Personal Knowledge Management Skills for Lifelong-Learners 2.0

Personal Knowledge Management Skills for Lifelong-Learners 2.0

M. C. Pettenati (University of Florence, Italy), M. E. Cigognini (University of Florence, Italy), E. M.C. Guerin (University of Florence, Italy) and G. R. Mangione (University of Florence, Italy)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-208-4.ch021
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In this chapter the authors identify the Personal Knowledge Management (PKM) pre-dispositions, skills and competences of the current effective lifelong-learner 2.0. They derive a PKM-skills model centred on a division into basic PKM competences, associated with social software Web practices of create-organize- share, and Higher-Order skills (HO-skills), which identify enabling conditions and competences which favour the advanced management of one’s personal knowledge (PK). To derive the PKM-skills model we addressed a survey to 16 interviewees who can be defined as expert lifelong-learners 2.0. The HO-skills branch out into four macro competences, identified as connectedness, ability to balance formal and informal contexts, critical ability and creativity.
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Managing our personal knowledge through the use of technologies is referred to as PKM - Personal Knowledge Management (Dorsey, 2000; Sorrentino & Paganelli, 2006) and is a key asset in our society. This concept has been widely studied (Frand & Hixon, 1999; Dorsey, 2000; Wright, 2005; Jarche, 2006) in keeping with its importance in the Knowledge Society. Personal knowledge managment (PKM), through interaction and sharing across members of a community, is the basis of an individual’s social learning. Indeed, awareness and responsibility for personal knowledge (PK) do determine the effectiveness of the individual inside a learning, professional, practice, or enterprise community.

PKM is a process and a strategy for the proper use of technology tools to enhance learning-skills (O’Conner, 2002). Research into how children and young people become competent in using the Internet and other research tools highlights that the information literacy of young people has not improved despite widening access to technology (British Library & JISC, 2008; Katz & Macklin, 2007; Katz, 2006; Kvavik, 2005). Indeed, their apparent familiarity and competency with computers disguises some worrying issues (Lorenzo & Dziuban, 2006): little time is spent in evaluating information, either for relevance, accuracy or authority. Young people find it difficult to assess the relevance of the materials presented and often print off pages with no more than a surface level glance at the content. Moreover, young people have a poor understanding of their information needs and thus find it difficult to develop effective information search and retrieval strategies.

Acquiring PKM-skills is a complex and on-going process that can be favoured by enabling conditions and internalization of suitable and effective practices and behavioural values. The present chapter delineates the multifaceted and fluid profile of the lifelong-learner which, in our conception of it, becomes the mental habitus and, simultaneously, the ideal training path for the learner who is very much aware of the knowledge and learning processes which are inherent in the concept of the Knowledge Society (EU-Commission, 2006).

The long-term current research aim focuses on teaching-methodology i.e., planning PKM-skills training for adults who are not expert lifelong learners (e.g. undergraduates). We believe it possible to develop training aimed at triggering processes so that digital and social literacy skills and competences can be gradually enriched, become internalized and personalized by non-expert subjects. Hence, this study examines the efficacious practices of expert learners in relation to Web 2.0 tools and environments. On the basis of a qualitative survey, our objective is to delineate a competence profile of the lifelong-learner 2.0 so as to identify a valid quality-training planning support-tool aimed at developing PKM-skills in non-experts. This PKM-skills model centres around basic competences and Higher-Order skills (HO-skills). It identifies enabling conditions and competences which favour effective management of one’s PK (Mangione, Cigognini & Pettenati, 2007).

The research linked to the HO-skills model design is presented is in three main parts: (i) theoretical precepts and structure of the initial PKM-skills model; (ii) qualitative research to identify HO PKM-skills using a semi-structured survey to 16 expert lifelong-learners 2.0 defined as such based on their everyday PKM uses in their work; (iii) analysis of results in a model which restructures and advances our previous one (Mangione et al., 2007).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Connectedness: Being networked, being a Web connector, collaborating and interacting for the purpose of building, developing and maintaining social networks.

Pre-Dispositions: A habit, a preparation, a state of readiness, or a tendency to act in a specified way.

PKM Higher-Order Skills: Competences going far beyond the basic skills of information management, which constitute the distinctive assets in one’s PKM: connectedness, ability to balance formal and informal contexts, critical ability, creativity.

Digital Literacy: The ability to read, write and interact across digital social networks.

Creativity: A mental process involving the generation of new ideas or concepts, or new associations between existing ideas or concepts.

Skills & Competences: The learnt capacity or talent to effectively perform some task.

Personal Knowledge Management (PKM): The act of managing one’s personal knowledge through technologies.

PKM Basic Skills: Basic skills related to the use of social software organized around three main competencies create-organize-share to favour the effective management of one’s personal information.

Lifelong-Learner 2.0 (Learner 2.0): A connected (networked) lifelong-learner capable of balancing formal and informal learning contexts who has the critical ability to evaluate online resources and contacts and the ability to use such resources to empower his creativity in his PKM.

Complete Chapter List

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Jennifer Preece
Stylianos Hatzipanagos, Steven Warburton
Chapter 1
Jon Dron, Terry Anderson
Understanding the affordances, effectiveness and applicability of new media in multiple contexts is usually a slow and evolving process with many... Sample PDF
How the Crowd Can Teach
Chapter 2
Chris Abbott, William Alder
Although social networking has been enthusiastically embraced by large numbers of children and young people, their schools and colleges have been... Sample PDF
Social Networking and Schools: Early Responses and Implications for Practice
Chapter 3
Eleni Berki, Mikko Jäkälä
Information and communication technology gradually transform virtual communities to active meeting places for sharing information and for supporting... Sample PDF
Cyber-Identities and Social Life in Cyberspace
Chapter 4
Werner Beuschel
Weblogs are a popular form of Social Software, supporting personal Web authoring as well as innovative forms of social interaction via internet. The... Sample PDF
Weblogs in Higher Education
Chapter 5
Mark Bilandzic, Marcus Foth
Web services such as wikis, blogs, podcasting, file sharing and social networking are frequently referred to by the term Web 2.0. The innovation of... Sample PDF
Social Navigation and Local Folksonomies: Technical and Design Considerations for a Mobile Information System
Chapter 6
Rakesh Biswas, Carmel M. Martin, Joachim Sturmberg, Kamalika Mukherji, Edwin Wen Huo Lee, Shashikiran Umakanth
The chapter starts from the premise that illness and healthcare are predominantly social phenomena that shape the perspectives of key stakeholders... Sample PDF
Social Cognitive Ontology and User Driven Healthcare
Chapter 7
Jillianne R. Code, Nicholas E. Zaparyniuk
Central to research in social psychology is the means in which communities form, attract new members, and develop over time. Research has found that... Sample PDF
Social Identities, Group Formation, and the Analysis of Online Communities
Chapter 8
Jillianne R. Code, Nicholas E. Zaparyniuk
Social and group interactions in online and virtual communities develop and evolve from expressions of human agency. The exploration of the... Sample PDF
The Emergence of Agency in Online Social Networks
Chapter 9
A. Malizia, A. De Angeli, S. Levialdi, I. Aedo Cuevas
The User Experience (UX) is a crucial factor for designing and enhancing the user satisfaction when interacting with a computational tool or with a... Sample PDF
Exploiting Collaborative Tagging Systems to Unveil the User-Experience of Web Contents: An Operative Proposal
Chapter 10
Utpal M. Dholakia, Richard Baraniuk
Open Education Programs provide a range of digitized educational resources freely to educators, students, and self-learners to use and reuse for... Sample PDF
The Roles of Social Networks and Communities in Open Education Programs
Chapter 11
Sebastian Fiedler, Kai Pata
This chapter discusses how the construction of an adequate design and intervention framework for distributed learning environments might be... Sample PDF
Distributed Learning Environments and Social Software: In Search for a Framework of Design
Chapter 12
Yoni Ryan, Robert Fitzgerald
This chapter considers the potential of social software to support learning in higher education. It outlines a current project funded by the then... Sample PDF
Exploring the Role of Social Software in Higher Education
Chapter 13
Kathryn Gow
This chapter focuses on the identification of a range of competencies that entry level workers, and thus graduating students, will need to acquire... Sample PDF
Identifying New Virtual Competencies for the Digital Age: Essential Tools for Entry Level Workers
Chapter 14
Jerald Hughes, Scott Robinson
This chapter examines interaction-oriented virtual religious communities online in the light of sociological theory of religious communities. The... Sample PDF
Social Structures of Online Religious Communities
Chapter 15
Helen Keegan, Bernard Lisewski
This chapter explores emergent behaviours in the use of social software across multiple online communities of practice where informal learning... Sample PDF
Living, Working, Teaching and Learning by Social Software
Chapter 16
Lucinda Kerawalla, Shailey Minocha, Gill Kirkup, Gráinne Conole
With a variety of asynchronous communication and collaboration tools and environments such as Wikis, blogs, and forums, it can be increasingly... Sample PDF
Supporting Student Blogging in Higher Education
Chapter 17
Lisa Kervin, Jessica Mantei, Anthony Herrington
This chapter examines blogging as a social networking tool to engage final year preservice teachers in reflective processes. Using a developed Web... Sample PDF
Blogs as a Social Networking Tool to Build Community
Chapter 18
Jennifer Ann Linder-VanBerschot
The objective of this chapter is to introduce a model that outlines the evolution of knowledge and sustainable innovation of community through the... Sample PDF
A Model for Knowledge and Innovation in Online Education
Chapter 19
Petros Lameras, Iraklis Paraskakis, Philipa Levy
This chapter focuses on discussing the use of social software from a social constructivist perspective. In particular, the chapter explains how... Sample PDF
Using Social Software for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education
Chapter 20
Dimitris Bibikas, Iraklis Paraskakis, Alexandros G. Psychogios, Ana C. Vasconcelos
The aim of this chapter is to investigate the potential role of social software inside business settings in integrating knowledge exploitation and... Sample PDF
The Potential of Enterprise Social Software in Integrating Exploitative and Explorative Knowledge Strategies
Chapter 21
M. C. Pettenati, M. E. Cigognini, E. M.C. Guerin, G. R. Mangione
In this chapter the authors identify the Personal Knowledge Management (PKM) pre-dispositions, skills and competences of the current effective... Sample PDF
Personal Knowledge Management Skills for Lifelong-Learners 2.0
Chapter 22
Sharon Markless, David Streatfield
This chapter questions whether the shift from the Web as a vehicle for storing and transmitting information to the new Web as a series of social... Sample PDF
Reconceptualising Information Literacy for the Web 2.0 Environment?
Chapter 23
Catherine McLoughlin, Mark J.W. Lee
Learning management systems (LMS’s) that cater for geographically dispersed learners have been widely available for a number of years, but many... Sample PDF
Pedagogical Responses to Social Software in Universities
Chapter 24
Alexandra Okada, Simon Buckingham Shum, Michelle Bachler, Eleftheria Tomadaki, Peter Scott, Alex Little, Marc Eisenstadt
The aim of this chapter is to overview the ways in which knowledge media technologies create opportunities for social learning. The Open Content... Sample PDF
Knowledge Media Tools to Foster Social Learning
Chapter 25
Luc Pauwels, Patricia Hellriegel
This chapter looks into YouTube as one of the most popular Social Software platforms, challenging the dominant discourse with its focus on community... Sample PDF
A Critical Cultural Reading of "YouTube"
Chapter 26
Ismael Peña-López
The author of this chapter proposes the concept of the Personal Research Portal (PRP) – a mesh of social software applications to manage knowledge... Sample PDF
The Personal Research Portal
Chapter 27
Andrew Ravenscroft, Musbah Sagar, Enzian Baur, Peter Oriogun
This chapter will present a new approach to designing learning interactions and experiences that reconciles relatively stable learning processes... Sample PDF
Ambient Pedagogies, Meaningful Learning and Social Software
Chapter 28
V. Sachdev, S. Nerur, J. T.C. Teng
With the trend towards social interaction over the Internet and the mushrooming of Web sites such as MySpace, Facebook and YouTube in the social... Sample PDF
Interactivity Redefined for the Social Web
Chapter 29
Sue Thomas, Chris Joseph, Jess Laccetti, Bruce Mason, Simon Perril, Kate Pullinger
Transliteracy might provide a unifying perspective on what it means to be literate in the 21st Century. It is not a new behaviour but has been... Sample PDF
Transliteracy as a Unifying Perspective
Chapter 30
Martin Weller, James Dalziel
This chapter looks at some of the areas of tension between the new social networking, Web 2.0 communities and the values of higher education. It... Sample PDF
Bridging the Gap Between Web 2.0 and Higher Education
Chapter 31
Steve Wheeler
The use of group oriented software, or groupware, encourages students to generate their own content (McGill et al, 2005) and can foster supportive... Sample PDF
Destructive Creativity on the Social Web: Learning through Wikis in Higher Education
Chapter 32
Scott Wilson
This chapter describes the mechanisms of presence in social networks and presents an ontology that frames the purpose, content, methods of... Sample PDF
Presence in Social Networks
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