Principal Component Analysis Using the Factor Procedure

Principal Component Analysis Using the Factor Procedure

Sean Eom (Southeast Missouri State University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-738-6.ch008
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This chapter describes the factor procedure. The first section of the chapter begins with the definition of factor analysis. This is the statistical techniques whose common objective is to represent a set of variables in terms of a smaller number of hypothetical variables (factor). ACA uses principal component analysis to group authors into several catagories with similar lines of research. We also present many different approaches of preparing datasets including manual data inputs, in-file statement, and permanent datasets. We discuss each of the key SAS statements including DATA, INPUT, CARDS, PROC, and RUN. In addition, we examine several options statements to specify the followings: method for extracting factors; number of factors, rotation method, and displaying output options.
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This chapter describes principal component analysis using the factor procedure in the SAS system. The first section of the chapter explains why ACA uses principal component analysis of the factor procedures in the SAS system. In addition, the chapter discusses the following topics.

  • Overview of Input, Procedures, and Outputs of ACA SAS Analysis

  • Definition of Factor Analysis

  • Getting the Data into a SAS Data Set

  • Preparing an ACA Proc Factor Program

  • Processing the Inputs

  • Interpreting the Factor Procedure Outputs

Numerous multivariate analysis tools exist. The appropriate research methods are determined by three important questions regarding the characteristics of the variables under study (Cooper & Emory, 1995, p. 521).

  • 1.

    Are there dependent variables in the problems?

  • 2.

    Is there more than one dependent variable?

  • 3.

    Are the variables metric or nonmetric?

The variables in author cocitation analysis are the authors. The author is defined as “a body of writings by a person” or “a body of contributions by a person.” The term “a person” refers to a single author or one of multiple authors. Authors are not dependent on each other, although one author may exercise some influence on other authors. The second important question is whether the variables are metric (quantitative) or nonmetric (qualitative). Metric variables are measured by ratio and interval measurements; nonmetric variables refer to data that are nominal or ordinal. Nominal data indicate classes and categories that are not measurable by the quantitative units such as kg, meter, miles, pounds, frequency, etc. Examples of nominal data include an individual’s religion, nationality, gender, marital status, union membership status, etc. Since our data has no dependent variables and is metric data, three multivariate analysis tools are applied in this research: factor analysis, cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling.

All three techniques used in the ACA aim at grouping/classifying all variables into several subgroups with common underlying hidden structures, characteristics and/or attributes. The hidden structures/characteristics/attributes are given different terms: factors in factor analysis, clusters in cluster analysis, and dimensions in multidimensional scaling. Although all three techniques seek to summarize/simplify a large number of variables, there are some distinctive differences among these techniques. The basic concepts and some differences among the three techniques are discussed in Chapters VIII, IX, and X.


Overview Of Input, Procedures, And Outputs

As Figure 1 shows, ACA data analysis requires the following 7 different procedures of the SAS system.

Figure 1.

The factor procedure in ACA

  • Factor Procedure

  • Distance Procedure

  • Cluster Procedure

  • MDS Procedure

  • Plot Procedure

  • G3D Procedure

Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Sean B. Eom
Chapter 1
Sean Eom
Author cocitation analysis (ACA) is a branch of bibliometrics. Bibliometrics/informetrics is one of the older areas of library and information... Sample PDF
An Introduction to Bibliometrics and Informetrics
Chapter 2
Sean Eom
This chapter introduces online citation data retrieval using the Web of Science and Dialog Classic. The Web of Science provides access to... Sample PDF
An Introduction to Online Data Retrieval and Issues
Chapter 3
Sean Eom
Virtually all ACA studies using Thomson’s ISI citation indexes used only the first author to retrieve the cocitation counts. Therefore, this has... Sample PDF
The Impact of the ISI Convention of Relying on only the Name of the First Author on ACA Results: An Empirical Investigation
Chapter 4
Diagonal Values in ACA  (pages 91-121)
Sean Eom
Diagonal values in the cocitation frequency counts matrix are a fundamental issue in ACA study. Diagonal values are the co-citation frequency counts... Sample PDF
Diagonal Values in ACA
Chapter 5
The Fox-Base Approach  (pages 123-136)
Sean Eom
Chapter II introduced online cocitation counts retrieval using Dialog Classic and citation index files. Certainly Dialog Classic is an attractive... Sample PDF
The Fox-Base Approach
Chapter 6
Sean Eom
This chapter shows another alternative approach of building citation database and retrieval system using the spreadsheet program, Microsoft Excel.... Sample PDF
Building Databases and the Cocitation Counts Generation System Using Microsoft Excel Program in Visual Basics
Chapter 7
Sean Eom
The previous two chapters examined the two alternative approaches of retrieving cocitation counts using custom databases and cocitation frequency... Sample PDF
Overview of Author Cocitation Analysis Procedures
Chapter 8
Sean Eom
This chapter describes the factor procedure. The first section of the chapter begins with the definition of factor analysis. This is the statistical... Sample PDF
Principal Component Analysis Using the Factor Procedure
Chapter 9
Sean Eom
This chapter describes the distance and cluster procedure of the SAS system. SAS version 9 introduced the proc distance procedure. All previous... Sample PDF
The Distance and Cluster Procedure
Chapter 10
Multidimensional Scaling  (pages 225-254)
Sean Eom
This chapter discusses multidimensional scaling (MDS) procedures. MDS is a class of multivariate statistical techniques/procedures to produce two or... Sample PDF
Multidimensional Scaling
Chapter 11
Sean Eom
This chapter briefly introduces the use of SPSS version 15.0 to conduct ACA analysis. The SPSS accepts datafiles in many different formats including... Sample PDF
ACA Analysis with the 15.0.0 Verison of SPSS for Windows
Chapter 12
Sean Eom
This is the capstone chapter that shows how the concepts, tools, and techniques discussed in each of the previous chapters can be applied in... Sample PDF
The Intellectual Structure of Decision Support Systems Research (1969-1989)
Chapter 13
Sean Eom
This chapter extends an earlier benchmark study (Sean B. Eom, 1995) which examined the intellectual structure, major themes, and reference... Sample PDF
The Changing Structure of Decision Support Systems Research: An Empirical Investigation through Author Cocitation Mapping (1990-1999)
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