Although there are a large number of contemporary software development processes/methodologies available to assist and guide software professionals in developing software systems, there is no specific process that can assist organizations in planning and managing their transition to this new work environment. As a result, there are still a large number of information technology (IT) organizations that have not yet implemented any object-oriented (OO) process. For them, the transition to a new work environment and the adoption and utilization of a software process implies a number of problems, commonly including necessary human and organizational resistance to the ensuing cultural change. This chapter provides IT organizations and professionals with insights into the most important key success factors that may promote the entire process of organizational change. We investigate the effect of various human factors on the adoption and diffusion of an object-oriented software development process. Some of the human factors include motivation, leadership, resistance to culture change, and willingness and readiness to change. In addition, this chapter explores the significant role of these factors in controlling the entire process of implementing an OO process in practice, emphasizing the significance of planning and managing these “soft” factors to achieve clear advantages and gain enviable results.