An Overview of Models and Standards of Processes in the SE, SwE, and IS Disciplines

An Overview of Models and Standards of Processes in the SE, SwE, and IS Disciplines

Manuel Mora (Autonomous University of Aguascalientes, Mexico), Ovsei Gelman (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico), Rory O’Connor (Dublin City University, Ireland), Francisco Alvarez (Autonomous University of Aguascalientes, Mexico) and Jorge Macías-Luévano (Autonomous University of Aguascalientes, Mexico)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-008-0.ch021
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Abstract

This chapter develops a descriptive-conceptual overview of the main models and standards of processes formulated in the systems engineering (SE), software engineering (SwE) and information systems (IS) disciplines. Given the myriad of models and standards reported, the convergence suggested for the SE and SwE models and standards and the increasing complexity of the modern information systems, we argue that these ones become relevant in the information systems discipline. Firstly, we report the rationale for having models and standards of processes in SE, SwE and IS. Secondly, we review their main characteristics. Thirdly, based on the identified aims and principles, we report and posit the concepts of process, system and service as conceptual building blocks for describing such models and standards. Finally, initial theoretical and practical implications for the information systems discipline of such models and standards are discussed, as well as recommendations for further research are suggested.
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Introduction

The manufacturing of products and the provision of services in the modern world has increased process engineering (including manufacturing or provision) and process managerial complexity (Boehm & Lane, 2006). The engineering complexity has been raised because of the variety of design, manufacturing or provision process, machines and tools, materials and system-component designs, as well as for the high-quality, cost-efficiency relationships, and value expectations demanded from the competitive worldwide markets. The process managerial complexity has increased because of disparate business internal and external process must be coordinated. To meet the time to market, competitive prices, market sharing, distribution scope and environmental and ethical organizational objectives, among others financial and strategic organizational objectives contribute to increased organizational pressures and organizational complexity (Farr & Buede, 2003).

Such process engineering and/or managerial complexity is manifested in: (1) the critical failures of enterprises information systems implementations (CIO UK, 2007; Ewusi, 1997; Standish Group, 2003), (2) the unexpected appearance of large batches of defective products that have had a proved high-quality image for decades, and (3) the increasing of system downtimes and/or low efficiency and effectiveness in critical services such: electricity, nuclear plants, health services and governmental services (Bar-Yam, 2003).

Organizations with global and large-scale operations have fostered the exchange of the best organizational practices (Arnold & Lawson, 2004). The purpose is to improve business processes and avoid critical failures in the manufacturing of products and provision of services. Best practices have been documented (via a deep redesign, analysis, discussion, evaluation, authorization, and updating of organizational activities) through models and/or standards of process by international organizations for the disciplines of systems engineering (SE), software engineering (SwE) and information systems (IS). Some models and standards come from organizations with a global scope, like the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) but others limit their influences in some countries or regions, like the US-based Software Engineering Institute (SEI). Whilst both types of organizations can differ in their geographic scopes, both keep a similar efficacy purpose: to make available a set of generic process (technical, managerial, support and enterprise) that come from the best international practices to correct and improve their organizational process, with the expected outcome being improved quality, value and cost-efficiency issues with respect to the software products and services generated.

However, because of the myriad of models and standards reported in the three disciplines, the convergence suggested for SE and SwE engineering process, models and/or standards (Boehm 2000; Hecht, 1999; ISO, 2006c; ISO, in press; Sommerville, 1998; Thayer, 1997) and the increasing complexity of the modern information systems (Mora et al, 2008), we argue that these models and standards of processes become relevant in the Information Systems discipline. Then, in this chapter we develop a conceptual description (Glass, Armes & Vessey, 2004; Mora, 2004) of the main models and standards of processes formulated in the SE, SwE and IS disciplines with the general purpose to identify aims, purposes, characteristics, and core building-block concepts. Firstly, we report the rationale for having models and standards of processes in such disciplines. Secondly, we review their main characteristics. Thirdly, based in the identified aims and principles, we report and posit the concepts of process, system and service as the conceptual building-blocks for describing such models and standards. Finally, initial theoretical and practical implications for the Information Systems discipline of such models and standards are discussed, as well as recommendations for further research are suggested.

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Wim Van Grembergen
Preface
Aileen Cater-Steel
Acknowledgment
Aileen Cater-Steel
Chapter 1
Sherrena Buckby, Peter Best, Jenny Stewart
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Chapter 2
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Chapter 3
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IT Governance: A Critical Review of the Literature
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Chapter 4
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Adoption and Implementation of IT Governance: Cases from Australian Higher Education
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Chapter 5
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This chapter examines the potential to use an audit program based on the Control Objectives for Information and related Technologies (CobiT)... Sample PDF
Tailoring CobiT for Public Sector IT Audit: An Australian Case Study
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Chapter 6
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Comprehensive Architecture Rationalization and Engineering
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Chapter 7
Junghoon Lee, Jungwoo Lee, Ja Young Lee
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A Comparative Case Study of Three Korean Firms: Applying an IT Governance Framework
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Chapter 8
Breanna O’Donohue, Graeme Pye, Matthew J. Warren
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The Impact of ICT Governance within Australian Companies
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Chapter 9
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Improving ICT Governance: A Radical Restructure Using CobiT and ITIL
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Chapter 10
Brian Cusack
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Chapter 11
Michael A. Borth, Randy V. Bradley
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Unexplored Linkages between Corporate Governance and IT Governance: An Evaluation and Call to Research
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Chapter 12
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I-Fit: Optimizing the Fit between Business and IT
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Chapter 13
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Chapter 14
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Chapter 15
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Chapter 16
Anne C. Rouse
This chapter considers the governance issues raised by the increasing use of external parties to supply IT resources (including packaged enterprise... Sample PDF
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Chapter 17
Muralidharan Ramakrishnan
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IT Portfolio Management: A Pragmatic Approach to Implement IT Governance
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Chapter 18
Andrew Dowse, Edward Lewis
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Chapter 19
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Implementing IT Service Management: Lessons Learned from a University IT Department
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Chapter 20
Neil McBride
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Chapter 21
Manuel Mora, Ovsei Gelman, Rory O’Connor, Francisco Alvarez, Jorge Macías-Luévano
This chapter develops a descriptive-conceptual overview of the main models and standards of processes formulated in the systems engineering (SE)... Sample PDF
An Overview of Models and Standards of Processes in the SE, SwE, and IS Disciplines
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Chapter 22
Claus-Peter Praeg, Dieter Spath
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Perspectives of IT-Service Quality Management: A Concept for Life Cycle Based Quality Management of IT-Services
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Chapter 23
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Measuring Return on Investment from Implementing ITIL: A Review of the Literature
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Chapter 24
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