The changing business environment and increasing technology is redefining the role of the human resources function. Nowadays, corporations have to consistently advance the value of human assets in their own organizations for maintaining their competitiveness. One of the technological changes in this regard is the appearance of Human Resources Information systems (HRIS). How to improve the efficiency of the HR and enhance its status in the organizations has become the top agenda to enterprises. The development of Information Technology (IT) transforms the role of the HR Dept in the organization. It enables HR to be a real strategic partner of corporations through the process of Organization Development. Thus, one of the challenges that face managers nowadays in regard to these emerging technologies, is the need to determine the success factors that play an important role in the implementation of an HRIS and how these factors, that some are Technological, Individual, and Organizational, affect the perceived performance of a HRIS and to measure the impact of this perceived performance on the perceived performance of the HRM.
Definition Of The Concepts
This first part is devoted to the definition of the concepts related to the ICT then to the clarification of the concept of perceived performance of the HRM.
ICT, e-HRM and HRIS
Due to their interactive and innovative character, the ICT shake the structures and the “traditional” practices, based in particular on the man-machine correlation. The E-HR, for instance, was defined by Barthe (2001) as “the policies of HRM using the NICT, namely the internal Intranets and the public Internet, to implement dynamic practices”. For this purpose, the E-HRM aims at bringing solutions to improve traditional management of HR and to develop the performance.
In addition, the integration of these technological tools passes by a Human Resources Information system (HRIS). This has a main goal to provide the service in the form of information, data, and reports, to the internal as well as to the external customers who use the system. Thanks to the automation of the administrative procedures, the HRIS can improve the quality of the decisions related to the human resources, whether they are strategic or operational, by increasing the available flow of information. In other words, we are talking about a Portal HR where it is possible to acquire, store, handle, analyze, extract and distribute information relevant to the human resources of an organization Tannenbaum (1990).
However, the information related to the human resources changes becomes unforeseeable; from which emanates the need for envisaging a particular management of this information. In response to this need, the HRIS presents certain characteristics which are related to the nature (itself) of this information. Thus, thanks to this system, the organization can manage the important flow of information of which it lays out on its employees. They can modify them and update them without wasting time (See Figure 1).
The human resources information system (HRIS) (adapted from Reix, 1999)
The Academic work on the HRIS is integrated in a procedural approach of the human resources management (Barthe, 2001, Gilbert, 2001, Lord, 2001; CRIMPED, 2002). Thus, according to Gilbert 2001, “Following the steps of quality, it is usual today to consider the HRM as an assembly of processes in interrelationships. These processes defined as a series of finalized activities leading to a certain service- offer a base of reflection to think of the organization having the information system of HRM (SIRH)”. Gilbert underlines the distinction between the information system in human resources and the information processing system of human resource management. Here, the acronym HRIS indicates the information processing systems used for the HRM.
Key Terms in this Chapter
HRIS: Abbreviation for Human Resources Information System, is typically a database system that lets you keep track of all types of information related to your company and your human capital.
ICT: Short for Information and Communications Technology, it is the study or business of developing and using technology to process information and aid communications.
Perceived Performance: The degree to which a person believes that using technology will enhance his or her performance.
Individual Factors: Factors that contribute to the success of the information system according to the organizational characteristics.
Organizational Factors: Factors that contribute to the success of the information system according to the users.
Technology: Technology is a broad concept that deals with a speicies usage and knowledge of tools, and how it affects a species’ ability to control and adapt to its environment.
National Culture: Refers to the cumulative deposit of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe, and material objects and possessions acquired by a group of people in the course of generations through individual and group striving that influence the success of the information system.