Pluralistic Coordination

Pluralistic Coordination

Peter J. Denning (Naval Postgraduate School, USA), Fernando Flores (Pluralistic Networks, Inc., USA) and Gloria Flores (Pluralistic Networks, Inc., USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60960-567-4.ch025
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Two questions are examined. Why is coordination hard to achieve when teams are diverse? Are there conditions under which players of MMOGs can learn skills of effective coordination and transfer these skills to real teams? A pluralistic network is a social system in which people are committed to working together effectively despite cultural differences. A core set of eight practices enables a network to be pluralistic. An experiment with the World of Warcraft game confirmed that the game can significantly accelerate learning of those practices. To enable the skills to be transferred to the real world, the game must be augmented with a reflective learning environment.
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The Coordination Challenge

The Internet confronts us with a plurality of values at a level of immediacy unimaginable to previous generations. At work, at play, and at home, we are unavoidably connected to people from all over the world. In organizations large and small, project teams are increasingly virtual, consisting of people in dispersed geographical locations, who have different cultural backgrounds and value systems. To flourish in our world today -- or even just to participate in a meaningful way -- requires the cultivation of a new kind of pluralism. The new pluralism is a mindset that goes far beyond tolerating diversity; it actively engages with others to articulate shared goals and commit to working together to achieve them. The new pluralism requires a new skill set, which we call the Orchestration of Commitments in Pluralistic Networks. Our objective in this chapter is to discuss why we need this new kind of pluralism and how to cultivate it in our networks. We are confident that MMO games can be useful tools for developing and cultivating this mindset, when combined with a framework for observing the way we engage with each other and with new practices for more effective engagement.

Coordination is essential for all human beings to work together. It underlies all human social practices. It is how a group acts together as a unity, achieving a purpose that no individual could alone. Business, government, and military organizations exemplify systems of coordination that enable them to make and fulfill offers on a broad scale. These organizations rely on small teams to carry out specific tasks and missions. We will focus here on coordination within small teams.

Despite its being essential, many people find coordination to be a major, sometimes insurmountable, challenge. Coordination breakdowns manifest as miscommunication, misunderstandings, unmet expectations, distrust, blindness, prejudice, lack of sensitivity, ill-timed actions, wasted motion and resources, missed deadlines, and performance-killing bad moods. As a result, coordination breakdowns are usually expensive, wasteful, mission killing, and sometimes life threatening. A plethora of coordination technologies have been offered to overcome these problems and enable virtual teams, but even with those tools coordination breakdowns have become more common as teams become more dispersed. Exquisite coordination, which separates high performance teams from the rest, is an ever more elusive goal.

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Maria Manuela Cruz-Cunha, Vitor Hugo Varvalho, Paula Tavares
Maria Manuela Cruz-Cunha, Vitor Hugo Varvalho, Paula Tavares
Chapter 1
Paula Tavares, Pedro Mota Teixeira, Leonardo Pereira, Maria Manuela Cruz-Cunha
Finally, we examine the importance and function of motion graphics inside the game experience and the game contexts in which this communication... Sample PDF
Video Games as Aggregating Mediums and Resulting Products of Several Visual Communication Languages
Chapter 2
Petri Lankoski, Anja Johansson, Benny Karlsson, Staffan Björk, Pierangelo Dell’Acqua
We address the problem of creating human-like, believable behavior for game characters. To achieve character believability in games, the game... Sample PDF
AI Design for Believable Characters via Gameplay Design Patterns
Chapter 3
Giannis Milolidakis, Chris Kimble, Corinne Grenier
This chapter analyzes behaviour in on-line games from a practice-oriented perspective and focuses on how individuals create and sustain social... Sample PDF
A Practice-Based Analysis of Social Interaction in a Massively Multiplayer Online Gaming Environment
Chapter 4
Verónica Costa Orvalho, João Orvalho
Character Animation has a crucial role in modern videogames: it is essential to provide a realistic and immersive experience to the users. This... Sample PDF
Character Animation: Past, Present and Future
Chapter 5
Agostino Poggi
Online games have grown during recent years into a popular entertainment form with a wide variety of games and player communities spread across the... Sample PDF
Enhancing Online Games with Agents
Chapter 6
Mark G. Elwell
This chapter reports on movements toward de facto standards for role playing games in the freely accessible and configurable shared virtual... Sample PDF
Questing for Standards: Role Playing Games in Second Life
Chapter 7
Murillo Guimarães Carneiro
The growth of the game industry shows a great market to be conquered. However the gaming business now has consumers more demanding and hungry for... Sample PDF
Artificial Intelligence in Games Evolution
Chapter 8
Jouni Smed
Interactive digital storytelling (IDS) aims at generating dramatically compelling stories based on the user’s input. During the two decades of... Sample PDF
Once Upon a Time: The Convergence of Interactive Storytelling and Computer Games
Chapter 9
Game Led HCI Improvements  (pages 126-145)
Michael Barlow
This chapter covers these recent advances in HCI technology. It conveys the technological and engineering basis of the key current & successful... Sample PDF
Game Led HCI Improvements
Chapter 10
Vladimir Devyatkov, Alexander Alfimtsev
A primary goal of virtual environments is to support natural, efficient, powerful and flexible human-computer interaction. But the traditional... Sample PDF
Human-Computer Interaction in Games Using Computer Vision Techniques
Chapter 11
Sarajane Marques Peres, Clodis Boscarioli, Jorge Bidarra, Marcelo Fantinato
Nowadays, efforts in computer game development have been concerned to overcome entertainment objectives. In fact, there has been much effort aiming... Sample PDF
Human-Computer Interaction and Artificial Intelligence: Multidisciplinarity Aiming Game Accessibility
Chapter 12
Blaine Hoffman
The continued evolution of mobile technology provides for new means of interaction and engagement in our daily lives. The interconnectedness... Sample PDF
Mobile Gaming: Exploring Spaces and Places
Chapter 13
Henry H. Emurian, Gerald C. Canfield, Peter G. Roma, Zabecca S. Brinson, Eric D. Gasior, Robert D. Hienz, Steven R. Hursh, Joseph V. Brady
This chapter describes a Team Performance Task (TPT) that has been designed to assess the status of a three-person team operating a game-like... Sample PDF
A Multiplayer Team Performance Task: Design and Evaluation
Chapter 14
Patrick Stacey, Joe Nandhakumar
There is little research into the emotional dimension of creative industry personnel, such as computer game designers, and how emotions relate to... Sample PDF
Emotional Journeys in Game Design Teams
Chapter 15
Olga Albuquerque, Gillian Grace Moreira
Using questionnaires and interviews, the video-gaming habits of 136 youngsters, ranging from the ages of 9 to 15 years, were assessed, taking into... Sample PDF
The Contribution of Videogames to Anti-Social Attitudes and Behaviours amongst Youngsters
Chapter 16
Matthew Sharritt, R. Kelly Aune, Daniel D. Suthers
A qualitative case study of student game play is presented, describing how game player communication becomes increasingly complex, efficient, and... Sample PDF
Gamer Talk: Becoming Impenetrably Efficient
Chapter 17
Patrícia Arriaga, Augusta Gaspar, Francisco Esteves
This chapter intends to contribute to the clarification of the controversy surrounding the short-term effects of playing violent games [VG] on... Sample PDF
Playing with Violence: An Updated Review on the Effects of Playing Violent Electronic Games
Chapter 18
Julio Angel Ortiz
The chapter serves as an introduction to current thinking about the role of games in our society. It takes a measured tone in acknowledging some of... Sample PDF
Knowing the Game: A Review of Videogames and Entertainment Software in the United States - Trends and Future Research Opportunities
Chapter 19
Stephen Brock Schafer, Gino Yu
The development of more meaningful video games is becoming increasingly possible by recent advances in video game technologies, neurosciences, and... Sample PDF
Meaningful Video Games: Drama-Based Video Games as Transformational Experience
Chapter 20
Heiko Duin, Jannicke Baalsrud Hauge, Felix Hunecker, Klaus-Dieter Thoben
This chapter describes application areas for serious games in the context of such CNOs. A classification scheme for serious games has been developed... Sample PDF
Application of Serious Games in Industrial Contexts
Chapter 21
Juho Hamari, Aki Järvinen
The results provide several game mechanics that are located in the union of game design and business planning. Moreover, the results imply a new... Sample PDF
Building Customer Relationship through Game Mechanics in Social Games
Chapter 22
Games and Advertising  (pages 366-382)
Inês de Seixas Duarte, António Manuel Valente de Andrade
In this chapter we will review the state of the art in these areas and present some arguments for and against each of these strategies. Sample PDF
Games and Advertising
Chapter 23
Fernando Belfo
Computer games conceptualization and development are processes that have particular features with significant complexity. The life cycle at computer... Sample PDF
Business Process Management in the Computer Games Industry
Chapter 24
Martin Heitmann, Kay Tidten
Nowadays, managers in the computer and video gaming industry are forced to reevaluate their companies’ strategic position within the value-added... Sample PDF
New Business Models for the Computer Gaming Industry: Selling an Adventure
Chapter 25
Pluralistic Coordination  (pages 416-431)
Peter J. Denning, Fernando Flores, Gloria Flores
Two questions are examined. Why is coordination hard to achieve when teams are diverse? Are there conditions under which players of MMOGs can learn... Sample PDF
Pluralistic Coordination
Chapter 26
Danny Pannicke, Jonas Repschläger, Rüdiger Zarnekow
Virtual worlds enable new ways to create value. Recent examples from Second Life – a virtual world run by Linden Lab – have demonstrated how firms... Sample PDF
Business Opportunities in Social Virtual Worlds
Chapter 27
Kostas Anagnostou
In this chapter we review and discuss the impact of mass adoption of the Internet and its assorted technologies is having on the evolution of the... Sample PDF
How has the Internet Evolved the Videogame Medium?
Chapter 28
Pedro Pina
In the present chapter, the author briefly studies the particular tension between the current copyright paradigm, based on the dichotomy active... Sample PDF
Computer Games and Intellectual Property Law: Derivative Works, Copyright and Copyleft
Chapter 29
Peter J. Wasilko
This chapter introduces readers to a broad range of legal issues relevant to game designers and developers touching such topics as intellectual... Sample PDF
Law, Architecture, Gameplay, and Marketing
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