Policy Mapping: Relating Enterprise Architecture to Policy Goals

Policy Mapping: Relating Enterprise Architecture to Policy Goals

Dwight V. Toavs (National Defense University, USA)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 17
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-068-4.ch009
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Abstract

Few government executives can explain the enterprise architecture of his or her agency, and it is rare to find a political executive who is able to explain how their political objectives are furthered by a government- wide enterprise architecture (Holmes, 2007). This low level of awareness translates to enterprise architecture efforts that are often undervalued and under funded because the budget priorities of political and functional executives rarely include enterprise architecture. Unsurprisingly, many points of tension exist as the CIOs and architects work to translate political goals into resources and architectural plans supporting the agency’s programs. This tension, between the rational orientation of enterprise architecture advocated by the CIO and the political nature of policy goals sought by executives, often puts a CIO at odds with his or her organization’s political and functional executives. This chapter discusses that tension, and advocates that CIOs and enterprise architects develop a “Policy Map” to bridge the gap between the political and the rational perspectives. A policy map provides the “Purpose Reference Model” missing from present architecture models and policies, and visually portrays and communicates key relationships between policy goals and functional programs on the one hand, and the enterprise architecture and its implementing IT initiatives on the other hand. A well-crafted Policy Map is a visual reference for aligning resources, effort, architecture, and the policy goals of political executives.
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Paradox Of Government Organizations

We spend most of our lives in organizations. Although we rarely think about it, the formal organizations with which we are familiar are abstract concepts. We see the building and think of the organization; we see the people and think of the organization. Despite the physical evidence, the notion of the organization exists primarily in our minds. At this conceptual level organizations are created and exist in order to serve specific purposes that is, they are instrumental entities. Typically these purposes are defined by the organization’s leaders, individuals who may be the organization’s creators, its owners, or perhaps its managers. For example, businesses are created by an individual or a group of individuals with an idea, a product they wish to sell, or a service they wish to offer. These organizations are instrumental in helping fulfill the intent of their creators. Business organizations use rational approaches in the conduct of their activities, that is, approaches based on reasoning that produce goods and services as efficiently and effectively as possible. Therefore, it would be rational for the business owners to expect a profit from their endeavors, and to run their business organization as effectively as they reasonably can. They may even create and implement an enterprise architecture, one of the latest rational and comprehensive approaches to structuring efficient and effective organizational action.

Government organizations are simultaneously similar to and yet different from the generic business organization noted previously. Government and business organizations are similar in that government organizations also seek to perform their missions or fulfill their goals as effectively and efficiently as they can – in this respect government organizations are also instrumentally rational. But government and business organizations differ in that government organizations are established through a political process that seeks to satisfy political goals. They are established to serve political purposes and address societal challenges that have been defined and justified in political terms, challenges such as reducing illiteracy, improving air and water quality, or providing a level playing field for businesses seeking to sell their goods and services to government organizations. In working to fulfill political goals, government organizations are clearly political in character, yet in pursuing these political goals through rational organizational actions they are rational in nature and instrumental in pursuing their purpose. This dual nature of government organizations, that is, an organization that simultaneously serves a political purpose (has a “political face”) as well as a rational purpose (has a “rational face”) creates an organizational paradox – and a significant challenge for enterprise architects and the CIOs as they try to implement their enterprise architectures. This chapter encourages CIOs and enterprise architects to create a “Policy Map” for their organizations to help resolve this organizational paradox. Your “Policy Map” can effectively serve as the “Purpose Reference Model” for your enterprise architecture, and serve to relate political goals to rational organizational activities with the goal of educating political and functional executives, congressional overseers, managers and technical specialists, and citizens.

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Foreword
John A. Zachman
Preface
Pallab Saha
Acknowledgment
Pallab Saha
Chapter 1
Pallab Saha
Countries across the world are pushing their frontiers in governance in the move to information economy, and governments play a pivotal role in this... Sample PDF
A Methodology for Government Transformation with Enterprise Architecture
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Chapter 2
Marc M. Lankhorst, Guido I.H.M. Bayens
This chapter describes the development and future directions of a service-oriented reference architecture for the Dutch government. For several... Sample PDF
A Service-Oriented Reference Architecture for E-Government
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Chapter 3
Amit Bhagwat
This chapter introduces the concept of Beacon Architecture as a formalized and ordered grouping of architectural elements, describing the... Sample PDF
Role of Beacon Architecture in Mitigating Enterprise Architecture Challenges of the Public Sector
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Chapter 4
Hong Sik Kim, Sungwook Moon
Quite a good amount of time has been spent seeking appropriate solutions to handle the giant information technology expenditure not only in... Sample PDF
Maturity Model Based on Quality Concept of Enterprise Information Architecture (EIA)
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Chapter 5
Alan Dyer
Enterprise Architecture is the organising logic for business processes and Information Technology infrastructure, the purpose of which is to create... Sample PDF
Measuring the Benefits of Enterprise Architecture: Knowledge Management Maturity
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Chapter 6
William S. Boddie
An effective enterprise architecture (EA) capability enables an organization to develop sound enterprise plans, make informed human, materiel, and... Sample PDF
The Criticality of Transformational Leadership to Advancing United States Government Enterprise Architecture Adoption
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Chapter 7
Jay Ramanathan
Public institutions that are organized in hierarchies find it difficult to address crisis or other unique requirements that demand networked... Sample PDF
Adaptive IT Architecture as a Catalyst for Network Capability in Government
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Chapter 8
Chris Aitken
This chapter describes a design integrity framework for developing models of any entity of interest at various levels of abstraction. The design... Sample PDF
Design Integrity and Enterprise Architecture Governance
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Chapter 9
Dwight V. Toavs
Few government executives can explain the enterprise architecture of his or her agency, and it is rare to find a political executive who is able to... Sample PDF
Policy Mapping: Relating Enterprise Architecture to Policy Goals
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Chapter 10
Klaus D. Niemann
A comprehensive enterprise architecture management has strategic and operative aspects. Strategic tasks cover the identification of appropriate... Sample PDF
Enterprise Architecture Management and its Role in IT Governance and IT Investment Planning
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Chapter 11
Vassilios Peristeras, Konstantinos Tarabanis
Departing from the lack of coherent and ready-to-use models and domain descriptions for public administration, we present here our effort to build a... Sample PDF
The GEA: Governance Enterprise Architecture-Framework and Models
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Chapter 12
Bram Klievink, Wijnand Derks, Marijn Janssen
The ambition of the Dutch government is to create a demand-driven government by means of effective use of information and communication technology.... Sample PDF
Enterprise Architecture and Governance Challenges for Orchestrating Public-Private Cooperation
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Chapter 13
Neil Fairhead, John Good
This chapter provides an approach to Enterprise Architecture that is people-led, as a contrast to being led by technology or modelling methodology.... Sample PDF
People-Led Enterprise Architecture
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Chapter 14
Timothy Biggert
This chapter provides a case study on how the U.S. Office of Personnel Management has led the establishment of the Human Resources Line of Business... Sample PDF
Using Enterprise Architecture to Transform Service Delivery: The U.S. Federal Government's Human Resources Line of Business
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Chapter 15
Scott Bernard, Shuyuan Mary Ho
Government agencies are committing an increasing amount of resources to information security and data privacy solutions in order to meet legal and... Sample PDF
Enterprise Architecture as Context and Method for Designing and Implementing Information Security and Data Privacy Controls in Government Agencies
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Chapter 16
John Mo, Laszlo Nemes
With a plethora of architectures, modelling techniques and methodologies on offer, it is difficult to decide how to begin building an enterprise and... Sample PDF
Architecture Based Engineering of Enterprises with Government Involvement
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Chapter 17
Leonidas G. Anthopoulos
E-government evolves according to strategic plans with the coordination of central Governments. This top-down procedure succeeds in slow but... Sample PDF
Collaborative Enterprise Architecture for Municipal Environments
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Chapter 18
Nigel Martin
This chapter describes the development and use of government enterprise architectures for the framing and alignment of the core business processes... Sample PDF
Government Enterprise Architectures: Enabling the Alignment of Business Processes and Information Systems
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About the Contributors