P2PTunes: A Peer-to-Peer Digital Rights Management System

P2PTunes: A Peer-to-Peer Digital Rights Management System

Ramya Venkataramu (Hewlett-Packard Company, USA) and Mark Stamp (San Jose State University, USA)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 20
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-262-6.ch008
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Abstract

Digital Rights Management (DRM) technology is used to control access to copyrighted digital content. Apple employs a DRM system known as Fairplay in its iTunes online music store. Users communicate with the centralized iTunes server to download, purchase, play, and preview digital content. The iTunes music store has the potential disadvantage of a bandwidth bottleneck at the centralized server. Furthermore, this bandwidth bottleneck problem will escalate with increasing popularity of online music and other digital media, such as video. In this chapter, we analyze the Fairplay DRM system. We then consider a modified architecture that can be employed over existing peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. Our new system, P2PTunes, is designed to provide the benefits of a decentralized P2P network while providing DRM content protection that is at least as strong as that found in Fairplay.
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Introduction

The success of the Apple iPod and associated iTunes music store has made Apple, Inc., a dominant company in both the online media distribution business and the digital media player market (Chandak 2005). The iPod is a portable digital media player which supports the Advanced Audio Coding (AAC), the Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG-1) Audio Layer-3 (MP3), Waveform Audio (WAV), and Audible formats (Apple 2006). The iTunes online store allows users to purchase digital media content. A proprietary software application—also known as iTunes—is used to connect to the iTunes online store to download digital content. The iTunes software is used to manage play lists among computers and iPods, and to play digital content on Windows computers, Macintosh computers, and the iPod.

Fairplay is a digital right management (DRM) technology used to protect digital content purchased from the iTunes online store. As with most DRM systems, the purpose of Fairplay is to place restrictions on the uses of copyrighted content.

For DRM, the required level of protection is much different than in most typical security applications. Many security applications simply require that data be securely transmitted from point-to-point, and for such applications, standard techniques from the fields of cryptography and security protocols suffice (Stamp 2006). However, in DRM the situation is much different, since the protection (e.g., usage restrictions) must stay with the content after it has been successfully delivered to the legitimate recipient. This additional level of security required in DRM is often known as persistent protection (Stamp 2006), since some level of protection must persist after successful delivery of the bits.

In the DRM context, the legitimate recipient is a potential attacker and, consequently, achieving any meaningful level of persistent protection is not a trivial task. In fact, it is impossible to ensure persistent protection if the content is accessible on an open platform (such as a modern PC) where the recipient has full administrative privilege. Therefore, we cannot expect a level of security comparable to, say, cryptography from a DRM system such as Fairplay. Instead, the test for such a system is whether a successful business model can be built on top of the inherently weak DRM protection (Stamp 2003). By this criteria, Fairplay is a highly successful DRM system, in spite of the known attacks that we discuss in Section 3.

The iTunes online store and Fairplay DRM employ a centralized server to distribute content and enforce the persistent protection on downloaded media. Any content distribution system based on a centralized server model has the potential disadvantage of a bandwidth bottleneck. Furthermore, as the number of users accessing the online store grows and the size of digital content increases (video requires much more bandwidth than music) additional strain will be placed on the central server (Kalker, et. al., 2004).

We believe that the centralized iTunes online music service may be improved by redesigning it to operate within a peer-to-peer (P2P) network. Such a system would make more effective use of available storage and bandwidth, since a P2P system can harness idle storage and network resources from client machines that voluntarily join the network (Rodrigues, Liskov, and Shrira 2002).

Key Terms in this Chapter

P2PTunes: Is designed to provide the benefits of a decentralized P2P network while providing DRM content protection that is at least as strong as that found in Fairplay. P2PTunes can operate over any existing P2P network.

Peer-to-Peer Networks (P2P): A P2P network consists of a number of networked computers, often connected in an ad-hoc fashion. Each peer can function as a server (content provider) or a client (content consumer), or both simultaneously. P2P architectures can be classified as either centralized or decentralized.

iTunes: A proprietary software application which is used to connect to the iTunes online store to download digital content. The iTunes software is used to manage play lists among computers and iPods, and to play digital content on Windows computers, Macintosh computers, and the iPod.

Fairplay: A digital right management (DRM) technology used to protect digital content purchased from the iTunes online store. As with most DRM systems, the purpose of Fairplay is to place restrictions on the uses of copyrighted content.

Digital Rights Management (DRM): Consists of the methods used to control access to copyrighted digital content.

Complete Chapter List

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Foreword
Borko Furht
Preface
Shiguo Lian, Yan Zhang
Acknowledgment
Shiguo Lian, Yan Zhang
Chapter 1
Pramod A. Jamkhedkar, Gregory L. Heileman
Rights expression languages (RELs) form a central component of digital rights management (DRM) systems. The process of development of RELs... Sample PDF
Rights Expression Languages
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Chapter 2
Deepali Brahmbhatt, Mark Stamp
This chapter presents a digital rights management (DRM) system designed for streaming media. A brief, general introduction to DRM is also provided... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management for Streaming Media
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Chapter 3
Jean-Henry Morin
This chapter introduces and discusses much needed alternatives to the traditional either/or debate on total security of secure multimedia... Sample PDF
Rethinking DRM Using Exception Management
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Chapter 4
Mercè Serra Joan, Bert Greevenbosch, Anja Becker, Harald Fuchs
This chapter gives an overview of the Open Mobile AllianceTM Digital Rights Management (OMA DRM) standard, which allows for the secure distribution... Sample PDF
Overview of OMA Digital Rights Management
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Chapter 5
Hugo Jonker, Sjouke Mauw
The use of Digital Rights Management (DRM) systems involves several stakeholders, such as the content provider, the license provider, and the user... Sample PDF
Discovering the Core Security Requirements of DRM Systems by Means of Objective Trees
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Chapter 6
Pallavi Priyadarshini, Mark Stamp
Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks have proliferated and become ubiquitous. A school of thought has emerged that harnessing the established user-base and... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management for Untrusted Peer-to-Peer Networks
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Chapter 7
L. Badia, A. Erta, U. Malesci
Traditional analog video surveillance systems technology has recently become inadequate to face the massive demand of security systems consisting of... Sample PDF
Pervasive Video Surveillance Systems Over TCP/IP Networks
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Chapter 8
Ramya Venkataramu, Mark Stamp
Digital Rights Management (DRM) technology is used to control access to copyrighted digital content. Apple employs a DRM system known as Fairplay in... Sample PDF
P2PTunes: A Peer-to-Peer Digital Rights Management System
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Chapter 9
Nicolas Anciaux, Luc Bouganim, Philippe Pucheral
This chapter advocates the convergence between Access Control (AC) models, focusing on the granularity of sharing, and Digital Right Management... Sample PDF
A Hardware Approach for Trusted Access and Usage Control
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Chapter 10
Ionut Florescu
Regarding fundamental protocols in cryptography, the Diffie-Hellman (Diffie and Hellman, 1976) public key exchange protocol is one of the oldest and... Sample PDF
A Summary of Recent and Old Results on the Security of the Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Protocol in Finite Groups
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Chapter 11
Guojun Wang, Yirong Wu, Geyong Min, Ronghua Shi
Secret sharing aims at distributing and sharing a secret among a group of participants efficiently. In this chapter, we propose a plane-based access... Sample PDF
Secret Sharing with k-Dimensional Access Structure
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Chapter 12
Supavadee Aramvith, Rhandley D. Cajote
Presently, both wireless communications and multimedia communications have experienced unequaled rapid growth and commercial success. Building on... Sample PDF
Wireless Video Transmission
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Chapter 13
M. Hassan Shirali-Shahreza, Mohammad Shirali-Shahreza
Establishing hidden communication is an important subject of discussion that has gained increasing importance recently, particularly with the... Sample PDF
A Survey of Information Hiding
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Chapter 14
Fan Zhang
The digital multimedia, including text, image, graphics, audio, video, and so forth, has become a main way for information communication along with... Sample PDF
Digital Watermarking Capacity and Detection Error Rate
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Chapter 15
Digital Watermarking  (pages 277-297)
Aidan Mooney
As Internet usage continues to grow, people are becoming more aware of the need to protect the display and presentation of digital documents.... Sample PDF
Digital Watermarking
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Chapter 16
Pradeep K. Atrey, Abdulmotaleb El Saddik, Mohan Kankanhalli
Digital video authentication has been a topic of immense interest to researchers in the past few years. Authentication of a digital video refers to... Sample PDF
Digital Video Authentication
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Chapter 17
Tieyan Li
The multimedia community is moving from monolithic applications to more flexible and scalable proliferate solutions. Security issues such as access... Sample PDF
Flexible Multimedia Stream Authentication
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Chapter 18
K-G Stenborg
Media that is distributed digitally can be copied and redistributed illegally. Embedding an individual watermark in the media object for each... Sample PDF
Scalable Distribution of Watermarked Media
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Chapter 19
Hafiz Malik
This chapter provides critical analysis of current state-of-the-art in steganography. First part of the this chapter provides the classification of... Sample PDF
Critical Analysis of Digital Steganography
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Chapter 20
Esther Palomar, Juan M.E. Tapiador, Julio C. Hernandez-Castro, Arturo Ribagorda
Perhaps the most popular feature offered by Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks is the possibility of having several replicas of the same content... Sample PDF
Secure Content Distribution in Pure P2P
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Chapter 21
Andreas U. Schmidt, Nicolai Kuntze
Security in the value creation chain hinges on many single components and their interrelations. Trusted Platforms open ways to fulfil the pertinent... Sample PDF
Trust in the Value-Creation Chain of Multimedia Goods
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Chapter 22
Goo-Rak Kwon, Sung-Jea Ko
The objective of this chapter introduces an advanced encryption of MP3 and MPEG-4 coder with a quality degradation-based security model. For the MP3... Sample PDF
Copyright Protection of A/V Codec for Mobile Multimedia Devices
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Chapter 23
Frank Y. Shih, Yi-Ta Wu
Steganography is the art of hiding secret data inside other innocent media file. Steganalysis is the process of detecting hidden data which are... Sample PDF
Digital Steganography Based on Genetic Algorithm
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Chapter 24
Guangjie Liu, Shiguo Lian, Yuewei Dai, Zhiquan Wang
Image steganography is a common form of information hiding which embeds as many message bits into images and keep the introduced distortion... Sample PDF
Adaptive Image Steganography Based on Structural Similarity Metric
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Chapter 25
Shiguo Lian
Video watermarking technique embeds some information into videos by modifying video content slightly. The embedded information, named watermark, may... Sample PDF
A Survey on Video Watermarking
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Chapter 26
Minglei Liu, Ce Zhu
Digital watermarking is a useful and powerful tool for multimedia security such as copyright protection, tamper proofing and assessment, broadcast... Sample PDF
Multiple Description Coding with Application in Multimedia Watermarking
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Chapter 27
Hsuan T. Chang, Chih-Chung Hsu
This chapter introduces a pioneer concept in which multiple images are simultaneously considered in the compression and secured distribution... Sample PDF
Fractal-Based Secured Multiple-Image Compression and Distribution
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