P2P Information Lookup, Collection, and Distribution in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

P2P Information Lookup, Collection, and Distribution in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

Raphaël Kummer (University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland), Peter Kropf (University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland) and Pascal Felber (University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-715-7.ch001
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The most important characteristics of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) such as broadcast and multihop communication, limited resources (particularly energy) and physical proximity are often ignored in solutions being proposed for information lookup and distribution. Thus, many lookup approaches rely on unstructured algorithms using flooding techniques, while content distribution mechanisms frequently generate inefficient multicast trees without considering the presence of nodes that are involved only as relays and are not interested in the distributed content. In this chapter, the authors present a multicast algorithm designed to build efficient multicast trees in MANETs that strive to limit the number of relay nodes and transmissions required. This distribution infrastructure relies on a lightweight distributed hash table (DHT) specifically adapted to MANETs, and exploits the physical proximity of nodes and broadcast communication. The algorithmic efficiency and scalability are evaluated by means of simulations for various network sizes and configurations.
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Wireless technologies have become ubiquitous, providing improved connectivity in urban areas and also allowing outlying areas to connect to information networks. Now almost everyone makes use of wireless technologies to surf the web using portable phones or computers. The well-known applications they rely on are spread over wide areas and the number of service access points has increased exponentially.

In addition to phone calls and web surfing, many other applications are available on wireless enabled devices. They may take the form of ad-hoc networks requiring no specific infrastructures such as access points, and where these devices produce a self-organized mesh network in which each node able to communicate directly with its closest physical neighbors.

Despite the various types of devices and communication standards on which they are based, networking infrastructures and devices are all subject to the same limitations. The main concerns are limited resources and energy, and also practicality, such as movement and deployment almost anywhere. Most often the devices are small, simple and battery powered, and make use of limited resources (i.e., memory and CPU). Related to these, communications generate non-negligible costs leading to an overall reduction in network lifetimes. At this time, communication between remote nodes requires multiple hops via relay nodes, because nodes can only communicate directly with their physical neighbors (i.e., the nodes located in its communication range), although they may listen to all the messages transiting within its physical neighborhood.

As new devices with ad-hoc networking capacities and enhanced resources become developed their use is extended well beyond original functions related to wide-area monitoring. New developments now allow information lookup and multicasting, requiring novel and efficient solutions.

The focus in this chapter is lookup and multicasting mechanisms able to efficiently locate and distribute information in mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs). The basic concept applied to achieve these objectives involves peer-to-peer (P2P) paradigms, which can be roughly classified as either structured or unstructured.

Unstructured approaches such as Gnutella or KaZaA (Kirk, 2003; KaZaA, 2008) typically have neither control over topology nor file placement, meaning they often rely on locating data by simply flooding the network and thus overloading it. Unstructured approaches such as these have not been adapted for MANETs because locating the desired content involves too many transmissions and too much energy. Moreover, scaling them can prove difficult (Oliveira et al., 2005).

Structured solutions on the other hand consist of specialized placement algorithms designed to assign the responsibility for each content unit (file) to a specific node and then efficiently locate the files using directed search protocols, requiring only limited communication. They are mostly based on distributed hash tables (DHTs) that locate each item and node by means of a unique key identity, producing a logical space. The nodes are thus arranged according to their logical key and are only responsible for an item located at the smallest logical distance from them. Another feature is provided so that a node responsible for a specific key can be located without flooding and without producing false negatives (i.e., a search fails only if no matching file exists in the system).

Well known solutions developed, including the Chord (Stoica, Morris, Karger, Kaashoek, & Balakrishnan, 2001), Pastry (Rowstron & Druschel, 2001) or CAN (Ratnasamy, Francis, Handley, Karp, & Schenker, 2001) are not, however, suitable for ad-hoc networks, because they do not consider a node’s physical locations when creating the logical overlay network. Given this fundamental gap between logical and physical spaces, the ad-hoc network becomes overloaded because service messages need to maintain the logical neighborhood through expensive multiple hop paths, thus making simple mapping from a DHT design to ad-hoc networks unrealistic.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Boon-Chong Seet
Chapter 1
Raphaël Kummer, Peter Kropf, Pascal Felber
The most important characteristics of mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) such as broadcast and multihop communication, limited resources (particularly... Sample PDF
P2P Information Lookup, Collection, and Distribution in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks
Chapter 2
Thomas Repantis, Vana Kalogeraki
In this chapter the authors study the problems of data dissemination and query routing in mobile peerto- peer networks. They provide a taxonomy and... Sample PDF
Data Dissemination and Query Routing in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Networks
Chapter 3
Jie Feng, Lisong Xu, Byrav Ramamurthy
With the evolution of wireless technologies, mobile networks can provide much more interesting services and resources to users than before.... Sample PDF
Overlay Construction in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Networks
Chapter 4
Thomas Kunz, Abdulbaset Gaddah, Li Li
Peer-to-Peer computing is a popular, relatively new, distributed computing paradigm. It allows for a flexible set of participants to coordinate... Sample PDF
Mobility Support in a P2P System for Publish/Subscribe Applications
Chapter 5
Leonardo B. Oliveira, Isabela G. Siqueira, Daniel F. Macedo, José M. Nogueira, Antonio A.F. Loureiro
Both Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) and Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks are decentralized self-organizing networks with a dynamic topology, used to... Sample PDF
P2P over MANETs: Application and Network Layers' Routing Assessment
Chapter 6
Fotis Loukos, Helen Karatza
Mobile Peer-to-Peer networks are an emerging topic in networking. One of the major usages is the cooperation between peers. The aim of this chapter... Sample PDF
Enabling Cooperation in MANET-Based Peer-to-Peer Systems
Chapter 7
Tobias Hoßfeld, Daniel Schlosser, Kurt Tutschku, Phuoc Tran-Gia
The performance of P2P content distribution in cellular networks depends highly on the cooperation and coordination of heterogeneous and often... Sample PDF
Cooperation Strategies for P2P Content Distribution in Cellular Mobile Networks: Considering Selfishness and Heterogeneity
Chapter 8
Tobias Hoßfeld, Michael Duelli, Dirk Staehle, Phuoc Tran-Gia
The performance of P2P content distribution in cellular networks depends highly on the cooperation and coordination of heterogeneous and often... Sample PDF
Cooperation Strategies for P2P Content Distribution in Cellular Mobile Networks: Considering Mobility and Heterogeneity
Chapter 9
Wei Wu, Kian-Lee Tan
Caching and prefetching are two effective ways for mobile peers to improve access latency in mobile environments. With short-range communication... Sample PDF
Peer-Based Collaborative Caching and Prefetching in Mobile Broadcast
Chapter 10
Mark Kai-Ho Yeung, Yu-Kwong Kwok
The widespread deployment of competing wireless technologies has created new research opportunities. In particular, the authors consider media... Sample PDF
Wireless Peer-to-Peer Media Streaming: Incentives and Resource Management Issues
Chapter 11
Panayotis Antoniadis
The goal of this chapter is to analyze the incentive issues that arise in multi-hop ad hoc networks when their nodes are potentially mobile devices... Sample PDF
Incentives for Resource Sharing in Ad Hoc Networks: Going Beyond Rationality
Chapter 12
Johann van der Merwe, Dawoud Dawoud
Group communication in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) generally occurs in the form of dynamic peer groups (DPGs). This chapter reviews the existing... Sample PDF
Key Management for Dynamic Peer Groups in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Chapter 13
James Walkerdine, Peter Phillips, Simon Lock
The growth of mobile devices with near PC equivalent capabilities has brought with it the possibility of mobile Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems. However... Sample PDF
A Tool Supported Methodology for Developing Secure Mobile P2P Systems
Chapter 14
Spyridon L. Tompros
Enabled by the emergence of high-speed Internet access in last mile communications, P2P systems have witnessed significant growth in the recent... Sample PDF
Integration and Interworking of Fixed and Mobile P2P Systems
Chapter 15
Erkki Harjula, Jani Hautakorpi, Nicklas Beijar, Mika Ylianttila
Due to the increasing popularity of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) computing, the information technology industry and standardization organizations have started... Sample PDF
Peer-to-Peer SIP for Mobile Computing: Challenges and Solutions
Chapter 16
Kurt Tutschku, Andreas Berl, Tobias Hossfeld, Hermann de Meer
The telecommunication industry has recently seen two areas with very high growth rates: cellular networks, for example, GSM (Global System for... Sample PDF
Mobile P2P in Cellular Mobile Networks: Architecture and Performance
Chapter 17
Norihiro Ishikawa, Hiromitsu Sumino, Takeshi Kato, Johan Hjelm, Shingo Murakami, Kazuhiro Kitagawa, Nobuo Saito
Compared with traditional Internet technologies, peer-to-peer technologies has functions to realize resource discovery, resource sharing, and load... Sample PDF
Peer-to-Peer Networking Platform and Its Applications for Mobile Phones
Chapter 18
Raphaël Kummer, Peter Kropf, Jean-Frédéric Wagen, Timothée Maret
Many innovative P2P algorithms designed for mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) have been designed to scale smoothly when handling a very large number... Sample PDF
Evaluation Platform for Large Scale P2P Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
Chapter 19
Alf Inge Wang
This chapter presents the Peer2Me mobile peer-to-peer framework, Peer2Me applications, and discusses the experiences from using the Peer2Me... Sample PDF
Mobile Peer-to-Peer Collaborative Framework and Applications
Chapter 20
Antônio Tadeu A. Gomes, Artur Ziviani, Luciana S. Lima, Markus Endler
This chapter surveys the approaches to service discovery that are relevant to mobile peer-to-peer systems in a variety of scenarios. More... Sample PDF
Service Discovery Approaches to Mobile Peer-to-Peer Computing
Chapter 21
Marco Conti, Franca Delmastro, Andrea Passarella
Recently, the popularity of p2p computing paradigm has been increasing, especially in the mobile environments, due to the large use of mobile... Sample PDF
Context-Aware P2P Over Opportunistic Networks
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