Privacy Automation in Context-Aware Services

Privacy Automation in Context-Aware Services

Amr Ali Eldin (Accenture, The Netherlands), Semir Daskapan (Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands) and Jan van den Berg (Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-290-9.ch013
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With the growing interest in context-aware services, attention has been given to privacy and trust issues. Context-aware privacy architectures are usually proposed and developed without taking into account the trustworthiness of a service provider. Therefore, this chapter deals with two challenges in context-aware services. The first one is to improve privacy architectures with a trust functionality and the second one is to integrate this refined privacy architecture in larger service-oriented architectures (SOAs).
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Introduction And Background

With the rapid developments of mobile telecommunications technology over the last two decades, a new computing paradigm known as anywhere and anytime or ubiquitous computing has evolved. Consequently, attention has been given not only to extending current (mobile) web services models, but increasingly also to make these services context-aware. Despite the expected benefits behind this new technology and the need for developing more and more context-aware applications, we enunciate that privacy and trust represent challenges for the success and widespread adoption of these services (Amr Ali Eldin & Stojanovic, 2007).

Privacy has always been of the utmost importance to people since Warren and Brandeis (1890) who wrote “The Right to Privacy” in response to an article that contained personal information about the Warren family. There has been an intensive concern about privacy threats and ways of protecting user privacy in the literature. Privacy threats arise from the linkage between users’ identity and their private information. Simply, it can be seen that breaking this link helps protecting users’ privacy. This can be achieved by either protecting user identity as in most anonymity and pseudonymity solutions (Beresford & Stajano, 2003; Chaum, 1985; Lysyanskayal, Rivest, Sahai, & Wolf, 1999; Wang, 2004) or by controlling private information collection. Most literature focused on the assumption that unknown service providers are simply non-trustworthy and the traditional approach to privacy was always to block all un-authorized requests to private information using access control mechanisms and anonymity solutions (Clifton, Kantarcioglu, Vaidya, Lin, & Zhu, 2002; Linn, 2005; Park & Sandhu, 2002 ; Sandhu, Coyne, Feinstein, & Youman, 1996 ; Tolone, Ahn, Pai, & Hong, 2005). Therefore, cryptographic solutions such as public key and symmetric key encryption mechanisms were always positioned as means of privacy protection. For example, a watermarking algorithm is proposed in (Agrawal & Kiernan, 2002) to encrypt database records by a user’s private keys. To make these records usable by others, a user’s private key has to be communicated so again an assumption has to be made on trustworthiness. Further, real identities can be leaked still when engaged in an online transaction by traffic analyzers (Christian Hauser, 2002; Christian Hauser & Kabatnik, 2001; Linn, 2005).

In analogous to the previous efforts, we cannot guarantee an ultimate privacy. In daily life interactions we need to make assumptions of a service provider (SP) trustworthiness to some degree. Based on this trustworthiness degree, an SP might be given a certain type of access to sensitive information. This is called the authorization or informed consent decision. The tolerance of non-trustworthy service providers seems, however, to be non-realistic in daily life interactions with increasing mobile services (Daskapan, Vree, & Ali Eldin, 2003). Given the fact that many proposed privacy architectures are developed without the clearance of this trust issue, the purpose of this chapter is to propose an integrated solution to privacy that automates trustworthiness assessment as well.

The chapter is organized as follows. In the next section we elaborate in details on the research problem and related work. Then, we introduce the extended ShEM architecture concepts and components where we extend its architecture to introduce a trust valuation mechanism and its high level architecture showing how it is integrated in ShEM overall architecture. Then we develop the high level design of the overall architecture and apply it in a case using the service-oriented architecture (SOA) approach. Finally, we conclude the chapter highlighting potential future work.

Complete Chapter List

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Thomas Strang
Theo Kanter
Dragan Stojanovic
Dragan Stojanovic
Chapter 1
Davy Preuveneers, Koen Victor, Yves Vanrompay, Peter Rigole, Manuele Kirsch Pinheiro
In recent years, many researchers have studied context-awareness to support non-intrusive adaptability of context-aware applications. Context-aware... Sample PDF
Context-Aware Adaptation in an Ecology of Applications
Chapter 2
Tarak Chaari, Mohamed Zouari, Frédérique Laforest
Pervasive information systems aim to make information available anywhere and at anytime. These systems should be used in different contexts... Sample PDF
Ontology Based Context-Aware Adaptation Approach
Chapter 3
Florian Daniel
Adaptivity (the runtime adaptation to user profile data) and context-awareness (the runtime adaptation to generic context data) have been gaining... Sample PDF
Context-Aware Applications for the Web: A Model-Driven Development Approach
Chapter 4
I. Roussaki, M. Strimpakou, C. Pils, N. Kalatzis, N. Liampotis
In ubiquitous computing environments, context management systems are expected to administrate large volumes of spatial and non-spatial information... Sample PDF
Distributed Context Management in Support of Multiple Remote Users
Chapter 5
Jared Zebedee, Patrick Martin, Kirk Wilson, Wendy Powley
Pervasive computing presents an exciting realm where intelligent devices interact within the background of our environments to create a more... Sample PDF
An Adaptable Context Management Framework for Pervasive Computing
Chapter 6
Yuanping Li, Ling Feng, Lizhu Zhou
Context is an essential element in mobile and ubiquitous computing. Users’ information needs can be better understood and supplied by means of... Sample PDF
Context-Aware Database Querying: Recent Progress and Challenges
Chapter 7
Carsten Jacob, Heiko Pfeffer, Stephan Steglich
The idea of context-aware services has been around for a long time. The rise of user mobility enabled by well-equipped mobile devices, increasing... Sample PDF
Employing Context Information and Semantics to Advance Responsiveness in Service Composition
Chapter 8
Heinz-Josef Eikerling, Pietro Mazzoleni
The authors present a holistic approach for the efficient design, implementation, and validation of context-aware mobile services. The according... Sample PDF
A Methodology for the Design, Development and Validation of Adaptive and Context-Aware Mobile Services
Chapter 9
Stefan Dietze, Alessio Gugliotta, John Domingue
Context-awareness is highly desired, particularly in highly dynamic mobile environments. Semantic Web Services (SWS) address context-adaptation by... Sample PDF
Bridging the Gap between Mobile Application Contexts and Semantic Web Resources
Chapter 10
Claudia Raibulet
Due to its nature, a mobile-enabled environment is very dynamic: reachable resources and services change very often. Users hardly know which... Sample PDF
Adaptive Resource and Service Management in a Mobile-Enabled Environment
Chapter 11
Nahuel Lofeudo, Andrés Fortier, Gustavo Rossi
Mobile context-aware applications have specific needs regarding data communications and position sensing, that current standard hardware is still... Sample PDF
Kindergarten: A Novel Communication Mechanism for Mobile Context-Aware Applications
Chapter 12
Laurent Gomez, Annett Laube, Alessandro Sorniotti
Access control is the process of granting permissions in accordance to an authorization policy. Mobile and ubiquitous environments challenge... Sample PDF
Access Control in Mobile and Ubiquitous Environments
Chapter 13
Amr Ali Eldin, Semir Daskapan, Jan van den Berg
With the growing interest in context-aware services, attention has been given to privacy and trust issues. Context-aware privacy architectures are... Sample PDF
Privacy Automation in Context-Aware Services
Chapter 14
Adrien Joly, Pierre Maret, Fabien Bataille
These times, when the amount of information exponentially grows on the Internet, when most people can be connected at all times with powerful... Sample PDF
Leveraging Semantic Technologies towards Social Ambient Intelligence
Chapter 15
Federica Paganelli, Dino Giuli
The delivery of real-time, context-aware, and personalized information to end-users for mobility support is a high-priority objective in improving... Sample PDF
An Evaluation of Context-Aware Infomobility Systems
Chapter 16
Nikos Tsianos, Panagiotis Germanakos, Zacharias Lekkas, Constantinos Mourlas
The notion of context in context-aware applications is not merely an issue of external situational circumstances or device/channel properties, but... Sample PDF
Incorporating Human Factors in the Development of Context-Aware Personalized Applications: The Next Generation of Intelligent User Interfaces
About the Contributors