37.50
Chapter 100
Hakikur Rahman
Information is typically stored, manipulated, delivered, and retrieved using a plethora of existing and emerging technologies. Businesses and... Sample PDF
Interactive Multimedia Technologies for Distance Education Systems
$37.50
Chapter 101
Samuel Rivas, Miguel Barreiro, Víctor M. Gulías
Even though digital systems have many advantages over traditional analogue systems, end users expect that they will not loose any functionality in... Sample PDF
Interactive Playout of Digital Video Streams
$37.50
Chapter 102
Alcina Prata
Television was a brilliant invention because it is capable of transporting us anywhere (Perera, 2002). Since its first production, in 1928, it never... Sample PDF
Interactive Television Evolution
$37.50
Chapter 103
Alcina Prata
There is no doubt that interactive TV (iTV), which may be defined as a TV system that allows the viewer to interact with an application that is... Sample PDF
Interactive Television Research Opportunities
$37.50
Chapter 104
David Mazursky
In recent years the online Web site interface format was found to have significant effects on attitudes toward the store and people’s actual... Sample PDF
Interface-Based Differences in Online Decision Making
$37.50
Chapter 105
Violeta Tomaševic, Goran Pantelic, Slobodan Bojanic
Originally developed for research and education purposes as Arpanet in 1970s, the Internet has become a worldwide network that offers numerous... Sample PDF
Internet and E-Business Security
$37.50
Chapter 106
John M. Carroll
Case-based learning is one of the major pedagogical approaches applied in formal and informal teaching and learning. This article introduces an... Sample PDF
Introducing Digital Case Library
$37.50
Chapter 107
Terry T. Kidd
The waves of technology are changing the workplace and the worker of today as we approach the 21st century. To be prepared, people need to be... Sample PDF
Investing in Multimedia Agents for E-Learning Solutions
$37.50
Chapter 108
James O. Danenberg
E-learning (a major subcomponent of the broader term “distance learning”) is one of the tools with which education can be delivered at a distance... Sample PDF
Issue and Practices of Electronic Learning
$37.50
Chapter 109
Richard Millham
What are some of the issues relevant to distance education in sub-Saharan Africa? Some of these issues relate to the ‘push’ factors of distance... Sample PDF
Issues with Distance Education in Sub-Saharan Africa
$37.50
Chapter 110
Theekshana Suraweera
Computer-based information systems have grown in importance to SMEs, and are now being used increasingly to help them compete. For example, many... Sample PDF
IT Management in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises
$37.50
Chapter 111
Pauline Ratnasingam
With the explosion of the Internet and Web technologies as a medium of exchange, issues such as knowledge coordination problems, knowledge transfer... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management and Information Technology Security Services
$37.50
Chapter 112
Percy Kwok
Because of the ever changing nature of work and society under knowledge-based economy in the 21st century, students and teachers need to develop... Sample PDF
Knowledge-Building through Collaborative Web-Based Learning Community or Ecology in Education
$37.50
Chapter 113
Sumeet Gupta
Since the 1990s, a surge in the popularity and usage of e-commerce has led to the recent emergence of conducting business transactions using... Sample PDF
Latest Trends in Mobile Business
$37.50
Chapter 114
Leading Virtual Teams  (pages 835-841)
Dan Novak, Mihai C. Bocarnea
New forms of organizations, such as virtual teams who primarily conduct their work through electronic media, are becoming more common. With the... Sample PDF
Leading Virtual Teams
$37.50
Chapter 115
Gunilla Widén-Wulff
The Library 2.0 is a continuation of the development of digital libraries and user oriented digital information services such as MyLibrary. The 2.0... Sample PDF
Library 2.0 as a New Participatory Context
$37.50
Chapter 116
Joanna Berry
The introduction of the Internet and its rapid expansion in the 90s, coupled with technological advances in software and hardware, allowed the... Sample PDF
Live Music and Performances in a Virtual World
$37.50
Chapter 117
Anastasia S. Spiliopoulou, Ioannis Chochliouros, George K. Lalopoulos, Stergios P. Chochliouros
Recent European policies have very early identified (European Commission, 1999) the immense challenge for the European Union (EU) to promote various... Sample PDF
Local Loop Unbundling (LLU) Policies in the European Framework
$37.50
Chapter 118
Mahesh S. Raisinghani, Hassan Ghanem
A form of fiber-optic communication delivery in which an optical fiber is run directly onto the customers’ premises is called Fiber to the Premises... Sample PDF
A Managerial Analysis of Fiber Optic Communications
$37.50
Chapter 119
Luigi Proserpio
Interview with Anthony Davidson, SuperAguri F1 GP Driver (autosport.com, March 2, 2007): Q: Can you actually learn anything from the [F1 videogame]... Sample PDF
Managerial Computer Business Games
$37.50
Chapter 120
Martin Meißner, Sören W. Scholz, Ralf Wagner
Marketing research is the process of systematically gathering, analyzing, and interpreting data pertaining to the company’s market, customers, and... Sample PDF
Marketing Research Using Multimedia Technologies
$37.50
Chapter 121
Mario A. Maggioni, Mike Thelwall, Teodora Erika Uberti
The Internet is one of the newest and most powerful media that enables the transmission of digital information and communication across the world... Sample PDF
Measuring and Mapping the World Wide Web through Web Hyperlinks
$37.50
Chapter 122
Peter J. Natale
Contemporary organizations are drastically changing, in large part due to the development and application of newer communication technologies and... Sample PDF
Media Channel Preferences of Mobile Communities
$37.50
Chapter 123
Darko Galinec, Slavko Vidovic
For integration of two business functions or two business systems it is necessary to connect their business processes with application support and... Sample PDF
Methodological Framework and Application Integration Services in Enterprise Information Systems
$37.50
Chapter 124
Stefano Pace
The Internet has developed from an informative medium to a social environment where people meet together, exchange messages and emotions, and... Sample PDF
Methods and Issues for Research in Virtual Communities
$37.50
Chapter 125
Ioannis Chochliouros, Anastasia S. Spiliopoulou, Stergios P. Chochliouros
Dependability and security are rigorously related concepts that, however, differ for the specific proprieties they mainly concentrate on. In... Sample PDF
Methods for Dependability and Security Analysis of Large Networks
$37.50
Chapter 126
Sheng-Uei Guan
With the increasing usage of the Internet, electronic commerce (e-commerce) has been catching on fast in a lot of business areas. As e-commerce... Sample PDF
Mobile Agent Authentication and Authorization
$37.50
Chapter 127
Gundars Kaupins
This article summarizes the present and potential legal constraints of mobile computing and commerce and provides company policy suggestions... Sample PDF
Mobile Computing and Commerce Legal Implications
$37.50
Chapter 128
Lin Hui, Ye Lei
The birth of mobile geographic information service (GIS) is introduced first, which is coming from the value-added service requirements in third... Sample PDF
Mobile Geographic Information Services
$37.50
Chapter 129
Subhankar Dhar
In recent years, Web services have gained popularity in terms of applications and usage. A copious volume of literature has been published that... Sample PDF
Mobile Web Services for Mobile Commerce
$37.50
Chapter 130
Shiguo Lian
Since the beginning of 1990s, some multimedia standards (Joan, Didier, & Chad, 2003) related to image compression, video compression, or audio... Sample PDF
Multimedia Content Protection Technology
$37.50
Chapter 131
Janusz Swierzowicz
The development of information technology is particularly noticeable in the methods and techniques of data acquisition. Data can be stored in many... Sample PDF
Multimedia Data Mining Trends and Challenges
$37.50
Chapter 132
Multimedia Encryption  (pages 972-977)
Shujun Li
Multimedia technology becomes more and more popular in today’s digitized and networked world. Many multimedia-based services, such as pay-TV, remote... Sample PDF
Multimedia Encryption
$37.50
Chapter 133
Ralf Wagner, Martin Meißner
Multimedia technologies provide direct marketers with an incredible diversity of opportunities for communication to as well as with customers in a... Sample PDF
Multimedia for Direct Marketing
$37.50
Chapter 134
Qing Li, Yi Zhuang, Jun Yang, Yueting Zhuang
From late 1990s to early 2000s, the availability of powerful computing capability, large storage devices, high-speed networking, and especially the... Sample PDF
Multimedia Information Retrieval at a Crossroad
$37.50
Chapter 135
Multimedia Representation  (pages 995-1007)
Bo Yang
In recent years, the rapid expansion of multimedia applications, partly due to the exponential growth of the Internet, has proliferated over the... Sample PDF
Multimedia Representation
$37.50
Chapter 136
Momouh Khadraoui, Béat Hirsbrunner, D. Khadraoui, F. Meinköhn
Forms of broadcast media, such as TV and radio, are considered passive because the consumer simply receives the message and does not choose whether... Sample PDF
Multimedia Standards for iTV Technology
$37.50
Chapter 137
Armando Cirrincione
Multimedia technologies (MMT) are tools that make it possible to transmit information in a very large meaning, transforming them into knowledge... Sample PDF
Multimedia Technologies in Education
$37.50
Chapter 138
Samuel Rivas, Miguel Barreiro, Víctor M. Gulías
Multiplexing is the process of combining several independent signals to build another one from which it is possible to recover any of the original... Sample PDF
Multiplexing Digital Multimedia Data
$37.50
Chapter 139
Edward Dieterle
In the late 1970s, Richard Bartle and Roy Trubshaw of the University of Essex developed the first MUD (multi-user dungeon/domain/dimension... Sample PDF
Multi-User Virtual Environments for Teaching and Learning
$37.50
Chapter 140
Peter Murphy
What does the space created by the Internet look like? One answer to this question is to say that, because this space exists “virtually,” it cannot... Sample PDF
The N-Dimensional Geometry and Kinaesthetic Space of the Internet
$37.50
Chapter 141
Hakikur Rahman
For many reasons, the establishment of technology is crucial to socio-economic development, as well as increasing democratization of a nation. The... Sample PDF
Network Deployment for Social Benefits in Developing Countries
$37.50
Chapter 142
Jo-Mae B. Maris
Cross-discipline research requires researchers to understand many concepts outside their own discipline. Computing has increased in our everyday... Sample PDF
Network-Based Information System Model for Research
$37.50
Chapter 143
Guy Wood-Bradley
The relative infancy of digital television technology (and as a correlative, iTV, or, interactive television) in Australia offers an excellent... Sample PDF
A New Framework for Interactive Entertainment Technologies
$37.50
Chapter 144
David Lebow, Dale Lick, Hope Hartman
In an essay entitled, The Next Information Revolution, Peter Drucker (1997) compared the existing business environment to conditions in the... Sample PDF
New Technology for Empowering Virtual Communities
$37.50
Chapter 145
Abhijit Roy
Technology has enabled communities to move beyond the physical face-to-face contacts to the online realm of the World Wide Web. With the advent of... Sample PDF
Online Communities and Social Networking
$37.50
Chapter 146
Elizabeth Koh
Online education is growing rapidly. Online education is a Web-based form of education where students gain access to online materials and... Sample PDF
Online Education and Cultural Background
$37.50
Chapter 147
Online Privacy Issues  (pages 1086-1092)
Hy Sockel, Kuanchin Chen, Louis K. Falk
Businesses need to understand privacy conditions and implications to ensure that they are in compliance with legal constraints and do not step on... Sample PDF
Online Privacy Issues
$37.50
Chapter 148
Ontology and Multimedia  (pages 1093-1099)
Roberto Poli, Achilles Kameas, Lambrini Seremeti
Audiovisual resources in the form of still pictures, graphical, 3D models, audio, speech, and video play an increasing pervasive role in our lives... Sample PDF
Ontology and Multimedia
$37.50
Chapter 149
Colin Tattersall
Significant investments have been made by universities, colleges, distance learning providers, and corporate training departments in the area of... Sample PDF
An Open E-Learning Specification for Multiple Learners and Flexible Pedagogies
$37.50
Chapter 150
Emmanuel Udoh
The free or open source software (OSS) movement, pioneered by Richard Stallman in 1983, is gaining mainstream acceptance and challenging the... Sample PDF
Open Source Database Technologies
$37.50
Chapter 151
Ioannis Chochliouros, Anastasia S. Spiliopoulou, Stergios P. Chochliouros, George Agapiou
The tremendous growth in the mobile communications sector has had a profound technical, economic/business, and social impact in Europe and worldwide... Sample PDF
Opportunities and Challenges from Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) Technology
$37.50
Chapter 152
Joel J.P.C. Rodrigues, Mário M. Freire, Paulo P. Monteiro, Pascal Lorenz
The concept of burst switching was initially proposed in the context of voice communications by Haselton (1983) and Amstutz (1983, 1989) in the... Sample PDF
Optical Burst Switch as a New Switching Paradigm for High-Speed Internet
$37.50
Chapter 153
Darren P. Mundy, Oleksandr Otenko
Public key infrastructures (PKI) are now in place in a number of organizations and there is a vast amount of material available that can be used to... Sample PDF
An Overview of Privilege Management Infrastructure (PMI)
$37.50
Chapter 154
Peer-to-Peer Usage Analysis  (pages 1136-1141)
Florent Masseglia, Pascal Poncelet, Maguelonne Teisseire
With the huge number of information sources available on the Internet and the high dynamics of their data, peer-to-peer (P2P) systems propose a... Sample PDF
Peer-to-Peer Usage Analysis
$37.50
Chapter 155
George Lekakos, Konstantinos Chorianopoulos
The ability to deliver personalized advertising messages has long been a major objective in marketing since it allows marketers to meet... Sample PDF
Personalized Advertising Methods in Digital Interactive Television
$37.50
Chapter 156
Maria R. Lee
The number of cellular phone subscribers has reached a total of 5.6 million in Taiwan (NCC, 2007). Meanwhile, Internet users have reached a total of... Sample PDF
The Perspectives of Message-Based Service in Taiwan
$37.50
Chapter 157
Anxo Cereijo Roibás, Stephen Johnson
This article presents a research project carried out at the BT Mobility Research Center with the aim of developing appropriate applications for... Sample PDF
Pervasive iTV and Creative Networked Multimedia Systems
$37.50
Chapter 158
Carrison K.S. Tong, Eric T.T. Wong
For the past 100 years, film has been almost the exclusive medium for capturing, storing, and displaying radiographic images. Film is a fixed medium... Sample PDF
Picture Archiving and Communication System for Public Healthcare
$37.50
Chapter 159
Kenneth J. Turner
This article discusses the use of policies to control calls—whether in traditional telephony or in its more modern versions such as mobile telephony... Sample PDF
Policy-Based Management for Call Control
$37.50
Chapter 160
Spiros Louvros, Athanassios C. Iossifides
The role of transmission network design is diverse. Basically, it includes the preparation of transmission solutions for access and core (backbone)... Sample PDF
Polymer Optical Fibers (POF) Applications for Indoor Cell Coverage Transmission Infrastructure
$37.50
Chapter 161
Privacy Risk in E-Commerce  (pages 1188-1193)
Tziporah Stern
Privacy, or the right to hold information about oneself in secret (Masuda, 1979; O’Brien & Yasnof, 1999), has become increasingly important in the... Sample PDF
Privacy Risk in E-Commerce
$37.50
Chapter 162
Peter Murphy
The development of the “World Wide Web” has had a significant impact on the formation of public opinion in democratic societies. This impact... Sample PDF
Public Opinion and the Internet
$37.50
Chapter 163
Ivy Tan, Ravi Chandran
Rapid e-learning (REL) is a phrase in common use since 2003. This article defines REL, describes types of REL authoring tools, discusses management... Sample PDF
Rapid E-Learning in the University
$37.50
Chapter 164
Laurence Mukankusi, Jared Keengwe, Yao Amewokunu, Assion Lawson-Body
Information technology (IT) investments are justified based on average improvement in performance (Peacock & Tanniru, 2005). Firms rely on those... Sample PDF
Relationships between Wireless Technology Investment and Organizational Performance
$37.50
Chapter 165
Gábor Hosszú
The multimedia applications generally support one-tomany group communication. Multicasting decreases the communication costs for applications, which... Sample PDF
Reliability Issues of the Multicast-Based Mediacommunication
$37.50
Chapter 166
Sunand Bhattacharya, Jeremy Dunning, Abtar Kaur, David Daniels
Web-based distance learning is hampered in many cases by a failure to deliver material in a manner consistent with the ways in which students learn... Sample PDF
Re-Purposeable Learning Objects Based on Teaching and Learning Styles
$37.50
Chapter 167
Christian Kaspar
Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a radio-supported identification technology that typically operates by saving a serial number on a radio... Sample PDF
RFID Technologies and Applications
$37.50
Chapter 168
Stan Ruecker
Everyone who has browsed the Internet is familiar with the problems involved in finding what they want. From the novice to the most sophisticated... Sample PDF
Rich-Prospect Browsing Interfaces
$37.50
Chapter 169
Lech Janczewski
Developments in multimedia technology and in networking offer to organizations new and more effective ways of conducting their businesses. That... Sample PDF
Road Map to Information Security Management
$37.50
Chapter 170
Sören W. Scholz, Ralf Wagner
The term environmental scanning (ES) refers to the way in which managers study their relevant business environment. More precisely, we define ES as... Sample PDF
Scanning Multimedia Business Environments
$37.50
Chapter 171
Dilvan de Abreu Moreira, Elaine Quintino da Silva
In the last few years, education has been going through an important change: the introduction of information technology in the educational process.... Sample PDF
A Second Look at Improving Student Interaction with Internet and Peer Review
$37.50
Chapter 172
Pauline Ratnasingam
The increasing trend in the use of Internet-based emarketplace applications has created tremendous opportunities for businesses to manage effective... Sample PDF
A Security Framework for E-Marketplace Participation
$37.50
Chapter 173
Volker Hockmann, Heinz D. Knoell, Ernst L. Leiss
Web servers and the Web services associated with them have become increasingly important in the last few years. Online banking, e-mail, and money... Sample PDF
Security of Web Servers and Web Services
$37.50
Chapter 174
Semantic Web Services  (pages 1293-1298)
Juan Manuel Adán-Coello
Service-oriented computing (SOC) is a new computing paradigm that uses services as building blocks to accelerate the development of distributed... Sample PDF
Semantic Web Services
$37.50
Chapter 175
Chi Po Cheong
Credit card is the most popular payment method used in Internet shopping. The idea of credit card payment is to buy first and pay later. The... Sample PDF
A Simple and Secure Credit Card-Based Payment System
$37.50
Chapter 176
Gábor Hosszú
Internet streaming media changed the Web from a static medium into a multimedia platform, which supports audio and video content delivery. In our... Sample PDF
Simulation-Based Comparison of TCP and TCP-Friendly Protocols
$37.50
Chapter 177
Social Networking  (pages 1316-1326)
Kevin Curran
It is in man’s nature to form communities, and it is also in his nature to communicate. Psychologists hold that man is moved by instincts, desires... Sample PDF
Social Networking
$37.50
Chapter 178
Jürgen Dorn
Social software is a class of information systems supporting the establishment and management of online communities for people in performing certain... Sample PDF
Social Software (and Web 2.0)
$37.50
Chapter 179
Ramanjit Singh
Wikipedia is a free encyclopedia that operates worldwide on the Internet. Articles on Wikipedia are developed with close collaboration of volunteers... Sample PDF
Sociocultural Implications of Wikipedia
$37.50
Chapter 180
Kevin Curran
Spam in the computer does not simply mean ads. Spam is any message, article, or ad that repeats itself an unacceptable number of times so that it... Sample PDF
SPIT: Spam Over Internet Telephony
$37.50
Chapter 181
Omar El-Gayar, Kuanchin Chen
This chapter provides a brief overview of Web interactivity. It highlights current research findings on interactivity from several academic... Sample PDF
Status and Future Trends of Multimedia Interactivity on the Web
$37.50
Chapter 182
Evangelia M. Georgiadou, Ioannis Chochliouros, George Heliotis, Maria Belesioti
As the technological scene of the 21st century changes rapidly, new facts for telecom and networks are coming to the front. Users’ growing demands... Sample PDF
Strategies for Next Generation Networks Architectures
$37.50
Chapter 183
Timothy Teo, Jan Noyes
In the developed world, multimedia technologies, networks, and online services continue to pervade our everyday lives. Alongside the advancements in... Sample PDF
Teachers' Use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT)
$37.50
Chapter 184
Hyo-Jeong So, Bosung Kim
For the past decade, handheld devices with mobile and wireless capabilities have emerged as the next promising generation of technology for teaching... Sample PDF
Teaching and Learning with Mobile Technologies
$37.50
Chapter 185
Vasja Vehovar
Surveys—data collection based on standardized questionnaires— started with censuses thousands of years ago. However, it was only in the 1930s... Sample PDF
The Technological Revolution in Survey Data Collection
$37.50
Chapter 186
Teletranslation  (pages 1379-1386)
Minako O’Hagan
Translation as a form of language mediation is called upon to convert the source text written in one natural language into the target text in... Sample PDF
Teletranslation
$37.50
Chapter 187
Loreen Marie Powell
The advancements of technology have altered the way many small businesses operate in the United States of America (USA) (Butcher-Powell, 2006).... Sample PDF
Teleworker's Security Risks Minimized with Informal Online Information Technology Communities of Practice
$37.50
Chapter 188
Geraldine Torrisi-Steele
The notion of using technology for educational purposes is not new. In fact, it can be traced back to the early 1900s during which time school... Sample PDF
Theoretical Foundations for Educational Multimedia
$37.50
Chapter 189
Amy Sze Hui Eow, Jiayu Guo, Sheng-Uei Guan
Near field communication (NFC) is a new wireless connectivity technology that enables short-range communication between electronic devices. The... Sample PDF
Tourist Applications Made Easier Using Near Field Communication
$37.50
Chapter 190
Tanko Ishaya
Developments in the Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW) technologies have led to an evolving trend in Electronic learning (e-learning). E-learning... Sample PDF
Towards Management of Interoperable Learning Objects
$37.50
Chapter 191
Spiros Louvros
The last two decades, after the telecommunication and computer technology convergence, the world of telecommunication applications has changed... Sample PDF
Towards Unified Services in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks Based on Soft-Switch Platform
$37.50
Chapter 192
Ephrem Eyob
Telecommunications and networking, two prominent technologies of the information age, have enjoyed substantial investments from industry and... Sample PDF
Trends in Telecommunications and Networking in Secure E-Commerce Applications
$37.50
Chapter 193
Ubiquitous Commerce  (pages 1430-1435)
Holtjona Galanxhi-Janaqi
Ubiquitous commerce, also referred to as “u-commerce” or “über-commerce,” is the combination of electronic, wireless/mobile, television, voice, and... Sample PDF
Ubiquitous Commerce
$37.50
Chapter 194
Gaye Lightbody
The higher education environment is changing driven by the needs of its students, evolving into a combination of different approaches (blended... Sample PDF
Ubiquitous Mobile Learning in Higher Education
$37.50
Chapter 195
Sabira Khatun, Rashid A. Saeed, Nor Kamariah Nordin, Borhanuddin Mohd Ali
Ultra-wideband (UWB) is an alternative wireless communications technology that offers high bandwidth wireless communications without the constraints... Sample PDF
Ultra-Wideband Solutions for Last Mile Access Network
$37.50
Chapter 196
Calin Gurau
Electronic commerce requires the redefinition of the firm’s relationships with partners, suppliers, and customers. The goal of effective customer... Sample PDF
UML as an Essential Tool for Implementing eCRM Systems
$37.50
Chapter 197
Carlos Varela
Presently, there are three main ESG systems used in DVB-H (DVB, 2004) systems : 1. CBMS (DVB, 2006), promoted by the digital video broadcasting... Sample PDF
Unified Architecture for DVB-H Electronic Service Guide
$37.50
Chapter 198
Unified KS-Code  (pages 1473-1479)
M. K.A. Abdullah, S. A. Aljunid, M. D.A. Samad, S. B.A. Anas, R. K.Z. Sahbudin
Many codes have been proposed for optical CDMA system as discussed in Svetislav, Mari, Zoran, Kosti, and Titlebaum (1993), Salehi (1989), Liu and... Sample PDF
Unified KS-Code
$37.50
Chapter 199
Kuanchin Chen, Hy Sockel, Louis K. Falk
Usability is an acknowledged important aspect of any system or product design. Many times it is related to not only product features, but also... Sample PDF
Usability in Mobile Computing and Commerce
$37.50
Chapter 200
Christophe Cruz
Computer graphics have widely spread out into various computer applications. After the early wire-frame computer generated images of the 1960s... Sample PDF
Use of Semantics to Manage 3D Scenes in Web Platforms
$37.50
Chapter 201
John Fulcher
Much has changed in computer interfacing since the early days of computing—or has it? Admittedly, gone are the days of punched cards and/or paper... Sample PDF
User Interface Issues in Multimedia
$37.50
Chapter 202
Norhayati Zakaria
Many multinational companies (MNCs) have inevitably assembled and employed global virtual teams (GVTs) to leverage their work performance. GVTs are... Sample PDF
Using Computer Mediated Communication as a Tool to Facilitate Intercultural Collaboration of Global Virtual Teams
$37.50
Chapter 203
Video Ontology  (pages 1506-1511)
Jeongkyu Lee
There has been a great deal of interest in the development of ontology to facilitate knowledge sharing and database integration. In general... Sample PDF
Video Ontology
$37.50
Chapter 204
Virtual Communities  (pages 1512-1519)
George Kontolemakis
In recent years, computer-mediated communication has been the enabling factor for connecting people to one another and establishing “virtual... Sample PDF
Virtual Communities
$37.50
Chapter 205
Jamie S. Switzer
This article will focus on the characteristics of a technology- supported virtual community where university students can seek the guidance of... Sample PDF
Virtual Community Mentoring in Higher Education
$37.50
Chapter 206
The Virtual Public Sphere  (pages 1525-1530)
Robert A. Cropf
The public sphere does not exist and operate in the same way everywhere. Every country is different with regard to its own economic, social... Sample PDF
The Virtual Public Sphere
$37.50
Chapter 207
Virtual Reality in Medicine  (pages 1531-1536)
Michelle LaBrunda, Andrew LaBrunda
Virtual reality is a collection of technologies that enable people to use their senses to experience sensory input provided from a source other than... Sample PDF
Virtual Reality in Medicine
$37.50
Chapter 208
August-Wilhelm Scheer
The emergence of what we call today the World Wide Web, the WWW, or simply the Web, dates back to 1989 when Tim Berners-Lee proposed a hypertext... Sample PDF
Web 2.0 and Beyond-Participation Culture on the Web
$37.50
Chapter 209
Web Design Concept  (pages 1545-1550)
Ginger Rosenkrans
In 2005, the Internet became available to one billion people worldwide with about 845 million people using it regularly (Emarketer, 2006). The... Sample PDF
Web Design Concept
$37.50
Chapter 210
Murali Raman
This article presents the use of Wiki technology to support knowledge management efforts in an organizational setting. We begin by providing some... Sample PDF
Wiki Technology as a Knowledge Management System
$37.50
Chapter 211
WLAN Security Management  (pages 1558-1572)
Göran Pulkkis
In a wired local area network (LAN), the network ports and cables are mostly contained inside a building. Therefore, a hacker must defeat physical... Sample PDF
WLAN Security Management
$37.50
Chapter 212
Kevin Curran
A podcast is a Web feed containing audio or video files which is then placed on the Internet for anyone to download. What makes the podcast distinct... Sample PDF
The World of Podcasting, Screencasting, Blogging, and Videoblogging
$37.50
About the Editor