On the Pervasive Adoption of Grid Technologies: A Grid Operating System

On the Pervasive Adoption of Grid Technologies: A Grid Operating System

Irfan Habib (University of the West of England, UK), Ashiq Anjum (University of the West of England, UK) and Richard McClatchey (University of the West of England, UK)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-184-1.ch016
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Abstract

Due to some barriers to adoption we have not seen a proliferation of Grid Computing technologies throughout e-Science or other domains. This chapter outlines many issues that are a consequence to the existing Grid Middleware based approaches. The authors believe a Grid Operating system, or an operating system with built in Grid computing capability might be able to address the drawbacks of the existing infrastructure, leading to a fault tolerant, flexible and easy to use stack for rapid deployment of Grids. This chapter presents the motivation and issues which lead us to a Grid operating System and outline its design, implementation and evaluation details.
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Introduction

Despite having made substantial advances during the last decade, grid computing is still neither pervasive nor widely deployed. Gartner predicted that by 2006 grid computing would mature sufficiently to leave the science laboratories and enter the business world (Gartner Group, 2003). But so far there have been only a few success stories, since only a subset of business applications are supported by existing grid infrastructures. To date the computing research community and particularly eScience projects have been the biggest beneficiaries of grid computing whereas other communities, such as user-centric fields like medical sciences, cannot easily implement existing grid architectures to support their applications. In Mattmann (2007), various requirements have been outlined which existing grid middleware do not support, thus increasing the cost of the adoption of grids for medical science. It is a similar story for enterprise computing where existing grid middleware is not scalable or lacks fault tolerance. Moreover they are mostly platform dependent and are insufficiently flexible to support enterprise applications. These issues in grid adoption can be traced to technical hurdles which arise as a consequence of the current approaches to grid computing. We are of the opinion that these hurdles originate from the current middleware approach to grid computing, as detailed below.

The middleware approach to grid computing was developed in science laboratories in which computing clusters distributed across the world are linked together in order to create grids to solve mainly compute and data intensive scientific problems. The role of grid middleware in this paradigm was to ‘glue’ the clusters together to achieve interoperability. Notable grid middleware included Globus (Foster and Kesselman, 1997), gLite (Laure, 2004) and UNICORE (Erwin and Snelling, 2001). This approach has however created some obstacles to grid adoption in other fields, since the cluster-oriented grids of today are not very suitable for user-centric computation, due in part to their complex operation and maintenance requirements. The main barriers (Ali, 2006) to the adoption of grid computing that result from the strong focus of current grid computing research on eScience are: the support for only limited application types (which mostly comprise highly parallel and batch applications), potentially inflexible network topologies, the steep learning curve required for configuring and maintaining a grid with grid middleware, the lack of fault tolerance in the infrastructure and an inflexibility of virtual organization (VO) management software to create more fine grained VOs, as required by some applications. All of these limitations make grid computing in its present incarnation unsuitable for the common user with little computing expertise and make grid computing expensive for existing users to maintain.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Hypervisor: The software which enables virtualization in a system. Mostly denotes software which enables platform virtualization.

Discovery Service: A service in Grid computing which is responsible for the discovery of distributed resources.

Super Peer: A model in peer to peer systems, where a node in the system represents a collection of independent peers which interact with the larger system through a centralized node. This peer is termed as the super peer.

Virtualization: A term that broadly refers to the abstraction of resources. Resources may include applications, platforms and systems.

Peer to Peer: A computing model in distributed systems where constituent nodes interact with each other without centralized mechanisms.

Platform Virtualization: A virtualization model which creates a logical abstraction of a hardware platform. This logical abstraction is typically denoted as a “virtual machine”, which is capable of simulating the capabilities of the concerned platform.

Grid Computing: A model of distributed computing based on the dynamic sharing of resources between participants, organisations and companies with the aim of combining these resources and carrying out intensive computing applications or the processing of vast amounts of data.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Foreword
Ruth E. Shaw
Preface
Emmanuel Udoh, Frank Zhigang Wang
Acknowledgment
Emmanuel Udoh
Chapter 1
Emmanuel Udoh, Frank Zhigang Wang, Vineet R. Khare
This chapter presents a historical record of the advent of Grid with a recourse to some basic definitions commonly accepted by most researchers. It... Sample PDF
Overview of Grid Computing
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Chapter 2
Eric Aubanel
The problem of load balancing parallel applications is particularly challenging on computational grids, since the characteristics of both the... Sample PDF
Resource-Aware Load Balancing of Parallel Applications
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Chapter 3
Enis Afgan, Purushotham Bangalore
Grid computing has emerged as the next generation computing platform. Because of the resource heterogeneity that exists in the grid environment... Sample PDF
Assisting Efficient Job Planning and Scheduling in the Grid
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Chapter 4
Kuo-Chan Huang, Po-Chi Shih, Yeh-Ching Chung
Most current grid environments are established through collaboration among a group of participating sites which volunteer to provide free computing... Sample PDF
Effective Resource Allocation and Job Scheduling Mechanisms for Load Sharing in a Computational Grid
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Chapter 5
Tevfik Kosar
As the data requirements of scientific distributed applications increase, the access to remote data becomes the main performance bottleneck for... Sample PDF
Data-Aware Distributed Batch Scheduling
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Chapter 6
Gianni Pucciani, Flavia Donno, Andrea Domenici, Heinz Stockinger
Data replication is a well-known technique used in distributed systems in order to improve fault tolerance and make data access faster. Several... Sample PDF
Consistency of Replicated Datasets in Grid Computing
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Chapter 7
Ming Wu, Xian-He Sun
Rapid advancement of communication technology has changed the landscape of computing. New models of computing, such as business-on-demand, Web... Sample PDF
Quality of Service of Grid Computing
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Chapter 8
QoS in Grid Computing  (pages 75-83)
Zhihui Du, Zhili Cheng, Xiaoying Wang, Chuang Lin
This chapter first summarizes popular terms of QoS related concepts and technologies in grid computing, including SLA, End-to-End QoS Provision and... Sample PDF
QoS in Grid Computing
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Chapter 9
Kris Bubendorfer, Ben Palmer, Ian Welch
A Grid resource broker is the arbiter for access to a Grid’s computational resources and therefore its performance and functionality has a... Sample PDF
Trust and Privacy in Grid Resource Auctions
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Chapter 10
Sandro Fiore, Alessandro Negro, Salvatore Vadacca, Massimo Cafaro, Giovanni Aloisio, Roberto Barbera
Grid computing is an emerging and enabling technology allowing organizations to easily share, integrate and manage resources in a distributed... Sample PDF
An Architectural Overview of the GRelC Data Access Service
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Chapter 11
Man Wang, Zhihui Du, Zhili Cheng
Resource Management System (RMS), which manages the Grid resources and matches the applications’ requests to the proper resources, is one of the... Sample PDF
Adaptive Resource Management in Grid Environment
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Chapter 12
Vineet R. Khare, Frank Zhigang Wang
The need for a dynamic and scalable expansion of the grid infrastructure and resources and other scalability issues in terms of execution efficiency... Sample PDF
Bio-Inspired Grid Resource Management
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Chapter 13
Yuhui Deng, Frank Zhigang Wang, Na Helian
Storage Grid is a new model for deploying and managing the heterogeneous, dynamic, large-scale, and geographically distributed storage resources.... Sample PDF
Service Oriented Storage System Grid
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Chapter 14
Dominic Cherry, Maozhen Li, Man Qi
This chapter presents MediaGrid, a distributed storage system for archiving broadcast media contents. MediaGrid utilizes storage resources donated... Sample PDF
A Distributed Storage System for Archiving Broadcast Media Content
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Chapter 15
Maozhen Li, Man Qi, Bin Yu
The computational grid is rapidly evolving into a service-oriented computing infrastructure that facilitates resource sharing and large-scale... Sample PDF
Service Discovery with Rough Sets
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Chapter 16
Irfan Habib, Ashiq Anjum, Richard McClatchey
Due to some barriers to adoption we have not seen a proliferation of Grid Computing technologies throughout e-Science or other domains. This chapter... Sample PDF
On the Pervasive Adoption of Grid Technologies: A Grid Operating System
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Chapter 17
Kurt Vanmechelen, Jan Broeckhove, Wim Depoorter, Khalid Abdelkader
As grid computing technology moves further up the adoption curve, the issues of dealing with conflicting user requirements formulated by different... Sample PDF
Pricing Computational Resources in Grid Economies
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Chapter 18
Rosario M. Piro
Large, geographically distributed and heterogeneous computing infrastructures, such as the Grid, often span multiple organizations and... Sample PDF
Resource Usage Accounting in Grid Computing
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Chapter 19
Frans Arickx, Jan Broeckhove, Peter Hellinckx, David Dewolfs, Kurt Vanmechelen
Quantum structure or scattering calculations often belong to a class of computational problems involving the aggregation of a set of matrices... Sample PDF
Grid-Based Nuclear Physics Applications
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Chapter 20
Gabriel Aparicio, Fernando Blanco, Ignacio Blanquer, César Bonavides, Juan Luis Chaves, Miguel Embid, Álvaro Hernández
In the last years an increasing demand for Grid Infrastructures has resulted in several international collaborations. This is the case of the EELA... Sample PDF
Developing Biomedical Applications in the Framework of EELA
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Chapter 21
Gerald Schaefer, Roger Tait
Efficient approaches to computationally intensive image processing tasks are currently highly sought after. In this chapter, the authors show how a... Sample PDF
Distributed Image Processing on a Blackboard System
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Chapter 22
Daniele Andreotti, Armando Fella, Eleonora Luppi
The BaBar experiment uses data since 1999 in examining the violation of charge and parity (CP) symmetry in the field of high energy physics. This... Sample PDF
Simulated Events Production on the Grid for the BaBar Experiment
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Chapter 23
Diego Liberati
A framework is proposed that creates, uses, and communicates information, whose organizational dynamics allows performing a distributed cooperative... Sample PDF
A Framework for Semantic Grid in E-Science
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Chapter 24
Roberto Barbera, Valeria Ardizzone, Leandro Ciuffo
The Grid INFN virtual Laboratory for Dissemination Activities (GILDA) is a fully working Grid test-bed devoted to training and dissemination... Sample PDF
Grid INFN Virtual Laboratory for Dissemination Activities (GILDA)
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Chapter 25
Dirk Gorissen, Tom Dhaene, Piet Demeester, Jan Broeckhove
The simulation and optimization of complex systems is a very time consuming and computationally intensive task. Therefore, global surrogate modeling... Sample PDF
Grid Enabled Surrogate Modeling
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Chapter 26
Patrik Skogster
Grid computing is becoming as essential part of different business analysis. In traditional business computing infrastructures data transfer occurs... Sample PDF
GIS Grids and the Business Use of GIS Data
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Chapter 27
Gokop Goteng, Ashutosh Tiwari, Rajkumar Roy
The emerging grid technology provides a secured platform for multidisciplinary experts in the security intelligence profession to collaborate and... Sample PDF
Grid Computing: Combating Global Terrorism with the World Wide Grid
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Chapter 28
Salvatore Scifo
This chapter focuses on the efforts to design and develop a standard pure Java API to access the metadata service of the EGEE Grid middleware, and... Sample PDF
Accessing Grid Metadata through a Web Interface
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Chapter 29
Jyotsna Sharma
Efforts in Grid Computing, both in academia and industry, continue to grow rapidly worldwide for research, scientific and commercial purposes.... Sample PDF
Grid Computing Initiatives in India
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Chapter 30
Hai Jin, Li Qi, Jie Dai, Yaqin Luo
A grid system is usually composed of thousands of nodes which are broadly distributed in different virtual organizations. Owing to geographical... Sample PDF
Dynamic Maintenance in ChinaGrid Support Platform
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About the Contributors