Pervasive Video Surveillance Systems Over TCP/IP Networks

Pervasive Video Surveillance Systems Over TCP/IP Networks

L. Badia (IMT Lucca Institute for Advanced Studies, Italy), A. Erta (IMT Lucca Institute for Advanced Studies and Fluidmesh Networks Inc., Italy) and U. Malesci (Fluidmesh Networks Inc., Italy)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 19
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-262-6.ch007
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Abstract

Traditional analog video surveillance systems technology has recently become inadequate to face the massive demand of security systems consisting of hundreds and sometimes thousands of cameras often deployed in hostile environments miles away from the control room. During the last few years, the rapid growth of the digital technology has produced sophisticated cameras which can directly record highdefinition digital videos. The packetized video stream can be straightforwardly conveyed to the control room, relaying on common IP network infrastructures. This solution result is extremely flexible as the network infrastructure can be built over a wide variety of heterogeneous network technologies from the traditional Ethernet-based Local Area Networks (LANs) to the recently proposed Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). However, the widespread adoption of IP-based solutions for video surveillance poses serious problems in terms of required bandwidth, processing power, network security, and system dependability. In this chapter, we first investigate the advantages of the IP-based video surveillance systems over the traditional analog ones. Then, we describe the technical challenges and the open research issues which still lack an ultimate solution which permits to completely abandon the traditional analog technology. Finally, we propose and verify, by means of a case study, a methodology to address the design of video surveillance systems in real deployment.
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Introduction

During the last decades, the world has become on the move. Intelligent transportation and emergency or disaster recovery facilities are more and more often integrated with remote video control. At the same time, urbanization trends combined with socio-economic changes have changed criminal and terrorism-related activities to a globalized phenomenon. As a consequence, the market for security and video surveillance systems has expanded significantly (Welsh & Ferrington, 2002). Security-system installers and integrators face several challenges in designing security and video surveillance systems that must operate in difficult and demanding settings, streaming and recording simultaneously hundreds and often thousands of video flows. In the last few years, the physical and video-security field is experiencing a massive shift from analog transmission over coaxial cables and fiber optic to digital transmission over IP networks (In-stat, 2006). In fact, until the mid-Nineties, recording was mainly performed on tapes using VHS equipments which require analog video streams as input. In the late Nineties, the majority of tape recorders have been substituted by Digital Video Recorders (DVRs) which are embedded systems that integrate hard drives with video encoding hardware. The analog video streams coming from, for example, coaxial cables to the DVR are digitized and compressed using video encoding algorithms. To this end, it is possible to subsequently transmit the video stream as a sequence of independent Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) pictures, so as to realize what is informally called Motion JPEG (M-JPEG), or to utilize techniques such as Moving Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) which exploit interframe prediction; after this step, the stream is recorded on the hard drives.

The major drawback of both VHS- and DVR-based video surveillance systems is that the transmission from the cameras to the recording and viewing locations is kept analog, and therefore video quality is often directly affected by the distance between the control room and the cameras. Additionally, installing analog cameras in rural or even dense residential areas may not be feasible given the impossibility of laying long enough cables to reach the control room. Embracing the digital revolution from the camera to the head-end location and encoding the video stream into TCP/IP-like packets directly in the camera present multiple advantages (Sedky et al., 2005; Cisco, 2006). In fact, the system designer can leverage existing networks and infrastructures irrespective of the specific medium used to convey the video stream (e.g., copper, fiber-optic, radio waves etc.). Furthermore, viewing and recording capabilities can be distributed by enhancing the cameras with integrated reporting and recording systems. However, the IP-based approach requires solving several additional issues in order to meet the requirements, in terms of security and reliability, of a traditional video surveillance system. For instance, the high bandwidth capacity required to transmit hundreds of video streams simultaneously (Koutsakis et al., 2004) and the processing power needed to encode and decode multiple MPEG-4 streams (Ziliani, 2005) are definitely two main problems of IP-based systems which still lack a definitive solution. In this work, we describe the advantages and investigate the research open issues and technical challenges of the IP-based approach with respect the traditional analog systems for video surveillance. Furthermore, we analyze several existing IP-based solutions and develop a viable methodology to deploy efficient and effective video surveillance systems. Finally, we present, as a case study, a video surveillance system installed in a seaport in Europe where the above methodology has been successfully employed at the design stage.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Network Engineering: This term implies the design of hardware and software solutions to implement a network structure, for what concerns both information exchange and physical creation of links. In particular, for video streaming this corresponds to enabling a multi-hop communication whose routes and content are predictable, yet there are several limiting factors (bandwidth, complexity) to take into account.

Multi-Hop Wireless Networks: Since the control room can be far from the area where surveillance is performed, remote control may be realized by employing multi-hop networks. This implies that the radio nodes belonging to the WMN need special procedures to work in harmony with each other and enable dedicated communications.

TCP/IP Networks: This corresponds to the realization of the Internet structure over the network of interest. In particular, TCP/IP implies a layered structure for the network, which is hence able to provide an upper-layer service (in this case, video streaming) by means of lower-layer data exchange, in particular for what concerns network routing taking place on wireless multi-hop links.

Design Guidelines: In the chapter we identify several practical rules to use in the development of hardware and software solutions. In particular, we deal with network hierarchy, multi-hop routing and bandwidth dimensioning. Finally, we also envisioned some design choices such as multiple antennas as related to link diversity.

Video Streaming: This term refers to a continuous exchange of data, which can be monitored by the receiver while its transmission is ongoing, over a communication network. In particular, video surveillance pictures require an efficient streaming in order to actuate crime prevention and realize the basic functions of deterrence, detection and verification.

Video Surveillance: It corresponds to the use of video cameras to transmit signal to a specific, limited set of monitors. It is often used for monitoring and crime prevention in sensitive areas such as banks, casinos, airports, seaports, military installations and convenience stores. Note that even though wireless links may be employed, they are not intended for a broadcast audience.

Wireless Mesh Network (WMN): It is a communication network, where terminals are connected via radio to routers which are in turn interconnected via multi-hop wireless links. Its structure is entirely wireless, thus making WMNs especially applicable where cable deployment is difficult or too expensive, or the absence of cables is even recommended for security reasons.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Foreword
Borko Furht
Preface
Shiguo Lian, Yan Zhang
Acknowledgment
Shiguo Lian, Yan Zhang
Chapter 1
Pramod A. Jamkhedkar, Gregory L. Heileman
Rights expression languages (RELs) form a central component of digital rights management (DRM) systems. The process of development of RELs... Sample PDF
Rights Expression Languages
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Chapter 2
Deepali Brahmbhatt, Mark Stamp
This chapter presents a digital rights management (DRM) system designed for streaming media. A brief, general introduction to DRM is also provided... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management for Streaming Media
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Chapter 3
Jean-Henry Morin
This chapter introduces and discusses much needed alternatives to the traditional either/or debate on total security of secure multimedia... Sample PDF
Rethinking DRM Using Exception Management
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Chapter 4
Mercè Serra Joan, Bert Greevenbosch, Anja Becker, Harald Fuchs
This chapter gives an overview of the Open Mobile AllianceTM Digital Rights Management (OMA DRM) standard, which allows for the secure distribution... Sample PDF
Overview of OMA Digital Rights Management
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Chapter 5
Hugo Jonker, Sjouke Mauw
The use of Digital Rights Management (DRM) systems involves several stakeholders, such as the content provider, the license provider, and the user... Sample PDF
Discovering the Core Security Requirements of DRM Systems by Means of Objective Trees
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Chapter 6
Pallavi Priyadarshini, Mark Stamp
Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks have proliferated and become ubiquitous. A school of thought has emerged that harnessing the established user-base and... Sample PDF
Digital Rights Management for Untrusted Peer-to-Peer Networks
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Chapter 7
L. Badia, A. Erta, U. Malesci
Traditional analog video surveillance systems technology has recently become inadequate to face the massive demand of security systems consisting of... Sample PDF
Pervasive Video Surveillance Systems Over TCP/IP Networks
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Chapter 8
Ramya Venkataramu, Mark Stamp
Digital Rights Management (DRM) technology is used to control access to copyrighted digital content. Apple employs a DRM system known as Fairplay in... Sample PDF
P2PTunes: A Peer-to-Peer Digital Rights Management System
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Chapter 9
Nicolas Anciaux, Luc Bouganim, Philippe Pucheral
This chapter advocates the convergence between Access Control (AC) models, focusing on the granularity of sharing, and Digital Right Management... Sample PDF
A Hardware Approach for Trusted Access and Usage Control
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Chapter 10
Ionut Florescu
Regarding fundamental protocols in cryptography, the Diffie-Hellman (Diffie and Hellman, 1976) public key exchange protocol is one of the oldest and... Sample PDF
A Summary of Recent and Old Results on the Security of the Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Protocol in Finite Groups
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Chapter 11
Guojun Wang, Yirong Wu, Geyong Min, Ronghua Shi
Secret sharing aims at distributing and sharing a secret among a group of participants efficiently. In this chapter, we propose a plane-based access... Sample PDF
Secret Sharing with k-Dimensional Access Structure
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Chapter 12
Supavadee Aramvith, Rhandley D. Cajote
Presently, both wireless communications and multimedia communications have experienced unequaled rapid growth and commercial success. Building on... Sample PDF
Wireless Video Transmission
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Chapter 13
M. Hassan Shirali-Shahreza, Mohammad Shirali-Shahreza
Establishing hidden communication is an important subject of discussion that has gained increasing importance recently, particularly with the... Sample PDF
A Survey of Information Hiding
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Chapter 14
Fan Zhang
The digital multimedia, including text, image, graphics, audio, video, and so forth, has become a main way for information communication along with... Sample PDF
Digital Watermarking Capacity and Detection Error Rate
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Chapter 15
Digital Watermarking  (pages 277-297)
Aidan Mooney
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Digital Watermarking
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Chapter 16
Pradeep K. Atrey, Abdulmotaleb El Saddik, Mohan Kankanhalli
Digital video authentication has been a topic of immense interest to researchers in the past few years. Authentication of a digital video refers to... Sample PDF
Digital Video Authentication
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Chapter 17
Tieyan Li
The multimedia community is moving from monolithic applications to more flexible and scalable proliferate solutions. Security issues such as access... Sample PDF
Flexible Multimedia Stream Authentication
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Chapter 18
K-G Stenborg
Media that is distributed digitally can be copied and redistributed illegally. Embedding an individual watermark in the media object for each... Sample PDF
Scalable Distribution of Watermarked Media
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Chapter 19
Hafiz Malik
This chapter provides critical analysis of current state-of-the-art in steganography. First part of the this chapter provides the classification of... Sample PDF
Critical Analysis of Digital Steganography
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Chapter 20
Esther Palomar, Juan M.E. Tapiador, Julio C. Hernandez-Castro, Arturo Ribagorda
Perhaps the most popular feature offered by Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks is the possibility of having several replicas of the same content... Sample PDF
Secure Content Distribution in Pure P2P
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Chapter 21
Andreas U. Schmidt, Nicolai Kuntze
Security in the value creation chain hinges on many single components and their interrelations. Trusted Platforms open ways to fulfil the pertinent... Sample PDF
Trust in the Value-Creation Chain of Multimedia Goods
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Chapter 22
Goo-Rak Kwon, Sung-Jea Ko
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Copyright Protection of A/V Codec for Mobile Multimedia Devices
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Chapter 23
Frank Y. Shih, Yi-Ta Wu
Steganography is the art of hiding secret data inside other innocent media file. Steganalysis is the process of detecting hidden data which are... Sample PDF
Digital Steganography Based on Genetic Algorithm
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Chapter 24
Guangjie Liu, Shiguo Lian, Yuewei Dai, Zhiquan Wang
Image steganography is a common form of information hiding which embeds as many message bits into images and keep the introduced distortion... Sample PDF
Adaptive Image Steganography Based on Structural Similarity Metric
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Chapter 25
Shiguo Lian
Video watermarking technique embeds some information into videos by modifying video content slightly. The embedded information, named watermark, may... Sample PDF
A Survey on Video Watermarking
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Chapter 26
Minglei Liu, Ce Zhu
Digital watermarking is a useful and powerful tool for multimedia security such as copyright protection, tamper proofing and assessment, broadcast... Sample PDF
Multiple Description Coding with Application in Multimedia Watermarking
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Chapter 27
Hsuan T. Chang, Chih-Chung Hsu
This chapter introduces a pioneer concept in which multiple images are simultaneously considered in the compression and secured distribution... Sample PDF
Fractal-Based Secured Multiple-Image Compression and Distribution
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