Optimal Diffusion Encoding Strategies for Fiber Mapping in Diffusion MRI

Optimal Diffusion Encoding Strategies for Fiber Mapping in Diffusion MRI

Dimitrios C. Karampinos (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA), Robert Dawe (Illinois Institute of Technology, USA), Konstantinos Arfanakis (Illinois Institute of Technology, USA) and John G. Georgiadis (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-314-2.ch007
OnDemand PDF Download:
$37.50

Abstract

Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (diffusion MRI) can provide important information about tissue microstructure by probing the diffusion of water molecules in a biological tissue. Although originally proposed for the characterization of cerebral white matter connectivity and pathologies, its implementation has extended to many other areas of the human body. In a parallel development, a number of diffusion models have been proposed in order to extract the underlying tissue microstructural properties from the diffusion MRI signal. The present study reviews the basic considerations that have to be taken into account in the selection of the diffusion encoding parameters in diffusion MRI acquisition. Both diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and high-order schemes are reviewed. The selection of these parameters relies strongly on requirements of the adopted diffusion model and the diffusion characteristics of the tissue under study. The authors review several successful parameter selection strategies for the imaging of the human brain, and conclude with the basics of parameter optimization on promising applications of the technique on other tissues, such as the spinal cord, the myocardium, and the skeletal muscles.
Chapter Preview
Top

Formulation

We introduce below the q-space formalism to describe the evolution of the transverse magnetization of the spins of protons of the water molecules. The prototypical diffusion MRI experiment is based on the pulsed-gradient spin-echo (PGSE) sequence, which uses two identical gradient pulses inserted on both sides of the 180º refocusing pulse of a conventional spin-echo sequence, following the formulation of Stejskal-Tanner (Stejskal & Tanner, 1965). A schematic of the PGSE sequence is given in Figure 1. The diffusion gradient is labeled g, the diffusion gradient duration δ, and the spacing between the diffusion gradients Δ. Since the diffusion gradient constitutes a vector quantity, it can be further described by the product of its amplitude g and a unit vector .

Figure 1.

Schematic representation of the pulsed-gradient spin-echo sequence.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Diffusion Spectrum Imaging (DSI): Method for the reconstruction of ensemble average propagator based on the 3D inverse Fourier transform of the complex echo attenuation signal in 3D q-space.

q-Space: Reciprocal vector space of average spins displacement.

Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC): Diffusion coefficient derived from the normalized diffusion signal along a specific encoding direction.

Pulsed-Gradient Spin-Echo (PGSE) Sequence: The basic diffusion-weighted spin-echo sequence employing two identical gradient pulses on both sides of the refocusing pulse.

High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI): Measurement of diffusion coefficient along a large number of non-collinear directions.

Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI): Basic diffusion model representing tissue diffusion as an anisotropic Gaussian diffusion process described by a second rank tensor.

q-Ball Imaging (QBI): Method for the reconstruction of the orientation distribution function from diffusion measurements taken on a sphere in q-space based on the Funk-Radon transform.

Fractional Anisotropy (FA): Metric of the anisotropy of the diffusion tensor in DTI.

b Value: Variable expressing the amount of diffusion-weighting on a diffusion MRI experiment.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book:
Reset
Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Preface
Themis P. Exarchos, Athanasios Papadopoulos, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
Chapter 1
Ioannis Dimou, Michalis Zervakis, David Lowe, Manolis Tsiknakis
The automation of diagnostic tools and the increasing availability of extensive medical datasets in the last decade have triggered the development... Sample PDF
Computational Methods and Tools for Decision Support in Biomedicine: An Overview of Algorithmic Challenges
$37.50
Chapter 2
William Hsu, Alex A.T. Bui, Ricky K. Taira, Hooshang Kangarloo
Though an unparalleled amount and diversity of imaging and clinical data are now collected as part of routine care, this information is not... Sample PDF
Integrating Imaging and Clinical Data for Decision Support
$37.50
Chapter 3
Spyretta Golemati, John Stoitsis, Konstantina S. Nikita
The estimation of motion of the myocardial and arterial wall is important for the quantification of tissue elasticity and contractility and has... Sample PDF
Analysis and Quantification of Motion within the Cardiovascular System: Implications for the Mechanical Strain of Cardiovascular Structures
$37.50
Chapter 4
Christos V. Bourantas, Katerina Naka, Dimitrios Fotiadis, Lampros Michalis
Intracoronary Ultrasound (ICUS) imaging is an intravascular catheter-based technique which provides real-time, high resolution, cross-sectional... Sample PDF
New Developments in Intracoronary Ultrasound Processing
$37.50
Chapter 5
Stavroula Mougiakakou, Ioannis Valavanis, Alexandra Nikita, Konstantina S. Nikita
Recent advances in computer science provide the intelligent computation tools needed to design and develop Diagnostic Support Systems (DSSs) that... Sample PDF
Diagnostic Support Systems and Computational Intelligence: Differential Diagnosis of Hepatic Lesions from Computed Tomography Images
$37.50
Chapter 6
Marotesa Voultsidou, J. Michael Herrmann
Indicative features of an fMRI data set can be evaluated by methods provided by theory of random matrices (RMT). RMT considers ensembles of matrices... Sample PDF
Significance Estimation in fMRI from Random Matrices
$37.50
Chapter 7
Dimitrios C. Karampinos, Robert Dawe, Konstantinos Arfanakis, John G. Georgiadis
Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (diffusion MRI) can provide important information about tissue microstructure by probing the diffusion of water... Sample PDF
Optimal Diffusion Encoding Strategies for Fiber Mapping in Diffusion MRI
$37.50
Chapter 8
Dimitrios G. Tsalikakis, Petros S. Karvelis, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
Segmentation plays a crucial role in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) applications, since it permits automated detection of regions of... Sample PDF
Segmentation of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Images
$37.50
Chapter 9
Katia Marina Passera, Luca Tommaso Mainardi
Image registration is the process of determining the correspondence of features between images collected at different times or using different... Sample PDF
Image Registration Algorithms for Applications in Oncology
$37.50
Chapter 10
Lena Costaridou, Spyros Skiadopoulos, Anna Karahaliou, Nikolaos Arikidis, George Panayiotakis
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Mammography is currently the most effective modality in detecting breast cancer... Sample PDF
Computer-Aided Diagnosis in Breast Imaging: Trends and Challenges
$37.50
Chapter 11
E. Kyriacou, C.I. Christodoulou, C. Loizou, M.S. Pattichis, C.S. Pattichis, S. Kakkos
Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the Western world and a major cause of disability in adults. The objective of this work was to... Sample PDF
Assessment of Stroke by Analysing Cartoid Plaque Morphology
$37.50
Chapter 12
Marios Neofytou, Constantinos Pattichis, Vasilios Tanos, Marios Pattichis, Eftyvoulos Kyriacou
The objective of this chapter is to propose a quantitative hysteroscopy imaging analysis system in gynaecological cancer and to provide the current... Sample PDF
Quantitative Analysis of Hysteroscopy Imaging in Gynecological Cancer
$37.50
Chapter 13
Thomas V. Kilindris, Kiki Theodorou
Patient anatomy, biochemical response, as well functional evaluation at organ level, are key fields that produce a significant amount of multi modal... Sample PDF
Combining Geometry and Image in Biomedical Systems: The RT TPS Case
$37.50
Chapter 14
Ioannis Tsougos, George Loudos, Panagiotis Georgoulias, Konstantina S. Nikita, Kiki Theodorou
Quantitative three-dimensional nuclear medical imaging plays a continuously increasing role in radionuclide dosimetry, allowing the development of... Sample PDF
Internal Radionuclide Dosimetry using Quantitative 3-D Nuclear Medical Imaging
$37.50
Chapter 15
Evanthia E. Tripoliti, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis, Konstantia Veliou
Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modality which can significantly improve our understanding of the brain... Sample PDF
Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Fiber Tractography
$37.50
Chapter 16
Anastasios Koutlas, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
The aim of this chapter is to analyze the recent advances in image processing and machine learning techniques with respect to facial expression... Sample PDF
Image Processing and Machine Learning Techniques for Facial Expression Recognition
$37.50
Chapter 17
Arcangelo Merla
This chapter presents an overview on recent developments in the field of clinical applications of the functional infrared imaging. The functional... Sample PDF
Developments and Advances in Biomedical Functional Infrared Imaging
$37.50
Chapter 18
Aristotelis Chatziioannou, Panagiotis Moulos
The completion of the Human Genome Project and the emergence of high-throughput technologies at the dawn of the new millennium, are rapidly changing... Sample PDF
DNA Microarrays: Analysis and Interpretation
$37.50
Chapter 19
Nikolaos Giannakeas, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
Microarray technology allows the comprehensive measurement of the expression level of many genes simultaneously on a common substrate. Typical... Sample PDF
Image Processing and Machine Learning Techniques for the Segmentation of cDNA
$37.50
Chapter 20
Petros S. Karvelis, Dimitrios I. Fotiadis
Automated chromosome analysis is now becoming routine in most human cytogenetics laboratories. It involves both processing and analysis of digital... Sample PDF
Recent Advances in Automated Chromosome Image Analysis
$37.50
Chapter 21
O. Lezoray, G. Lebrun, C. Meurie, C. Charrier, A. Elmotataz, M. Lecluse
The segmentation of microscopic images is a challenging application that can have numerous applications ranging from prognosis to diagnosis.... Sample PDF
Machine Learning in Morphological Segmentation
$37.50
Chapter 22
Michael Haefner, Alfred Gangl, Michael Liedlgruber, A. Uhl, Andreas Vecsei, Friedrich Wrba
Wavelet-, Fourier-, and spatial domain-based texture classification methods have been used successfully for classifying zoom-endoscopic colon images... Sample PDF
Pit Pattern Classification Using Multichannel Features and Multiclassification
$37.50
Chapter 23
C. Papaodysseus, P. Rousopoulos, D. Arabadjis, M. Panagopoulos, P. Loumou
In this chapter the state of the art is presented in the domain of automatic identification and classification of bodies on the basis of their... Sample PDF
Automatic Identification and Elastic Properties of Deformed Objects Using their Microscopic Images
$37.50
Chapter 24
Alexia Giannoula, Richard S.C. Cobbold
“Elastography” or “elasticity imaging” can be defined as the science and methodology of estimating the mechanical properties of a medium (including... Sample PDF
Nonlinear Ultrasound Radiation-Force Elastography
$37.50
Chapter 25
Valentina Russo, Roberto Setola
The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview about models and methodologies used for the Dynamic Contrast Enhancement (DCE) analysis. DCE is a... Sample PDF
Dynamic Contrast Enhancement: Analysis's Models and Methodologies
$37.50
Chapter 26
George K. Matsopoulos
The accurate estimation of point correspondences is often required in a wide variety of medical image processing applications including image... Sample PDF
Automatic Correspondence Methods towards Point-Based Medical Image Registration: An Evaluation Study
$37.50
Chapter 27
Alberto Taboada-Crispi, Hichem Sahli, Denis Hernandez-Pacheco, Alexander Falcon-Ruiz
Various approaches have been taken to detect anomalies, with certain particularities in the medical image scenario, linked to other terms... Sample PDF
Anomaly Detection in Medical Image Analysis
$37.50
Chapter 28
C. Delgorge-Rosenberger, C. Rosenberger
The authors present in this chapter an overview on evaluation of medical image compression. The different methodologies used in the literature are... Sample PDF
Evaluation of Medical Image Compression
$37.50
Chapter 29
Charalampos Doukas, Ilias Maglogiannis
Medical images are often characterized by high complexity and consist of high resolution image files, introducing thus several issues regarding... Sample PDF
Advanced ROI Coding Techniques for Medical Imaging
$37.50
Chapter 30
Farhang Sahba
Ultrasound imaging now has widespread clinical use. It involves exposing a part of the body to highfrequency sound waves in order to generate images... Sample PDF
Segmentation Methods in Ultrasound Images
$37.50
About the Editors
About the Contributors