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Principles of Effective Pedagogy within the Context of Connected Classroom Technology: Implications for Teacher Knowledge

Copyright © 2012. 24 pages.
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DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60960-750-0.ch008
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MLA

Pape, Stephen J., Karen E. Irving, Clare V. Bell, Melissa L. Shirley, Douglas T. Owens, Sharilyn Owens, Jonathan D. Bostic and Soon Chun Lee. "Principles of Effective Pedagogy within the Context of Connected Classroom Technology: Implications for Teacher Knowledge." Educational Technology, Teacher Knowledge, and Classroom Impact: A Research Handbook on Frameworks and Approaches. IGI Global, 2012. 176-199. Web. 28 Aug. 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-60960-750-0.ch008

APA

Pape, S. J., Irving, K. E., Bell, C. V., Shirley, M. L., Owens, D. T., Owens, S., Bostic, J. D., & Lee, S. C. (2012). Principles of Effective Pedagogy within the Context of Connected Classroom Technology: Implications for Teacher Knowledge. In R. Ronau, C. Rakes, & M. Niess (Eds.) Educational Technology, Teacher Knowledge, and Classroom Impact: A Research Handbook on Frameworks and Approaches (pp. 176-199). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. doi:10.4018/978-1-60960-750-0.ch008

Chicago

Pape, Stephen J., Karen E. Irving, Clare V. Bell, Melissa L. Shirley, Douglas T. Owens, Sharilyn Owens, Jonathan D. Bostic and Soon Chun Lee. "Principles of Effective Pedagogy within the Context of Connected Classroom Technology: Implications for Teacher Knowledge." In Educational Technology, Teacher Knowledge, and Classroom Impact: A Research Handbook on Frameworks and Approaches, ed. Robert N. Ronau, Christopher R. Rakes and Margaret L. Niess, 176-199 (2012), accessed August 28, 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-60960-750-0.ch008

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Abstract

Classroom Connectivity Technology (CCT) can serve as a tool for creating contexts in which students engage in mathematical thinking leading to understanding. We theorize four principles of effective mathematics instruction incorporating CCT based on examination of teachers’ use of CCT within their Algebra I classrooms across four years. Effective implementation of CCT is dependent upon (1) the creation and implementation of mathematical tasks that support examination of patterns leading to generalizations and conceptual development; (2) classroom interactions that focus mathematical thinking within students and the collective class; (3) formative assessment leading to teachers’ and students’ increased knowledge of students’ present understandings; and (4) sustained engagement in mathematical thinking. Each of these principles is discussed in term of its implications for teacher knowledge.
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Background

Mathematics classrooms are complex systems co-constructed by teachers and students as they negotiate norms for participation (Bowers, Cobb, & McClain, 1999; Cobb, Boufi, McClain, & Whitenack, 1997). The norms and resulting interactions are the basis for students’ construction of what it means to learn mathematics, to act competently, and to engage in mathematical thinking in general and, more specifically, within the mathematics classroom in which they are presently learning (Gresalfi, Martin, Hand, & Greeno, 2009; Hiebert et al., 2005; Turner et al., 1998). Further, the quality and locus of thinking established within the mathematics classroom ultimately determines students’ understandings. From a situated/sociocultural perspective, learning is the “relationship between an individual with a body and mind and an environment in which the individual thinks, feels, acts, and interacts” (Gee, 2008, p. 81). Gee theorized about opportunity to learn in terms of the learner’s capacity (or, in Gee’s terms, effectivities) to interact with the affordances of a classroom environment.

While the classroom context is co-constructed jointly by the teacher and students, the teacher’s role is particularly important and influential. Teachers shape students’ mathematical thinking through the tasks they provide, norms they set, classroom discourse they lead, feedback they provide, and levels of engagement they establish. Broad considerations in terms of such contexts include the nature of and sequencing of tasks (Hiebert & Wearne, 1993), establishment of an inquiry microculture (i.e., enculturation into ways of knowing in mathematics; Cobb et al., 1997), the nature of classroom interactions (Cobb et al., 1997; Patrick, Anderman, Ryan, Edelin, & Midgley, 2001), formative assessment and provision of feedback (Bell & Cowie, 2001; Shute, 2008), and creation of “contexts for involvement” (Turner et al., 1998).

Learning with understanding is an important goal of school mathematics and is predicated on deep examination of mathematical concepts and processes. While memorization of mathematical facts is critical for the development of expertise (Chi, Feltovich, & Glaser, 1981), understanding depends upon raising prior conceptions to a level of consciousness and deeply analyzing new knowledge in terms of these prior understandings (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 1999). Whether an individual learner can engage with the environment to gain new knowledge is contingent upon the relationship between the learner and the environment. Opportunities for deep examination of mathematics concepts and active learning may be possible through a metacognitive approach to learning, which includes students examining their present understandings, explaining their reasoning for mathematical operations, and investigating alternative processes for solving problems (Bransford et al., 1999).

In this chapter, we argue that classroom connectivity technology (CCT) can be used as an important tool for creating contexts in which students engage in deep mathematical thinking. Our analysis across four years of a randomized field trial, Classroom Connectivity in Promoting Mathematics and Science Achievement (CCMS), documented teachers’ use of CCT within their Algebra I classrooms. Based on analyses of varied data (e.g., teacher interviews, classroom observations, student achievement data, and student focus group interviews), we propose four interrelated and complementary principles of effective mathematics instruction incorporating CCT.

  • Principle 1: Effective CCT implementation is dependent upon mathematical tasks that support examination of patterns leading to generalizations and conceptual development.

  • Principle 2: Effective CCT implementation is dependent upon classroom interactions that focus mathematical thinking within students and the collective class.

  • Principle 3: Effective CCT implementation is dependent upon formative assessment instructional practices that lead to teachers’ and students’ increased knowledge of students’ present understandings.

  • Principle 4: Effective CCT implementation is dependent upon sustained engagement in mathematical thinking.

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Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Preface
Robert N. Ronau, Christopher R. Rakes, Margaret L. Niess
Chapter 1
Margaret L. Niess
Technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK) is a dynamic lens that describes teacher knowledge required for designing, implementing, and... Sample PDF
Teacher Knowledge for Teaching with Technology: A TPACK Lens
$37.50
Chapter 2
Matthew J. Koehler, Tae Seob Shin, Punya Mishra
In this chapter we reviewed a wide range of approaches to measure Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). We identified recent... Sample PDF
How Do We Measure TPACK? Let Me Count the Ways
$37.50
Chapter 3
Thomas C. Hammond, R. Curby Alexander, Alec M. Bodzin
The TPACK framework provides researchers with a robust framework for conducting research on technology integration in authentic environments, i.e.... Sample PDF
Assessment in Authentic Environments: Designing Instruments and Reporting Results from Classroom-Based TPACK Research
$37.50
Chapter 4
Robert N. Ronau, Christopher R. Rakes
In this study, we examine the validity of the Comprehensive Framework for Teacher Knowledge (CFTK) through a systematic review and meta-analysis.... Sample PDF
A Comprehensive Framework for Teacher Knowledge (CFTK): Complexity of Individual Aspects and Their Interactions
$37.50
Chapter 5
Lynn Bell, Nicole Juersivich, Thomas C. Hammond, Randy L. Bell
Effective teachers across K-12 content areas often use visual representations to promote conceptual understanding, but these static representations... Sample PDF
The TPACK of Dynamic Representations
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Chapter 6
Erica C. Boling, Jeanine Beatty
This chapter informs teacher educators and individuals involved in teacher professional development about the tensions that frequently arise when... Sample PDF
Overcoming the Tensions and Challenges of Technology Integration: How Can We Best Support our Teachers?
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Chapter 7
John K. Lee, Meghan M. Manfra
To address the myriad effects that emerge from using technology in social studies, we introduce in this chapter the concept of vernaculars to... Sample PDF
TPACK Vernaculars in Social Studies Research
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Chapter 8
Stephen J. Pape, Karen E. Irving, Clare V. Bell, Melissa L. Shirley, Douglas T. Owens, Sharilyn Owens, Jonathan D. Bostic, Soon Chun Lee
Classroom Connectivity Technology (CCT) can serve as a tool for creating contexts in which students engage in mathematical thinking leading to... Sample PDF
Principles of Effective Pedagogy within the Context of Connected Classroom Technology: Implications for Teacher Knowledge
$37.50
Chapter 9
Christopher J. Johnston, Patricia S. Moyer-Packenham
Multiple existing frameworks address aspects of teachers’ knowledge for teaching mathematics with technology. This study proposes the integration of... Sample PDF
A Model for Examining the Criteria Used by Pre-Service Elementary Teachers in Their Evaluation of Technology for Mathematics Teaching
$37.50
Chapter 10
Joseph M. Piro, Nancy Marksbury
With the continuing shift of instructional media to digital sources occurring in classrooms around the world, the role of technology instruction in... Sample PDF
Technologizing Teaching: Using the WebQuest to Enhance Pre-Service Education
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Chapter 11
Travis K. Miller
This chapter details a theoretical framework for effective implementation and study of technology when used in mathematics education. Based on... Sample PDF
A Theoretical Framework for Implementing Technology for Mathematics Learning
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Chapter 12
David A. Slykhuis, Rebecca McNall Krall
In this review of recent literature on the use of technology to teach science content, 143 articles from 8 science education journals were selected... Sample PDF
Successful Implementation of Technology to Teach Science: Research Implications
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Chapter 13
Irina Lyublinskaya, Nelly Tournaki
A year-long PD program was provided to four NYC integrated algebra teachers. The PD comprised of teacher authoring of curriculum that incorporated... Sample PDF
The Effects of Teacher Content Authoring on TPACK and on Student Achievement in Algebra: Research on Instruction with the TI-Nspire™ Handheld
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Chapter 14
Robert N. Ronau, Christopher R. Rakes
This chapter examines issues surrounding the design of research in educational technology and teacher knowledge. The National Research Council... Sample PDF
Making the Grade: Reporting Educational Technology and Teacher Knowledge Research
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