People’s demands are escalating with technology advances. Now, people are not happy with only text or voice messages, they like to see video as well. Video transmission through limited bandwidth, for example, an existing telephone line, requires an efficient video coding technique. Unfortunately, existing video coding standards have some limitations due to this demand. Recently, a pattern-based video coding technique has established its potentiality to improve the coding compared to the recent standard H.264 in the range of low bit rates. This chapter describes this technique with its background, features, recent developments, and future trends.