Personalized Information Retrieval in a Semantic-Based Learning Environment

Personalized Information Retrieval in a Semantic-Based Learning Environment

Antonella Carbonaro (University of Bologna, Italy) and Rodolfo Ferrini (University of Bologna, Italy)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-306-7.ch014
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Abstract

Active learning is the ability of learners to carry out learning activities in such a way that they will be able to effectively and efficiently construct knowledge from information sources. Personalized and customizable access on digital materials collected from the Web according to one’s own personal requirements and interests is an example of active learning. Moreover, it is also necessary to provide techniques to locate suitable materials. In this chapter, we introduce a personalized learning environment providing intelligent support to achieve the expectations of active learning. The system exploits collaborative and semantic approaches to extract concepts from documents, and maintaining user and resources profiles based on domain ontologies. In such a way, the retrieval phase takes advantage of the common knowledge base used to extract useful knowledge and produces personalized views of the learning system.
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Introduction

Most of the modern applications of computing technology and information systems are concerned with information-rich environments, the modern, open, large-scale environments with autonomous heterogeneous information resources (Huhns & Singh, 1998; Cooley, Mobasher, & Srivastava, 1997). The effective and efficient management of the large amounts and varieties of information they include is the key to the above applications.

The Web inherits most of the typical characteristic of an information-rich environment: information resources can be added or removed in a loosely structured manner, and it lacks global control of the content accuracy of those resources. Furthermore, it includes heterogeneous components with mutual complex interdependencies; it includes not just text and relational data, but varieties of multimedia, forms, and executable code. As a result, old methods for manipulating information sources are no longer efficient or even appropriate. Mechanisms are needed in order to allow efficient querying and retrieving on a great variety of information sources which support structured as well as unstructured information.

In order to foster the development of Web-based information access and management, it is relevant to be able to obtain a user-based view of available information. The exponential increase of the size and the formats of remotely accessible data allows us to find suitable solutions to the problem. Often, information access tools are not able to provide the right answers for a user query, but rather, they provide large supersets thereof (e.g., in Web search engines). The search for documents uses queries containing words or describing concepts that are desired in the returned documents. Most content retrieval methodologies use some type of similarity score to match a query describing the content, and then they present the user with a ranked list of suggestions (Belkin & Croft, 1992). Designing applications for supporting the user in accessing and retrieving Web information sources is one of the current challenges for the artificial intelligence community.

In a distributed learning environment, there is likely to be large number of educational resources (Web pages, lectures, journal papers, learning objects, etc.) stored in many distributed and differing repositories on the Internet. Without any guidance, students will probably have great difficulty finding the reading material that is relevant for a particular learning task. The metadata descriptions concerning a learning object (LO) representation provide information about properties of the learning objects. However, the sole metadata does not provide qualitative information about different objects nor provide information for customized views. This problem is becoming particularly important in Web-based education where the variety of learners taking the same course is much greater. In contrast, the courses produced using adaptive hypermedia or intelligent tutoring system technologies are able to dynamically select the most relevant learning material from their knowledge bases for each individual student. Nevertheless, generally these systems cannot directly benefit from existing repositories of learning material (Brusilovsky & Nijhavan, 2002).

In educational settings learning objects can be of different kinds, from being files having static content (like HTML, PDF, or PowerPoint presentation format) or in sophisticated interactive format (like HTML pages loaded with JavaScript or Java applet, etc.). Audio files, video clips, or Flash animations could also constitute learning objects. An LO comprises a chunk of content material, which can be re-used or shared in different learning situations. Such a re-use of content from one system to another makes LO standardized so that it can be adopted across different computer platforms and learning systems. The IEEE Standard for Learning Object Metadata (LOM)1 is the first accredited standard for learning object technology.2

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Table of Contents
Foreword
Bamshad Mobasher
Acknowledgment
Max Chevalier, Christine Julien, Chantal Soule-Dupuy
Chapter 1
Laurent Candillier, Kris Jack, Françoise Fessant, Frank Meyer
The aim of Recommender Systems is to help users to find items that they should appreciate from huge catalogues. In that field, collaborative... Sample PDF
State-of-the-Art Recommender Systems
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Chapter 2
Neal Lathia
Recommender systems generate personalized content for each of its users, by relying on an assumption reflected in the interaction between people... Sample PDF
Computing Recommendations with Collaborative Filtering
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Chapter 3
Edwin Simpson, Mark H. Butler
The increasing amount of available information has created a demand for better, more automated methods of finding and organizing different types of... Sample PDF
Analyzing Communal Tag Relationships for Enhanced Navigation and User Modeling
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Chapter 4
Adaptive User Profiles  (pages 65-87)
Steve Cayzer, Elke Michlmayr
A major opportunity for collaborative knowledge management is the construction of user models which can be exploited to provide relevant... Sample PDF
Adaptive User Profiles
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Chapter 5
Eugene Santos Jr., Hien Nguyen
In this chapter, we study and present our results on the problem of employing a cognitive user model for Information Retrieval (IR) in which a... Sample PDF
Modeling Users for Adaptive Information Retrieval by Capturing User Intent
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Chapter 6
Mihaela Brut, Florence Sedes, Corinne Zayani
Inside the e-learning platforms, it is important to manage the user competencies profile and to recommend to each user the most suitable documents... Sample PDF
Ontology-Based User Competencies Modeling for E-Learning Recommender Systems
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Chapter 7
Colum Foley, Alan F. Smeaton, Gareth J.F. Jones
Traditionally information retrieval (IR) research has focussed on a single user interaction modality, where a user searches to satisfy an... Sample PDF
Combining Relevance Information in a Synchronous Collaborative Information Retrieval Environment
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Chapter 8
Charles Delalonde, Eddie Soulier
This research leverages information retrieval activity in order to build a network of organizational expertise in a distributed R&D laboratory. The... Sample PDF
DemonD: A Social Search Engine Built Upon the Actor-Network Theory
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Chapter 9
Hager Karoui
In this chapter, the authors propose a case-based reasoning recommender system called COBRAS: a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) bibliographical reference... Sample PDF
COBRAS: Cooperative CBR Bibliographic Recommender System
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Chapter 10
Zehra Cataltepe, Berna Altinel
As the amount, availability, and use of online music increase, music recommendation becomes an important field of research. Collaborative... Sample PDF
Music Recommendation by Modeling User's Preferred Perspectives of Content, Singer/Genre and Popularity
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Chapter 11
Nima Taghipour, Ahmad Kardan
Information overload is no longer news; the explosive growth of the Internet has made this issue increasingly serious for Web users. Recommender... Sample PDF
Web Content Recommendation Methods Based on Reinforcement Learning
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Chapter 12
Angela Carrillo-Ramos, Manuele Kirsch Pinheiro, Marlène Villanova-Oliver, Jérôme Gensel, Yolande Berbers
The authors of this chapter present a two-fold approach for adapting content information delivered to a group of mobile users. This approach is... Sample PDF
Collaborating Agents for Adaptation to Mobile Users
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Chapter 13
Cristina Gena, Liliana Ardissono
This chapter describes the user-centered design approach we adopted in the development and evaluation of an adaptive Web site. The development of... Sample PDF
A User-Centered Approach to the Retrieval of Information in an Adaptive Web Site
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Chapter 14
Antonella Carbonaro, Rodolfo Ferrini
Active learning is the ability of learners to carry out learning activities in such a way that they will be able to effectively and efficiently... Sample PDF
Personalized Information Retrieval in a Semantic-Based Learning Environment
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Chapter 15
Hanh Huu Hoang, Tho Manh Nguyen, A Min Tjoa
Formulating unambiguous queries in the Semantic Web applications is a challenging task for users. This article presents a new approach in guiding... Sample PDF
A Semantic Web Based Approach for Context-Aware User Query Formulation and Information Retrieval
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About the Contributors