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Programmed Instruction Overview

Copyright © 2005. 7 pages.
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DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59140-555-9.ch230
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MLA

Lazarus, Belinda Davis. "Programmed Instruction Overview." Encyclopedia of Distance Learning. IGI Global, 2005. 1522-1528. Web. 25 Oct. 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-59140-555-9.ch230

APA

Lazarus, B. D. (2005). Programmed Instruction Overview. In C. Howard, J. Boettcher, L. Justice, K. Schenk, P. Rogers, & G. Berg (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Distance Learning (pp. 1522-1528). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. doi:10.4018/978-1-59140-555-9.ch230

Chicago

Lazarus, Belinda Davis. "Programmed Instruction Overview." In Encyclopedia of Distance Learning, ed. Caroline Howard, Judith V. Boettcher, Lorraine Justice, Karen D. Schenk, Patricia L. Rogers and Gary A. Berg, 1522-1528 (2005), accessed October 25, 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-59140-555-9.ch230

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Abstract

The history, efficacy, and impact of programmed instruction (PI) range from the rudimentary teaching machines of the 1920s to present-day computer programs and Internet activities that industry, military, and educational institutions use to teach everything from Hebrew to military law. Although PI was originally developed to teach basic academic skills, this overview describes its evolution, research on its effectiveness, and contemporary applications worldwide.
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Complete Chapter List

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Editor's Notes
Caroline Howard
Editor's Notes
Patricia L. Rogers
Editor's Notes
Gary A. Berg
Foreword
Seymour Papert, Allen Schmieder, Bernard J. Luskin
Chapter 1
Geoffrey N. Dick
While distance education has been available in many forms for a long time, the technologies associated with the Internet are opening up new ways of... Sample PDF
Academic Workload in Online Courses
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Chapter 2
Nathan K. Lindsay, Peter B. Williams, Scott L. Howell
A number of prominent distance learning journals have established the need for administrators to be informed and prepared with strategic plans equal... Sample PDF
Academic, Economic, and Technological Trends Affecting Distance Education
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Chapter 3
Deborah W. Proctor
In systems thinking divisions apparent in science specializations are seen “as arbitrary and man made” (Checkland, 1981, p. 4). A key idea embedded... Sample PDF
Accessibility of Technology in Higher Education
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Chapter 4
George K. Kostopoulos
Distance learning is the fastest growing sector in academia. Consequently, it is experiencing growing pains. Such pains come from various... Sample PDF
Accreditation and Recognition in Distance Learning
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Chapter 5
E. Lea Witta
Universities and colleges constantly attempt to address student needs by offering courses in various time frames. Because it is difficult for... Sample PDF
Achievement in Online vs. Traditional Classes
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Chapter 6
Xiaoqiang Liu, Henk Koppelaar
In this article, e-learning is considered as “learning activities enabled by computer and networks (Internet and Intranet).” The distributed... Sample PDF
Adaptive Knowledge Exosomatics for E-Learning
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Chapter 7
Man-Hua Wu, Herng-Yow Chen
With the rapid growth of the Internet and the increasing popularity of the World Wide Web, web-based learning systems have become more and more... Sample PDF
Adaptive Web-Based Learning Framework
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Chapter 8
Henryk Marcinkiewicz, Jennifer McLean
The establishment of a distance learning program is a significant effort. The prepossessing condition for such an undertaking is that distance... Sample PDF
Administrative Concerns for Distance Learning
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Chapter 9
Gary Saunders
Distance learning is a term used to describe a learning experience in which the instructor is in a location remote from that of the student. For... Sample PDF
Administrative Controls in Internet Courses
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Chapter 10
Adult Illiteracy  (pages 64-71)
Ann-Marie Trammell
The issue of illiteracy is a serious one, especially for adults. Worldwide, 880 million adults have been labeled as illiterate, and in the United... Sample PDF
Adult Illiteracy
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Chapter 11
Ana Maria R. Correia, Anabela Sarmento
The development and promotion of the strategic goal of the European Union (EU) to become a competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy and... Sample PDF
Adult Learners in Higher Education
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Chapter 12
Sally M. Johnstone
In 1989 the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) located in Boulder, Colorado, founded the Western Cooperative for Educational... Sample PDF
Advancing the Effective Use of Technology in Higher Education
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Chapter 13
Abert L. Ingram, Lesley G. Hathorn
Elsewhere (Hathorn & Ingram, 2002b; Ingram & Hathorn, 2004; Ingram & Hathorn, 2005), the authors have argued that collaboration in a small group can... Sample PDF
Analyzing Collaboration in Online Communications
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Chapter 14
Andragogy  (pages 90-96)
Camille Whitfield
Distance education has been on the rise for quite some time now, and it has widened the target audience of traditional younger college students to a... Sample PDF
Andragogy
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Chapter 15
Esther E. Klein
Until recently, creativity has been a neglected research topic (Steinberg & Lubart, 1999), although it is a central concern for schools and... Sample PDF
Anonymity-Featured Group Support Systems and Creativity
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Chapter 16
Tiong Kung-Ming, Sim Khoon-Seng
The rapid development of technology greatly influences computer-based learning in distance education. One of the most important aspects is... Sample PDF
Asynchronous vs. Synchronous Interaction
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Chapter 17
Norbert Mundorf, Nikhilesh Dholakia, Ruby Roy Dholakia, Jing J. Xiao
In industrial societies, and also in developing countries, automobile travel is increasingly associated with pollution, congestion and urban sprawl... Sample PDF
Automobile Traffic Impact of Distance Learning
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Chapter 18
Peter Burrage, Leslee Francis Pelton
In Houghton’s (1989) review of educational paradigms, he highlights the gaining importance of chaos theory. Chaos theory is often characterized by... Sample PDF
The Beam Analysis Tool (BAT)
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Chapter 19
Behaviorism  (pages 127-147)
Irene Chen
The theory of behaviorism concentrates on the study of overt behaviors that can be observed and measured (Good & Brophy, 1990). In general, the... Sample PDF
Behaviorism
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Chapter 20
Evan T. Robinson
The intent of action is the achievement of something decisive. Within any business, decisiveness is hopefully linked to the successful generation of... Sample PDF
Benefits of a Content Multi-Purposing Model
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Chapter 21
Y. J. Zhang
Digital images are convenient and important media for describing and storing spatial, temporal, spectral, and physical components of information... Sample PDF
Better Use of Digital Images in Teaching and Learning
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Chapter 22
Antonio Cartelli
During the past few decades, the expanded use of PCs and the Internet introduced many changes in human activities and cooperated in the... Sample PDF
Between Tradition and Innovation in ICT and Teaching
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Chapter 23
Edward D. Garten
The phenomenal growth of distance learning programs in higher education worldwide has had immense implications for the provision of library services... Sample PDF
The Birth of Virtual Libraries
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Chapter 24
Charles R. Graham, Stephanie Allen
The term “blended learning” is being used with increased frequency in academic publications and conferences as well as in industry trade magazines... Sample PDF
Blended Learning Environments
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Chapter 25
Janet Schoenfeld, Zane Berge
The use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) is more popular than ever in both educational and corporate settings. Schools and corporations are... Sample PDF
Bringing Out the Best in Virtual Teams
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Chapter 26
Lynette Olson, Gary R Langer
Learners in the 21st century are increasingly using online delivery methods to achieve their academic goals. Through online learning, students are... Sample PDF
Building a System to Deliver Programs at a Distance
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Chapter 27
Yuefei Xu, Larry Korba
Learners, tutors and service providers are the basic players in an e-learning system. Similar to the situation in traditional campus education... Sample PDF
Building Trust for Interactive E-Learning
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Chapter 28
Alan Pritchard
As a society we are turning increasingly to the Internet as a source of information concerning a very wide range of topics. There is, at the very... Sample PDF
Calling on Constructivist Theory to Support Internet-Based, Information-Rich Learning
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Chapter 29
Panayiotis Zaphiris, Sri Kurniawan
This entry starts with an argument on how computer-based learning (CBL) can benefit senior citizens, then reviews the effects of aging on CBL. It... Sample PDF
Challenges and Opportunities of Computer-Based Learning for Senior Citizens
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Chapter 30
Dale W. Lick, Roger Kaufman
Online learning and technology offer tremendous opportunities for increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of education. They have been... Sample PDF
Change Creation for Online Learning and Technology
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Chapter 31
Parviz Partow-Navid, Ludwig Slusky
E-learning is defined as the transmission of knowledge whereby the instructor and/or the student participate in the learning process from different... Sample PDF
Change Management and Distance Education
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Chapter 32
Graham Shaw
The role of faculty within traditional teaching institutions worldwide has always been multidimensional, involving administrative duties, research... Sample PDF
The Changing Role of Faculty
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Chapter 33
Ed Hessler
My focus is both narrow and incomplete, for it is limited to a single area of learning: science, and it is in the form of a working list, a... Sample PDF
A Checklist for a New Millennium School Science Department
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Chapter 34
John M. Carroll, Dennis C. Neale, Philip L. Isenhour
Evaluating the quality and effectiveness of user interaction in networked collaborative systems is difficult. There is more than one user, and often... Sample PDF
Classroom Critical Incidents
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Chapter 35
Jocelyn M. Wishart
Increased motivation amongst pupils has been readily observed in schools when they are allowed to use computers and other forms of information and... Sample PDF
Cognitive Approaches to Understanding the Challenge of Computer-Based Learning
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Chapter 36
Taiyu Lin, Kinshuk, Kinshuk
Statistics indicate that the information stored in the world doubles every 2.8 years (Keegan, 2000). The problem every country faces now is not how... Sample PDF
Cognitive Profiling in Life-Long Learning
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Chapter 37
Kursat Cagiltay, Barbara A. Bichelmeyer, Michael A. Evans, Trena M. Paulus, Jae Soon An
Due to the increasingly widespread use of various information and communication technologies (ICT), individuals from different countries and... Sample PDF
Collaboration Among Multicultural Virtual Teams
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Chapter 38
Albert L. Ingram, Lesley G. Hathorn
Collaboration and cooperation have become firmly established as teaching methods in face-to-face classes (e.g., Johnson, Johnson, & Smith, 1998).... Sample PDF
Collaboration in Online Communications
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Chapter 39
J. M. McInnerney, T. S. Roberts
The increasingly rapid movement of undergraduate and postgraduate courses to online Web-based forms of delivery would seem to provide the ideal... Sample PDF
Collaborative and Cooperative Learning
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Chapter 40
Betty Collis, Jef Moonen
Collaborative learning is a specific approach within the broader context of pedagogy. Collaborative learning encourages student participation via... Sample PDF
Collaborative Learning in a Contribution-Oriented Pedagogy
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Chapter 41
Maryam Alavi, Donna Dufner, Caroline Howard
Three basic categories of technologies are effective for extending collaborative learning beyond traditional face-to-face interactions to online... Sample PDF
Collaborative Learning Technologies
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Chapter 42
Rosemary H. Wild
Teamwork is a fact of modern organizational life. College graduates are expected to be able to work productively in teams. The ubiquity of... Sample PDF
Collaborative Tele-Learning Issues and Observations
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Chapter 43
Dennis Harper
Directing a Technology Innovation Challenge Grant as well as a Preparing Tomorrow’s Teachers to Use Technology (PT3) Project, plus 35 years of... Sample PDF
Communicating Across Boundaries
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Chapter 44
Gary A. Berg
Communications theory dates to the Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle, but became a recognized academic field in the 1940s during World War II... Sample PDF
Communication and Media Theory
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Chapter 45
Gary A. Berg
Community colleges in the United States have played an important role in the development and implementation of various forms of computer- and... Sample PDF
Community Colleges in America and Distance Learning
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Chapter 46
Holly McCracken
The development of dynamic learning communities is generally believed to be critical to providing engaging and multi-dimensional instructional... Sample PDF
Community in Virtual Learning Environments
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Chapter 47
Nathan K. Lindsay, Scott L. Howell, R. Dwight Laws
Critics of distance education frequently assert that completion rates are lower in distance education courses than in traditional courses. Such... Sample PDF
Completion Rates and Distance Learners
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Chapter 48
Al P. Mizell
Marshall McLuhan (1964) introduced the concept of the global village that helped us see what was happening with worldwide, inexpensive communication... Sample PDF
Compressed Video for the Global Village
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Chapter 49
Computer Animation  (pages 323-330)
Su-Ting Yong, Yun-Huoy Choo
The use of computer animation in educational software like a computer-based learning (CBL) program is becoming a common practice. Animation is used... Sample PDF
Computer Animation
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Chapter 50
Andrew Laghos, Panayiotis Zaphiris
This entry provides a thorough introduction to computer-assisted and -aided language learning (CALL). It starts by providing the definition and... Sample PDF
Computer Assisted/Aided Language Learning
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Chapter 51
Andrew Laghos, Panayiotis Zaphiris
Gamper and Knapp (2002) define Computer-Aided Language Learning (CALL) as “a research field which explores the use of computational methods and... Sample PDF
Computer-Aided Language Learning
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Chapter 52
Hsien-Chin Liou
Recently, there has been an obvious blooming of the manufacturing of computer hardware and peripherals in Asian countries: to illustrate, Korea... Sample PDF
Computer-Assisted Language Learning in East Asia
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Chapter 53
Zippy Erlich
The development of new communication technologies has opened a broad range of options for promoting learning, of which a significant one is... Sample PDF
Computer-Mediated Communication
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Chapter 54
Donald N. Bigleow
Just as steam displaced sails on ships; and the automobile, the horse; and just as TV has, to an unknown degree, replaced wholesale dependence on... Sample PDF
A Computer's Teacher Power
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Chapter 55
Kam Hou Vat
As online technologies and information resources rise in salience, experience has shown (Vat, 2000, 2001, 2002a, 2002b) that online education must... Sample PDF
Conceiving a Learning Organization Model for Online Education
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Chapter 56
Laura A.B. Dell
Videoconferencing is the latest distance learning technology to hit K-12 (elementary and secondary) education. Distance learning in all of its... Sample PDF
Connecting K-12 Schools in Higher Education
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Chapter 57
Diane P. Janes
Research is a quest driven by a specific question that needs an answer. Leedy (1993) in his book, Practical Research: Planning and Design, lists... Sample PDF
Consensus Building Using E-Research
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Chapter 58
Adams Bodomo
Within the field of education, and in particular educational technology, dominant paradigms of instruction include active, interactive... Sample PDF
Constructing Knowledge through Online Bulletin Board Discussions
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Chapter 59
Valerie N. Morphew
Web-based teaching and learning is on the rise in education and industry, challenging teachers and trainers to deliver instruction in new ways with... Sample PDF
Constructivist Teaching and Learning in a Web-Based Environment
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Chapter 60
Mark Notess
Contextual design is a human-centered methodology for designing information systems from a rich understanding of customer work practice (Beyer &... Sample PDF
Contextual Design of Online Learning Technologies
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Chapter 61
Leo Tan Wee Hin, R. Subramaniam
Continuing education constitutes an important aspect of furthering the process of learning beyond the formal years of schooling. Leveraging mainly... Sample PDF
Continuing Science Education of the Global Public
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Chapter 62
Betty Collis, Jef Moonen
Pedagogy can be described as the art or science of teaching. The question of appropriate pedagogies for distance and computer-based learning when a... Sample PDF
Contribution-Oriented Pedagogy
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Chapter 63
Michaela Knust, Svenja Hagenhoff
E-learning gained a significant foothold in the field of higher education in the US and Europe during the last decade of the 20th Century. For the... Sample PDF
The Cooperation Solution for Universities
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Chapter 64
Leonard Barolli, Akio Koyama
In the last few years, we have observed an explosive growth of multimedia computing, communications, and applications. This revolution is... Sample PDF
Cooperative Agents in Web-Based Distance Learning
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Chapter 65
Stephen Marshall
He who receives an idea from me, receives instruction himself without lessening mine; as he who lights his taper at mine, receives light without... Sample PDF
Copyright with an International Perspective for Academics
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Chapter 66
Cost-Effectiveness  (pages 455-461)
Saul Fisher
Online education offers strong intrinsic potential for advancing and augmenting teaching and learning through broadening and deepening access.... Sample PDF
Cost-Effectiveness
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Chapter 67
Patricia A. Shaw, Susan Slick
Over time, student and teacher portfolios have taken several forms for a variety of purposes. Initially portfolios were created in many educational... Sample PDF
Creating an Electronic Student Teaching Portfolio
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Chapter 68
Jo B. Paoletti
What is an online community? Is any Web-based course, e-mail list, or membership-based discussion forum an online community? What is the... Sample PDF
Creating and Sustaining Online Learning Communities
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Chapter 69
Sheryl Burgstahler
nternet-based distance learning courses have the potential to make learning opportunities available to anyone. People in rural areas, from poor... Sample PDF
Creating Opportunities and Barriers in Distance Learning Courses
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Chapter 70
Christine Sweeney
Those who are fortunate enough to be associated with K-12 education during this first decade of the 21st century will witness tremendous... Sample PDF
Critical Barriers to Technolgy in K-12 Education
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Chapter 71
Gretchen Irvine
These are my views derived from a long career teaching in the P-12, system as well as a decade spent preparing teachers at Augsburg College. The... Sample PDF
Critical Elements in Effective Teaching in the New Millennium
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Chapter 72
Janet Toland, Jonathan Frank, Karen D. Schenk
Technological innovation and the development of global knowledge-based economies are presenting higher education institutions throughout the... Sample PDF
Culture, Interaction, and Online Learning
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Chapter 73
Mike Keppell, Eliza Au, Ada Ma, Christine Chan
As teacher-educators, we are acutely aware of our responsibilities in nurturing the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of pre-service teachers. As... Sample PDF
Curriculum Development in Technology-Enhanced Environments
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Chapter 74
L. W. Murray, Alev M. Efendioglu
The University of San Francisco (USF) initially contracted with a Hong Kong-based, Chinese multinational firm, China Resources Holding Company... Sample PDF
Delivering Management Education via Tutored-Video Instruction
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Chapter 75
Earl Woodruff, Latika Nirula
Over the last 15 years, the study of technology in classroom settings has highlighted the need for a new research paradigm. Past research on... Sample PDF
Design Research in the Elementary School Classroom
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Chapter 76
Diane Jass Ketelhut, Pamela Whitehouse, Chris Dede
With the availability of Internet and digital technologies, many universities are integrating new interactive media into course curricula, both to... Sample PDF
Designing a Distributed Learning Experience
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Chapter 77
Mohamed Ally
This entry begins by discussing the history of computer-based learning (CBL), followed by a description of learning theories and instructional... Sample PDF
Designing Effective Computer-Based Learning Materials
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Chapter 78
Mohamed Ally
Teaching and training has been going on for decades; however, the design methods and delivery technology have changed over the years. The invention... Sample PDF
Designing Instruction for Successful Online Learning
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Chapter 79
E. Lea Witta, Chen-Yuan “Corey” Lee
Distance learning was begun in the 19th Century with correspondence education (Klesius, Homan, & Thompson, 1997). It has evolved from the... Sample PDF
Developing an Online Learning Style Instrument
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Chapter 80
Gregory C. Sales
The use of technology in education and the associated professional development are relatively new phenomena. Even so, they have gone through several... Sample PDF
Developing Online Faculty Competencies
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Chapter 81
Vincent E. Lasnik
There are simple answers to all complex problems—and they are uniformly wrong. —H.L. Mencken One of the central problems and corresponding... Sample PDF
Developing Prescriptive Taxonomies for Distance Learning Instructional Design
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Chapter 82
Petek Askar, Yasemin Kocak-Usluel
Every system is shaped by the prevailing paradigm. As society innovates itself, it also adjusts its mechanisms to new situations. The phrase... Sample PDF
Diffusion of Computers in Schools
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Chapter 83
Jessie Y.Y. Wong, R. Gerber, K. A. Toh
The Internet has transformed the way education is delivered in the 21st Century. Web-based education has been developed on the basis of the... Sample PDF
Diffusion of Web-Based Education in Singapore and Australia
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Chapter 84
Digital Divide  (pages 581-584)
Christiane Reilly
Distance education (DE) is a reality. Pop-up advertisements of online master’s degree programs appear with regularity on the Internet, and distance... Sample PDF
Digital Divide
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Chapter 85
Petek Askar, Oktay Dönmez, Gonca Kizilkaya, Volkan Çevik, Kerem Gültekin
This research studies on the evaluation of online courses are usually conducted for investigating the differences between face-to-face and Web-based... Sample PDF
Dimensions of Student Satisfaction on Online Programs
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Chapter 86
Christopher Newell, Margaret Debenham
Distance education may be seen as both enabling and disabling in its application to, and relationship with, people with disability and chronic... Sample PDF
Disability, Chronic Illness and Distance Education
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Chapter 87
Irene Chen
Most of the distance learning professional associations were founded in the 1990s, at a time when most Internet backbone speeds were T1 or slower.... Sample PDF
Distance Education Associations
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Chapter 88
Clint P. Rogers, Scott L. Howell
nternationally, religious institutions are developing distance learning for a variety of reasons and purposes. The religious applications of... Sample PDF
Distance Education from Religions of the World
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Chapter 89
Ali Fawaz Shareef, Kinshuk, Kinshuk
Small island nations, especially Maldives, encounter a number of limitations in providing services to their people due to their size. These services... Sample PDF
Distance Education in Small Island Nations
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Chapter 90
Luis Barrera
This article reviews the history, state of the art, and future trends in distance education in South American countries through an overview of the... Sample PDF
Distance Education in South America
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Chapter 91
Petek Askar
Distance education is the educational process in which the instructor and learner are physically separated, and interaction between them is... Sample PDF
Distance Education in Turkey
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Chapter 92
Habibah Lateh, Arumugam Raman
Malaysia, in comparison to some of the other countries in South East Asia, is relatively small, with a size of 329,750 km2 and a population of 25.45... Sample PDF
Distance Learning and Educational Technology in Malaysia
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Chapter 93
Gary A. Berg
Since computer-based learning can involve partnerships with for-profit organizations, be viewed as a route to increased revenue, and potentially be... Sample PDF
Distance Learning as Commercializing Higher Education
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Chapter 94
Christine Bagwell
While many educators focus on bridging the digital divide for rural and disadvantaged students, a few focus on a much more isolated population—... Sample PDF
Distance Learning for Incarcerated Populations
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Chapter 95
Boris Galitsky
Recent psychological studies have revealed that autistic children can neither reason properly about mental states of themselves and others, nor... Sample PDF
Distance Learning Rehabilitation of Autistic Reasoning
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Chapter 96
Hakikur Rahman
Distributed learning can be conceived as a means of providing learning opportunities beyond the boundaries of the traditional education system... Sample PDF
Distributed Learning Sequences for the Future Generation
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Chapter 97
Sarah Guri-Rosenblit
Universities offering studies through distance teaching methods vary enormously in how they were initiated, the clienteles they aim to serve, how... Sample PDF
Diverse Models of Distance Teaching Universities
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Chapter 98
Document Delivery  (pages 681-682)
Robin L. Ewing
Document delivery is a service offered by academic libraries that allows distance education students to access or obtain the research materials... Sample PDF
Document Delivery
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Chapter 99
Donald A. Hantula
Download delay is the amount of time needed for instructional materials to appear on a Web page on the client computer after the page is accessed... Sample PDF
Download Delay and its Effects on Online Learning
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Chapter 100
Donald M. Norris
It is time for plain talk about the potential for information and communications technology (ICT) and online learning to enable systemic change in... Sample PDF
Driving Systemic Change with E-Learning
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Chapter 101
Gary A. Berg
An understanding of the economic models for the use of computer-based learning is important for educators worldwide. Particularly in America, there... Sample PDF
Economic Models for Distance Learning
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Chapter 102
Michael Shaughnessy
From 1980 to 2000, there were many articles written on the subject of software review and evaluation. Upon initial investigation of educational... Sample PDF
Educational Software Evaluation
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Chapter 103
Gary A. Berg
This overview briefly reviews the history of educational technology and surveys relevant learning theory. In order to understand fully... Sample PDF
Educational Technology and Learning Theory
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Chapter 104
Adrienne A. Reynolds
The countries of the Middle East are undergoing rapid change in many areas, and the field of education is illustrative. This is particularly the... Sample PDF
Educational Technology in the Middle East
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Chapter 105
Hsianghoo Steve Ching, Carmel McNaught, Paul W.T. Poon
This article will address several areas relating to online learning and technology. We will report on work done in the development of four models... Sample PDF
Effective Technology-Mediated Education for Adult Chinese Learners
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Chapter 106
Stuart S. Gold
The purpose of this study was to answer the question: Is the level of achievement of working adult students in an online class directly related to... Sample PDF
Effects of Computer-Mediated Communication
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Chapter 107
E-Learning and K-12  (pages 737-742)
Lynne Schrum
Distance education has been around since a reliable postal service, and has long been viewed as a way in which to offer lifelong learning to those... Sample PDF
E-Learning and K-12
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Chapter 108
Graeme Salter
The use of online teaching in education is expanding at a rapid rate. Some may be tempted to view technology as an educational panacea (Herrington &... Sample PDF
E-Learning and M-Learning Problems
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Chapter 109
Rosemary Du Mont
The global knowledge-driven economy is characterized by both structural and personnel changes that are driving new models of teaching and learning.... Sample PDF
E-Learning as Organizational Strategy
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Chapter 110
E-Learning Design Quality  (pages 763-771)
Panagiotis Zaharias
A critical review of the literature was conducted which resulted in the formulation of an e-learning research agenda with a focus on quality and... Sample PDF
E-Learning Design Quality
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Chapter 111
E-Learning in India  (pages 772-778)
Ramesh C. Sharma
Education is an essential tool for the economical and social development of a nation. Proper development of human resources is crucial to that. To... Sample PDF
E-Learning in India
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Chapter 112
David Wright
The network marketing industry with its need to train home-based workers is in a unique position to benefit from e-learning. The large numbers of... Sample PDF
E-Learning in the Network Marketing Industry
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Chapter 113
E-Learning Industry  (pages 786-793)
John Gordon, Zhangxi Lin
E-learning is the process of teaching and learning using electronic media, generally distributed over a network. For a thorough coverage of... Sample PDF
E-Learning Industry
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Chapter 114
Ryan Watkins
For instructors and administrators of traditional classroom and distance learning courses alike, the leading indicators of success for college... Sample PDF
E-Learning Study Skills for Online Students
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Chapter 115
Ashok Banerji, Glenda Rose Scales
The key outcome of the current transition from the “old economy” to the “new economy” is the dramatic shift from investments in physical capital to... Sample PDF
Electronic Performance Support, E-Learning and Knowledge Management
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Chapter 116
Electronic Portfolios  (pages 807-813)
Katherine C. Wieseman
A view in teacher preparation increasingly reported in the literature is that electronic portfolios can present an educator’s achievement... Sample PDF
Electronic Portfolios
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Chapter 117
E-Moderating  (pages 814-820)
Gilly Salmon
In this article, the term “e-moderating” is used to capture the wide variety of roles and skills that the online teacher, lecturer, or trainer needs... Sample PDF
E-Moderating
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Chapter 118
Graeme Salter
In order to determine what factors might lead to increased participation and effectiveness in voluntary online staff development, a case study was... Sample PDF
Encouraging Participation in Voluntary, Online Staff Development
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Chapter 119
Leslee Francis Pelton, Timothy W. Pelton
Linear presentations, such as lectures, expositions, demonstrations and activity sequences, are efficient from the perspective of the instructor and... Sample PDF
Enhanced Instructional Presentation Model
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Chapter 120
Nurul I. Sarkar
Wireless communication and networking courses are becoming increasingly popular in universities, polytechnics, postsecondary colleges, and private... Sample PDF
Enhancing Learning and Teaching Wireless LAN Design
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Chapter 121
Marcie J. Bober
Few would argue that teachers exposed to technology-focused professional development are better prepared to effectively and systematically integrate... Sample PDF
Ensuring Quality in Technology-Focused Professional Development
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Chapter 122
Han-Chieh Chao, Tin-Yu Wu, Michelle T.C. Kao
As we enter the electronic age, technologies enabling e-learning have increased flexibility of learning location. Wireless communication... Sample PDF
Environments for Mobile Learning
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Chapter 123
Som Naidu
The number of distance education and e-learning programs has been on the rise for some time now (Hannan & Silver, 2000). In the United States, the... Sample PDF
Evaluating Distance Education and E-Learning
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Chapter 124
Dennis C. Neale, John M. Carroll, Mary B. Rosson
Evaluating outcomes associated with computer-supported cooperative learning (CSCL) is difficult for a variety of reasons. One must consider... Sample PDF
Evaluating Distributed Cooperative Learning
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Chapter 125
Kathleen D. Kelsey, James R. Lindner, Kim E. Dooley
Systematic formative and summative evaluation of distance education programs is necessary for program improvement and accountability. The most... Sample PDF
Evaluating Online Programs
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Chapter 126
Barbara J. Keinath
Accountability pressures on higher education have increased in recent decades (Dill, 1999; Garvin, 2000; Jacob & Hellström, 2003). Pressure for... Sample PDF
Evaluating Online Programs Using a BSC Approach
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Chapter 127
Leslie Blicker
The notion of measuring the effectiveness of online learning in higher education began at least a half-decade ago when Web-based distance education... Sample PDF
Evaluating Quality in the Online Classroom
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Chapter 128
Efstratios T. Diamadis, George C. Polyzos
Evaluating students is critical to education. Evaluation results give students feedback about their performance so that they can learn from their... Sample PDF
Evaluating Student Learning in Distance Education
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Chapter 129
Tad Waddington, Bruce Aaron, Rachael Sheldrick
Any program that includes online learning, or indeed any type of training, benefits from a strong evaluation strategy. Collecting evaluation metrics... Sample PDF
Evaluation Strategy for Online Courses
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Chapter 130
Teresa Torres-Coronas
Education has traditionally been conducted face-to-face, with professors performing outstanding magisterial classes in front of the learners. During... Sample PDF
Exploring the Virtual Learning Environment
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Chapter 131
Alice Bedard-Voorhees
Successful online instructors demonstrate technological and content expertise, time management, and instructional and communication skills. While... Sample PDF
Facilitating Asynchronous Discussions
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Chapter 132
Bonnie McCall Ordonez
Web-based courses have currently surpassed all other forms of distance education in the higher education field. One of the main reasons in growth is... Sample PDF
Facilitation of Web-Based Courses Designed for Adult Learners
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Chapter 133
Graeme Salter
There are many in education who appear to think that it is sufficient to purchase and install technology for it to be successfully used (Boddy... Sample PDF
Factors Affecting the Adoption of Educational Technology
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Chapter 134
Catherine C. Schifter
Distance education is not new to higher education. Correspondence courses have served students since the 19th century. What is different today is... Sample PDF
Faculty Participation in Distance Education Programs
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Chapter 135
Faculty Support Systems  (pages 936-940)
Jason D. Baker, Robert J. Schihl
One factor that has led institutions to develop online learning programs is the perception that they have lower production costs than campus-based... Sample PDF
Faculty Support Systems
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Chapter 136
Gary A. Berg
Some scholars have noted the link between film narrative and computer-interface design (Berg, 2003; Plowman, 1994). Similarities between early film... Sample PDF
Film Narrative and Computer-Interface Design
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Chapter 137
Harald Haugen, Bodil Ask
Four Norwegian higher educational institutions—the University Colleges at Agder, Stord/Haugesund, and Sør-Trøndelag, and the University in Trondheim... Sample PDF
From R&D Project to Virtual Universities
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Chapter 138
Future Learning Devices  (pages 952-953)
Gary A. Berg
Over the years, many around the world have thought about the design of devices (often involving computers or microprocessors) that might be most... Sample PDF
Future Learning Devices
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Chapter 139
Howard Strauss
The evolution of a few critical technologies has the potential to change the way teaching and learning is done is the near future. Among those... Sample PDF
The Future of Teaching and Learning Technologies
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Chapter 140
Colla J. MacDonald, Emma J. Stodel, Laura G. Farres
In this article, we examine some of the issues surrounding the use of technology and how it may impact the future of university teaching and... Sample PDF
The Future of University and Organizational Learning
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Chapter 141
Danilo M. Baylen, Erping Zhu
Teaching and learning in the 21st century not only utilize various technologies, but they also take place anytime and anyplace. During the last... Sample PDF
Going Online: Challenges and Issues
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Chapter 142
Agnes Kukulska-Hulme
Online collaborative learning emphasizes student activity and is associated with changes in perceptions of who is responsible for leading groups of... Sample PDF
Group Leadership in Online Collaborative Learning
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Chapter 143
M. Haughey
In Canada, a country of vast landscapes, northern climates and relatively few people, the formal provision of education has always involved... Sample PDF
Growth of Online Schooling in Canada
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Chapter 144
Allen Schmieder
Make no mistake, unless the nation’s schools achieve a world-class technology infrastructure within the first several years of the new millennium... Sample PDF
Help Me Understand How to Resolve These Mysteries
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Chapter 145
Athanasis Karoulis, Andreas Pombortsis
The rapid establishment of third-generation distance learning environments, the so-called Web-based or tele-teaching environments, is nowadays a... Sample PDF
Heuristically Evaluating Web-Based ODL
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Chapter 146
Renee Jesness
The question is not whether high school students should be taking online courses. It is whether they should get out of high school without taking... Sample PDF
High School Online Learning
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Chapter 147
Gary A. Berg
In a general sense, the origin of computer-based learning methods as they have developed internationally derived from correspondence instruction. In... Sample PDF
History of Correspondence Instruction
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Chapter 148
Dan Baugher, Andrew Varanelli, Ellen Weisbord
The use of technology as a teaching tool, for example, self-paced programmed instruction, has a long history. However, developments in “high tech”... Sample PDF
Hybrid and Traditional Course Formats
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Chapter 149
Nicoletta Sala
The rapid development of digital, networked multimedia technology such as the Internet, e-mail and computer-based and video conferencing can open... Sample PDF
Hypermedia Modules for Distance Education
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Chapter 150
Paul Wasko
On August 1, 2002, after over a year of discussion, design, and development, the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities (MnSCU) launched eFolio... Sample PDF
Implementing a Statewide Electronic Portfolio Infrastructure
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Chapter 151
J. Bernardes, J. O’Donoghue
Kearsley (1998) writes that “technology is often seen as a quick fix, a siren song,” and warns that “educational technology is a distraction … from... Sample PDF
Implementing Learning Support Systems
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Chapter 152
Y. J. Zhang
The progress of computer and communication technology as well as multimedia equipment and network infrastructures have greatly enhanced the quality... Sample PDF
Important Design Considerations for Online Web Courses
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Chapter 153
John B. Nash, Christoph Richter, Heidrun Allert
The call for the integration of program evaluation into the development of computer-supported learning environments is ever-increasing. Pushed not... Sample PDF
Improving Evaluations in Computer-Supported Learning Projects
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Chapter 154
Carol A. Twigg
Every college and university in the United States (US) is discovering exciting new ways of using information technology to enhance the process of... Sample PDF
Improving Learning and Reducing Costs for Online Learning
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Chapter 155
Gregg Asher
Although the lack of adequate funding is probably the most significant barrier to the effective infusion of technology (since bundles of money could... Sample PDF
Inadequate Infrastructure and the Infusion of Technology into K-12 Education
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Chapter 156
Richard C. Ryan
The Internet is maturing as a delivery medium for university education. It now provides new ways to do things that typically are not done in the... Sample PDF
Increased Benefits from Using Online Class Components
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Chapter 157
Barbara A. Frey, Ashli Molinero, Ellen Cohn
Just as wheelchair ramps and elevators provide access to wheelchair users, good Web design provides “electronic curb ramps” to the Internet for... Sample PDF
Increasing Web Accessibility and Usability in Higher Education
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Chapter 158
Werner Beuschel, Birgit Gaiser, Susanne Draheim
Learning environments increasingly become more diverse by the use of information technology. Thereby, the share of face-to-face situations between... Sample PDF
Informal Communication in Virtual Learning Environments
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Chapter 159
Nicholas Bowskill
This article seeks to explore the potential of online communities to support and develop new professional-development practices around collaborative... Sample PDF
Informal Learning Projects and World Wide Voluntary Co-Mentoring
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Chapter 160
Information Literacy  (pages 1091-1092)
Elaine Magusin
Information literacy is essential in the creation of lifelong learners. As educators struggle continually to ensure that students are able to... Sample PDF
Information Literacy
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Chapter 161
Alan Pritchard
Williams (2001) points out that plagiarism in pupils’ school work is widespread and, perhaps more importantly, that it has been made significantly... Sample PDF
Information-Rich Learning Contexts
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Chapter 162
Vivian Johnson
The infusion of technology into the P-16 environment requires a commitment to changing school culture. I see two major barriers to creating cultures... Sample PDF
Infusion of Technology into the P-16 Environment
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Chapter 163
Murray Turoff, Caroline Howard, Richard Discenza
What is happening to higher education? There is a search for increasing the effectiveness of learning and expanding educational opportunities by... Sample PDF
Innovation and Technology for 21st Century Education
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Chapter 164
Jane E. Klobas, Stefano Renzi
While virtual universities and remote classrooms have captured the headlines, there has been a quiet revolution in university education. Around the... Sample PDF
Innovation in Web-Enhanced Learning
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Chapter 165
Bosede Aworuwa, Robert Owen
Distance learning describes a wide range of instructional-learning activities, instructional delivery modalities, and learner interactions... Sample PDF
Instructional Delivery and Learning Outcomes in Distance Learning
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Chapter 166
The Intangibles  (pages 1123-1123)
Robert Downs
In today’s world, any discussion about the requirements of a millennium teacher should naturally focus around technology and training. Millennium... Sample PDF
The Intangibles
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Chapter 167
Mahesh S. Raisinghani, Cherie Hohertz
According to the U.S. Department of Education (1998-1999), 78% of all four-year public institutions offer distance education courses. According to... Sample PDF
Integrating Library Services into the Web-Based Learning Curriculum
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Chapter 168
Adams Bodomo
At the beginning of the 21st century, we are faced with an age of rapid technological development in information and communication. Issues of... Sample PDF
Interaction in Web-Based Learning
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Chapter 169
Interactive E-Lab Systems  (pages 1140-1144)
Kin Cheong Chu
Most distance learning development programs are focused on online lectures, tutorials, and assessment. A practical training system that allows... Sample PDF
Interactive E-Lab Systems
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Chapter 170
Patricia L. Rogers
What does it really take to “go online?” Fortunately, more instructors at all levels have realized it is a great deal more than simply uploading a... Sample PDF
Interactivity as the Key to Online Learning
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Chapter 171
Diane Chapman
Formal university-based distance education has been around for over 100 years. For example, Cornell University established the Correspondence... Sample PDF
Introduction to Learning Management Systems
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Chapter 172
M. Gordon Hunter, Peter Carr
The essence of distance education is the physical separation of teacher and learner (Sauve, 1993). In many countries, universities are increasingly... Sample PDF
IT to Facilitate Distance Education
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Chapter 173
Just-in-Time Learning  (pages 1162-1166)
Tina Stavredes
As the educational landscape is changing, more individuals are embracing the concept of lifelong learning. They are also looking for flexibility in... Sample PDF
Just-in-Time Learning
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Chapter 174
Just-in-Time Training  (pages 1167-1174)
Barbara Iannarelli
Did you ever read an article on some current issues in some distant part of the world and wish you had paid closer attention in your high school... Sample PDF
Just-in-Time Training
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Chapter 175
K-12 Online Learning Policy  (pages 1175-1181)
David B. Glick
We cannot contort the character of the Internet to suit our familiar notions of regulation; do not dumb down the genius of the Net to match the... Sample PDF
K-12 Online Learning Policy
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Chapter 176
Anita Dorniden
Alternative options to the traditional school setting abound and threaten the survival of some school districts. These alternatives include, but are... Sample PDF
K-12 Schools and Online Learning
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Chapter 177
Nieves Pedreira, Julián Dorado, Juan Rabuñal, Alejandro Pazos
Since technological changes are touching many aspects of today’s society, education cannot stay behind; in a world where information is the key to... Sample PDF
Knowledge Management as the Future of E-Learning
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Chapter 178
Deborah Petska, Zane Berge
As organizations race to increase their global market share, traditional face-to-face teams are evolving into virtual teams. Aided by swift advances... Sample PDF
Leadership Competency in Virtual Teams
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Chapter 179
Sue Burke
We have all heard the saying, “Follow the Leader,” but what if there is none? When humans learn a new skill or idea, the tendency is to look to... Sample PDF
Leadership in Technology Integration
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Chapter 180
Nicoletta Sala
The use of the information and communication technologies (ICT) in the learning process can help the constructivist theory because it is possible to... Sample PDF
Learning-by-Doing Strategy Using ITC
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Chapter 181
Johanna Pöysä, Joost Lowyck
Recent research on collaborative learning and computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) holds an integrated and holistic perspective on... Sample PDF
Learning Communities in Virtual Environments
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Chapter 182
Learning Management Systems  (pages 1223-1230)
Diane Chapman
Formal university-based distance education has been around for over 100 years. For example, Cornell University established the Correspondence... Sample PDF
Learning Management Systems
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Chapter 183
Deana L. Molinari, Ellie Anderberg, Alice E. Dupler, Naomi Lungstrom
Stress impacts both quality and length of life according to several researchers (McEwen & Seeman, 2003). More studies need to discuss the... Sample PDF
Learning Orientation and Stress in an Online Experience
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Chapter 184
Teresa Chambel, Nuno Guimarães
A learning style, or cognitive preference, is a consistent way of responding to and using stimuli in the context of learning. We can learn in many... Sample PDF
Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences
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Chapter 185
Vivien Sieber, David Andrew
This article explores the relationship between traditional learning theories and technology mediated learning. Appropriate use of learning... Sample PDF
Learning Technologies and Learning Theories
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Chapter 186
Gary A. Berg
This entry is a brief survey of the learning-theory field as it relates to educational technology, primarily focused on behavioral and... Sample PDF
Learning Theory and Computer Environments
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Chapter 187
Elizabeth Buchanan
Contemporary distance education has its roots in early forms of postal correspondence study but has evolved to sophisticated, technologically... Sample PDF
Library Services for Distance Education Students in Higher Education
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Chapter 188
Wm. Benjamin Martz Jr., Morgan M. Shepherd
Distance education is big business; more than 1.6 million students enroll in distance education classes annually. The Institute of Higher Education... Sample PDF
Lower Perceived Performance in Testing
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Chapter 189
Market vs. Academic Models  (pages 1272-1274)
Gary A. Berg
In recent years much has been written on the link between distance learning and the commercialization of higher education (Berg, 2002). Particularly... Sample PDF
Market vs. Academic Models
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Chapter 190
Roger Kaufman, Dale W. Lick
If online learning and technology are going to add value to learners, institutions and our shared society, we should first ask “if these are the... Sample PDF
Mega-Planning for Online Learning and Technology Change
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Chapter 191
Mentoring at a Distance  (pages 1283-1287)
Jamie S. Switzer
Colleges and universities are adept at teaching students in the academic sense. Often what is lacking in a student’s education is a thorough grasp... Sample PDF
Mentoring at a Distance
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Chapter 192
Craig Kissock
When preparing for a race, the coach will advise, “Do not look back at your competition; look forward to your goal.” Educators integrating... Sample PDF
Millennium Teachers in a Global Context
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Chapter 193
Chris Houser, Patricia Thornton
Mobile devices such as laptop computers, PDAs (personal digital assistants), and cell phones offer many features useful for learning both inside and... Sample PDF
Mobile Educational Technology
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Chapter 194
Amy J. Nelson
According to the Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation (1994), “Program evaluation is a systematic investigation of the worth of... Sample PDF
A Model for Evaluating Online Programs
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Chapter 195
Allen Schmieder
This is an urgently needed topic. It is the author’s conviction that, currently, there are no 21st century schools and, even worse, there is no... Sample PDF
The Most Dramatic Changes in Education Since Socrates
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Chapter 196
Ramesh C. Sharma, Sanjaya Mishra
Around the world many communities have been constantly struggling to maintain their customs, traditions and language. Many communities have been on... Sample PDF
Multimedia as a Cross-Channel for Cultures and Languages
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Chapter 197
Multimedia Instruction  (pages 1317-1324)
Lorna Uden
Multimedia technology is increasingly being used as a vehicle to deliver instruction. The terms “hypermedia” and “multimedia” are often used... Sample PDF
Multimedia Instruction
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Chapter 198
James E. Novitzki
Distance education programs/courses in some format have been available to students since the 1840s. Throughout most of this time there has been... Sample PDF
Necessities for Effective Asynchronous Learning
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Chapter 199
Thomas Lapping
As commonly defined, the “digital divide” means inadequate access to the Internet in urban or rural areas where telecommunications resources are... Sample PDF
The Need for a Well-Managed Technology Infrastructure
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Chapter 200
Carl A. Raschke
While critics of the new computer-mediated learning styles utter jeremiads about the impending apocalypse of higher education in general... Sample PDF
The New "Space" of the University in the Digital Age
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Chapter 201
Tony Day
The need for the development of an online learning community for professional development and support for new and experienced educators is growing... Sample PDF
Online Collaborative Learning and Learning Styles
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Chapter 202
Deana L. Molinari, Alice E. Dupler
There are many different definitions of critical thinking (CT). Some type of the concept is taught in all higher education disciplines. Academia... Sample PDF
Online Critical Thinking in Problem-Solving Groups
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Chapter 203
Roy Rada
Online educational programs are changing the university profession. Two of the prominent organizational forms in modern society are professional and... Sample PDF
Online Education and Manufacturing Mode
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Chapter 204
Jeanine E. Gangeness
Online instruction in a nursing program strikes fear into the most dedicated and compassionate nursing instructor. Concerns range from unfamiliarity... Sample PDF
Online Instruction as a Caring Endeavor
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Chapter 205
Online Learner Expectations  (pages 1365-1369)
Gary W. Hawkins, Jason D. Baker
The rapid growth of online courses presents new opportunities and challenges for educational institutions. Thanks to online learning, increasing... Sample PDF
Online Learner Expectations
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Chapter 206
Johanna Lammintakanen, Sari Rissanen
Online education has become widespread in many countries during recent years, and the paradigmatic shift from traditional to online education (e.g.... Sample PDF
Online Learning Experiences of University Students
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Chapter 207
David B. Glick
Since the early 1980s a school reform movement has been underway that has led to new standards, new choices for students, and new forms of... Sample PDF
Online Learning in the School Reform Movement
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Chapter 208
Online Learning Programs  (pages 1382-1389)
Judith V. Boettcher
The importance of design for online instructional programs increases with the potential combinations of students, student goals, content, skills to... Sample PDF
Online Learning Programs
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Chapter 209
Emma J. Stodel, Laura G. Farres, Colla J. MacDonald
The idea of providing mental training1 (MT) and sport psychology services online is becoming more prevalent as technology continues to shape... Sample PDF
Online Mental Training Using WebExcellence
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Chapter 210
Online Mentoring  (pages 1398-1401)
Elizabeth Buchanan
The practice of mentoring has existed as long as civilization. Mentoring as a practice was noted in Homer’s The Odyssey, and a mentor, a word from... Sample PDF
Online Mentoring
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Chapter 211
Roisin Donnelly
This paper begins with a brief review of the history of problem-based learning (PBL) integrated with online learning, and surveys relevant learning... Sample PDF
Online Problem-Based Learning Approach in Higher Education
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Chapter 212
Sue Bennett
Collaborative learning has long been part of university study; for example, through group discussion, laboratory work in pairs and group projects... Sample PDF
Online Support for Collaborative Authentic Activities
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Chapter 213
Open Student Models  (pages 1417-1420)
Eshaa M. Alkhalifa
When a student makes an error, the instructor wonders what possible misconception caused that error (Self, 1990) and attempts to correct it through... Sample PDF
Open Student Models
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Chapter 214
Zippy Erlich, Judith Gal-Ezer
The Open University of Israel (OUI) is a distance education institution with open admissions that offers academic studies to students throughout... Sample PDF
The Open University of Israel
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Chapter 215
Gary A. Berg
The British Open University has been a leader in nontraditional higher education for years and has influenced the development of distance learning... Sample PDF
The Open University, United Kingdom
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Chapter 216
Sarah Guri-Rosenblit
Distance teaching universities are often referred to as open universities, even if they are not called an open university. The use of the term open... Sample PDF
Openness Dimensions of Distance Teaching Universities
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Chapter 217
Wm. Benjamin Martz, Venkateshwar K. Reddy
The education industry is being transformed by the ever-growing presence of distance education. Distance education has several market drivers that... Sample PDF
Operational Success in Distance Education
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Chapter 218
Michael Hartoonian, Vivian Johnson
The millennium teacher is presented with two powerful conceptions. One is expressed in Pogo’s observation that “…we always seem to be confronted... Sample PDF
Opportunities and Opportunity Cost in Preparing Millennium Teachers
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Chapter 219
Henryk Marcinkiewicz, Jennifer McLean
The process of organizing faculty for distance learning shares characteristics with planning for classroom instruction. It is necessary to... Sample PDF
Organizing Faculty for Distance Learning
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Chapter 220
Al P. Mizell, Cecil Sugarman
We all know that technology has become a dominant force in today’s society for people of all ages. However, certain elements of society have less... Sample PDF
Overcoming the Digital Divide
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Chapter 221
Panayiotis Zaphiris, Giorgos Zacharia
We present an iterative evaluation methodology (as part of a participatory design methodology) employed in an online course for learning Modern... Sample PDF
Participatory Design of Interactive Computer-Based Learning Systems
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Chapter 222
Michael Bieber, Jia Shen, Dezhi Wu, Starr Roxanne Hiltz
The Participatory Learning Approach (PLA, pronounced “play”) engages students as active participants in the full life cycle of homework, projects... Sample PDF
Participatory Learning Approach
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Chapter 223
Partnerships  (pages 1473-1479)
Linda L. Baer, Ann Hill Duin
The rapidly changing environment in society is cause for higher education to reassess approaches to meeting educational needs. Many key factors are... Sample PDF
Partnerships
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Chapter 224
Robert H. Woods, Jason D. Baker
Optimal learning outcomes, whether in face-to-face or online settings, are inextricably intertwined with the establishment of social networks among... Sample PDF
The Pedagogy of Social Development in Online Learning
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Chapter 225
Perspectives on E-Learning  (pages 1488-1493)
Curtis J. Bonk, Robert A. Wisher, Ji-Yeon Lee
For students, teachers, and administrators, e-learning is a relatively new and sometimes uncertain event. With popular technologies and... Sample PDF
Perspectives on E-Learning
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Chapter 226
Tiong Kung-Ming
Distance learning provides a wide opportunity for learners to access postgraduate qualifications. With the establishment of such open and distance... Sample PDF
Postgraduate Degree by Distance Learning
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Chapter 227
Mohamed Ally
Due to the recent development of delivery and communication technology and the success of distance learning, educational organizations are starting... Sample PDF
Preparing Faculty for Distance Learning Teaching
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Chapter 228
Katherine C. Wieseman
The use of portfolios stored and published in electronic formats is based on at least two assumptions. First, as performance-based assessments, they... Sample PDF
Preservice Teachers Creating Electronic Portfolios
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Chapter 229
Glen Russell
Virtual schools are an alternative to the “bricks-and-mortar” schools that have been synonymous with school education for hundreds of years.... Sample PDF
Problems and Possibilities of Virtual Schools
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Chapter 230
Belinda Davis Lazarus
The history, efficacy, and impact of programmed instruction (PI) range from the rudimentary teaching machines of the 1920s to present-day computer... Sample PDF
Programmed Instruction Overview
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Chapter 231
Edward D. Garten, Tedi Thompson
For higher education, the assurance of quality to others in what it does is a deeply held value. Yet, marks surrounding quality are not easily... Sample PDF
Quality Assurance and Online Higher Education
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Chapter 232
William H. Riffee, Christopher Sessums
With today’s advances and capabilities in electronic communications, distance learning is a natural extension to any quality educational program... Sample PDF
Quality Distance Learning Programs and Processes
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Chapter 233
Arthur B. Jeffery, Mary F. Bratton-Jeffery
Since the 1950s, the designers of training systems have embraced the logical and deliberate methodology of the Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement... Sample PDF
Quality Function Deployment in Training Design
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Chapter 234
Gary McI. Boyd, Dai Zhang
Entwistle (1981) found it was possible and useful to categorize students in three categories: surface learners who want to acquire and use specific... Sample PDF
Re-Enacted Affiliative Meanings and "Branding" in Open and Distance Education
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Chapter 235
Republic of Ireland  (pages 1557-1557)
Brian Mulligan
There is a major contrast in the Republic of Ireland between e-learning content production and the actual use of e-learning technologies. Per head... Sample PDF
Republic of Ireland
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Chapter 236
Steve Baxendale
The remoteness of the northern Pacific region presents significant challenges to providing high-quality, interactive, distance education. These... Sample PDF
Research-Based Distance Learning Services in the Northern Pacific
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Chapter 237
Som Naidu
An overview of the distance learning (DE) literature from the past few decades shows a great deal of attention being focused on “descriptive”... Sample PDF
Researching Distance Education and E-Learning
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Chapter 238
Valentina Plekhanova
Information technology is used to help learners gain the knowledge, confidence, and credentials they need to succeed. Contemporary approaches to... Sample PDF
Respecting Diverse Talents and Ways for Learning
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Chapter 239
Augusta Droste, Bruce Droste
In the constantly growing and changing realm of teaching, learning, and technology, teachers are expected to embrace strange new technological... Sample PDF
Riding the School Bus Called Technology
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Chapter 240
Bonnie L. MacGregor
Effective communication of the grading process to students is a concern that many online instructors face. The purpose of this entry is to show how... Sample PDF
Rubrics as an Assessment Tool in Distance Education
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Chapter 241
Neal Shambaugh
Instructional design models address important issues of learning, content, and context during the development of instruction. The prescriptive... Sample PDF
A Scenario-Based Instructional Design Model
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Chapter 242
Ronald E. Anderson, Sara Dexter
We focus our remarks about recommendations for overcoming barriers to technology integration and implementation at the school level, that is... Sample PDF
School-Wide Factors Facilitating Technology Integration and Implementation
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Chapter 243
George Yee
Many applications and tools have been developed to support the design and delivery of distance learning courses. Unfortunately, many of these... Sample PDF
Security and Privacy in Distance Education
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Chapter 244
Shareable Learning Objects  (pages 1607-1613)
Tina Stavredes
As we look to the future, we are poised at the edge of an ever-expanding universe of opportunities to learn. The Internet has opened the door for... Sample PDF
Shareable Learning Objects
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Chapter 245
The Sloan Consortium  (pages 1614-1622)
Janet C. Moore, John R. Bourne, A. Frank Mayadas
The purpose of the Sloan Consortium (Sloan-C) is to help learning organizations continually improve quality, scale, and breadth according to their... Sample PDF
The Sloan Consortium
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Chapter 246
Deana L. Molinari
The study of face-to-face (F2F) group problem solving began during World War II. Scholars in business, psychology, education, and psychiatry have... Sample PDF
Social Comments and Online Problem-Solving Groups
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Chapter 247
Gary A. Berg
In both computer-based and traditional educational environments, there has been a growing organization of learning in groups with an increased use... Sample PDF
Social or Group Learning Theories
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Chapter 248
Brian Newberry
Online learning can be seen as a form of distance education. Though online education is relatively new, distance education is not. According to... Sample PDF
Social Presence in Distance Learning
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Chapter 249
David Paulson
For many years, we have attempted to teach teachers technology for their own personal use and to help them use technology effectively with their... Sample PDF
Soft Technology Skills and the Teacher of the 21st Century
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Chapter 250
Sheng-Wei Lee, Hao-Tung Lin, Herng-Yow Chen
After the extensive development of network technology and explosive progress of computing, it is now possible that instructors and students need not... Sample PDF
Speech/Text Alignment in Web-Based Language Learning
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Chapter 251
Kam Hou Vat
Imagine attending a class where the instructor, after giving an introduction of what the course is entailed, invites you to visit the Web-based... Sample PDF
SSM-Based IS Support for Online Learning
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Chapter 252
A. K. Aggarwal
As we move from a focus on data acquisition to a knowledge-based society, just-in-time and just-in-place education is becoming a necessity.... Sample PDF
Stakeholders in Web-Based Education
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Chapter 253
Deana L. Molinari, Alice E. Dupler, Naomi Lungstrom
Stress impacts both the quality and length of life (Sapolsky, 1998), but the stress of learning is yet to be understood. Few studies exist in the... Sample PDF
Stress of Nursing Students Studying Online
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Chapter 254
Deana L. Molinari, Alice E. Dupler, Naomi Lungstrom
Stress is recognized today as impacting both quality and length of life (Kiecolt-Glaser, McGuire, Robles, & Glaser, 2002). Stress was defined by... Sample PDF
The Stress of Online Learning
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Chapter 255
Mac Adkins, Wanda B. Nitsch
Successful program completion in an online education context is a combination of learner attributes, the university’s focus on meeting the needs of... Sample PDF
Student Retention in Online Education
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Chapter 256
Student Support Services  (pages 1687-1692)
Scott L. Howell, Wendi Wilcken
Success secret number one for a successful online learning program, according to Jeffrey Feldberg, chairman and CEO of Embanet Corp. and who has... Sample PDF
Student Support Services
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Chapter 257
Student-Generated Multimedia  (pages 1693-1702)
Mathew Mitchell
This entry looks at the role of student-generated multimedia (SGM) in helping students more effectively achieve meaningful outcomes. The entry first... Sample PDF
Student-Generated Multimedia
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Chapter 258
Yair Levy, Michelle M. Ramim
The Greek philosopher Aristotle indicated that learning is the outcome of both teaching and practice. Clearly, learning is not confined to classroom... Sample PDF
Successful Self-Funding E-Learning Programs
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Chapter 259
Linda W. Cooper
Working adults are becoming an increasingly large percentage of the college population; with their busy schedules, they are insisting on “more... Sample PDF
Successful Strategies in Online Courses
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Chapter 260
Mohamed Salah Hamdi
Distance learning through the Internet is changing educational paradigms. Learning approaches, teaching methods, students’ expectations with... Sample PDF
Support of Online Learning through Intelligent Programs
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Chapter 261
Rod Nason, Eearl Woodruff
One of the most promising pedagogical advances for online collaborative learning that has emerged in recent years is Scardamalia and Bereiter’s... Sample PDF
Supporting Online Collaborative Learning in Mathematics
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Chapter 262
Charles E. Beck, Gary R. Schornack
Distance education involves a wide range of elements, including students, instructors, institutions, classroom technology, state agencies and... Sample PDF
Systems Model of Educational Processes
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Chapter 263
Malu Roldan
Tablet PCs are recent additions to the range of portable, connected devices that comprise mobile computing. Although the devices are just now... Sample PDF
Tablet PCs as Online Learning Tools
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Chapter 264
Susan Slick, Patricia A. Shaw
Over time, student and teacher portfolios have taken several forms for a variety of purposes. Initially, portfolios were created in many educational... Sample PDF
Teacher Electronic Portfolios
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Chapter 265
Sonja Schmieder
A millennium teacher preparation program should be the foundation that: 1) provides future teachers with knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are... Sample PDF
Teacher Preparation in the New Millennium
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Chapter 266
James Lerman
They say if you drop a live frog into a pot of boiling water, it will jump right out. But, if you place the same frog into a pot of water at room... Sample PDF
Teachers for the New Millennium
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Chapter 267
Kirk St. Amant
As international online access grows, students are increasingly participating in a global community. Cultural groups, however, can have different... Sample PDF
Teaching Culture and Communication with Online Media
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Chapter 268
Rachael Knight, Kate Whittington, W. Chris L. Ford, Julian M. Jenkins
The potential for computers to assist learning has been recognised for many years (Jenkins, 1997), with reproductive medicine benefiting greatly... Sample PDF
Teaching Medical Statistics over the Internet
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Chapter 269
Teaching Online Courses  (pages 1777-1786)
Riad S. Aisami
Online courses intend to present a non-traditional learning approach that accommodates non-traditional students. Working adults can achieve success... Sample PDF
Teaching Online Courses
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Chapter 270
Debra Campbell, Zane Berge
As with the long line of learning technologies that preceded it, the integration of online classrooms has progressed beyond the experimental stage... Sample PDF
Teaching Style in the Online Classroom
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Chapter 271
Ray Kurzweil
I have been involved in inventing since I was five, and I quickly realized that for an invention to succeed, you have to target the world of the... Sample PDF
Technology and Disabilities in the Century Ahead
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Chapter 272
John C. Wilkinson
It is comforting to know that some things are timeless. The sound of the ocean surf. And now, the gulf between the highly trained networking and... Sample PDF
Technology Barriers and Opportunities
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Chapter 273
Technology Diffusion  (pages 1806-1808)
Pete Nelson
American education is facing a growing crisis. Confidence in public education is decreasing, as many schools appear unable to deliver quality... Sample PDF
Technology Diffusion
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Chapter 274
Diane L. Judd
This chapter presents four technology-integrated activities for use in elementary curriculum. These educational activities were designed to be... Sample PDF
Technology Integrated Activities in the Elementary Curriculum
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Chapter 275
Ramesh C. Sharma
In this paper, technology-based learning has been described as adopted in the open-university system in India. Since open and distance education... Sample PDF
Technology-Based Learning in Open Universities in India
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Chapter 276
R. Dwight Laws, Scott L. Howell, Nathan K. Lindsay
The institutional decision about how much technology should be used to scale distance education enrollments, reduce costs, maximize profits, and... Sample PDF
Ten Scalability Factors in Distance Education
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Chapter 277
Text-Only Web Techniques  (pages 1833-1837)
Jody Condit Fagan
Text-only Web techniques are an important set of tools in every Web developer’s repertoire. When fully utilized, they allow developers to render... Sample PDF
Text-Only Web Techniques
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Chapter 278
Rick Krueger
One major barrier is that educators often view themselves as “people persons” and not “technology persons,” which ends up being an excuse for not... Sample PDF
There are So Many More Than Three Barriers
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Chapter 279
Yoram Eshet
The fast development in digital technologies during the digital era confronts individuals with situations that require the utilization of an... Sample PDF
Thinking Skills in the Digital Era
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Chapter 280
Threaded Discussion  (pages 1846-1855)
Karen Swan
Threaded discussion is a kind of computer-mediated communication (CMC). Specifically, it is an online dialog or conversation that takes the form of... Sample PDF
Threaded Discussion
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Chapter 281
Total Online vs. Hybrid  (pages 1856-1862)
Shiang-Kwei Wang
Cutting-edge computer technology has been advancing the implementation of distance learning in higher education, and facilitating the preparation of... Sample PDF
Total Online vs. Hybrid
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Chapter 282
Gary A. Berg
In considering various management approaches internationally for the delivery of computer-based learning, there is an interest in total quality... Sample PDF
Total Quality Management in Higher Education
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Chapter 283
Elvis Wai Chung Leung, Qing Li
To cope with the increasing trend of learning demand and limited resources, most universities are taking advantage of Web-based technology for their... Sample PDF
Towards a Personalized E-Learning System
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Chapter 284
Athanasis Karoulis, Andreas Pombortsis
The main concern of this article is the comparison of Open and Distance Learning (ODL) with the traditional, face-to-face educational approach. It... Sample PDF
Traditional Education and Distance Learning
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Chapter 285
Evan T. Robinson
When a business introduces a new product, it does so with the intent of being successful and profitable, capitalizing on the research and... Sample PDF
Transformative Income Generation
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Chapter 286
Stewart Marshall, Shirley Gregor
As the world moves online, various pressures drive changes in the way industries and organizations do business: market pressures, for example... Sample PDF
Transforming Universities in the Online World
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Chapter 287
Belinda Davis Lazarus
Increasingly, K-12 schools are delivering instruction via Internet courses that allow students to access course content and complete assignments... Sample PDF
Trends and Issues of Virtual K-12 Schools
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Chapter 288
Geraldine Clarebout, Jan Elen, Joost Lowyck, Jef Van den Ende, Erwin Van den Enden
Educational goals have generally shifted from knowing everything in a specific domain to knowing how to deal with complex problems. Reasoning and... Sample PDF
Tropical Medicine Open Learning Environment
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Chapter 289
Gary R. Langer
Developments in information technology and distance learning are revolutionizing the way postsecondary education is organized and delivered in the... Sample PDF
21st Century E-Student Services
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Chapter 290
Thomas Lapping
Of all of the levers for educational reform and improvement in this new technologically rich millennium, clearly the two most powerful are students... Sample PDF
The Two Most Important Competencies for Millennium Teachers
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Chapter 291
Seung Youn (Yonnie) Chung
Distance learning is often referred to as taking training or education courses that are either synchronously or asynchronously delivered via various... Sample PDF
Understanding Different Categories of Attrition in Distance Education Program
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Chapter 292
Frances G. Smith, Pamela LeConte
Buckminster Fuller, a multi-talented innovator of the 20th century, contributed to society as a scientist, engineer, and inventor (left... Sample PDF
Universal Design for Learning
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Chapter 293
Bernard J. Luskin
Fielding Graduate Institute was founded in 1974 in Santa Barbara, California by educators who envisioned a graduate school serving mid-career... Sample PDF
University History of the Fielding Graduate Institute
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Chapter 294
Usability  (pages 1931-1937)
Su-Ting Yong
This is a brief review of the history of usability and a discussion of usability in developing a computer-based learning program (CBLP). According... Sample PDF
Usability
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Chapter 295
Carol Knicker
What are assistive technologies (ATs) and how will millennium teachers use ATs to assist all learners? Assistive technologies can be defined as... Sample PDF
Using Assistive Technologies in Millennium Teaching
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Chapter 296
Stephanie J. Etter, Lisa T. Byrnes
Online learning is the fastest growing segment in the educational marketplace (Conhaim, 2003). As the number of online courses increases and... Sample PDF
Using Course Maps for Easy Classroom to Computer Transition
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Chapter 297
Jane Eberle, Marcus Childress
In 2002, approximately 1,680 institutions offered over 54,000 online courses (Simonson, Smaldino, Albright & Zvacek, 2003). While there has been a... Sample PDF
Using Heutagogy to Address the Needs of Online Learners
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Chapter 298
Wal Taylor, John Dekkers, Stewart Marshall
The use of information and communication technology (ICT) has had an important role in enhancing the nature and quality of student learning... Sample PDF
Using ICT to Enable Emancipatory Learning
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Chapter 299
Vicarious Learning  (pages 1958-1964)
John Lee
In computer-based learning, we often find ourselves addressing our technology to an unexpectedly complex Web of issues in learning and instruction.... Sample PDF
Vicarious Learning
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Chapter 300
Carol C. Dudding
This article describes the use of two-way videoconferencing for providing live clinical supervision of graduate students. It includes the rationale... Sample PDF
Videoconferencing for Supervision of Graduate Students
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Chapter 301
Hakikur Rahman
Distance education may be defined as a set of practices to plan and implement educational activities where there is a separation between teaching... Sample PDF
Virtual Networking as an Essence of the Future Learners
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Chapter 302
Sherif Kamel
New online learning techniques lead to improved ways to investing in larger numbers of people and optimizing the use of resources. Respectively... Sample PDF
Virtual Organizations in Post-Graduate Education in Egypt
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Chapter 303
Gaye Lang
The Houston Independent School District (HISD) is the largest district in Texas and has often served as a model in the implementation of new... Sample PDF
Virtual School Administration
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Chapter 304
Holly Yu
The concept of access to information has changed in the past three decades to reflect the changes in the methods of receiving and conveying... Sample PDF
Web Accessibility Laws and Issues
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Chapter 305
M. Michelle Panton
Web conferencing is a technology that allows groups of individuals in a variety of diverse locations to communicate and share information without... Sample PDF
Web Conferencing in Distance Education
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Chapter 306
Hao-Tung Lin, Herng-Yow Chen
With the rapid advance in Web and multimedia technologies, authoring various types of multimedia content and distributing them on the Web has been... Sample PDF
Web-Based Multimedia Children's Art Cultivation
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Chapter 307
Web-Based Remote Laboratory  (pages 2009-2018)
C. C. Ko, Ben M. Chen, C. D. Cheng
From the angle of computer-based education, the Internet extends the power of the personal computer (PC) from being a standalone machine to one that... Sample PDF
Web-Based Remote Laboratory
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Chapter 308
Kuo-Yu Liu, Herng-Yow Chen
Over the last decade, the emerging Web technologies have opened a new era for distance education, where online courses can be created and accessed... Sample PDF
Web-Based Synchronized Multimedia Lecturing
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Chapter 309
Douglas B. Johnstone
Western Governors University (WGU) was formally established in 1996 by the governors of 19 western states. From its inception it was committed to... Sample PDF
Western Governors University and Competency-Based Education
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Chapter 310
Pamela Solvie
Pedagogical tools for the millennium teacher will look very different from those in place in most classrooms today. Video, sound, and text will all... Sample PDF
What the Millennium Teacher Must Know and Be Able to Do
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Chapter 311
Zane L. Berge, Cathy Bichy, Candice Grayson, Anthony Johnson, Stephen Macadoff, Kathryn Nee
Many years ago, it was a commonly held belief that technology would improve industries and service professions, which means that people could work... Sample PDF
Where Does Work End and Home Life Begin?
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Chapter 312
Karl M. Kapp
Winning an e-learning proposal or grant has become more difficult over the past few years because of the initially high expectations of e-learning... Sample PDF
Winning an E-Learning Proposal or Grant
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Chapter 313
Chia-chi Yang
The development and change in computer technologies today is so incredibly fast, and the lifecycle of technologies has been so shortened, that new... Sample PDF
Wireless Technologies in Education
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Chapter 314
Joze Rugelj
In the new economy, companies require employees who are willing and able to continue learning. Workplace learning is the key factor and an essential... Sample PDF
Workplace Computer-Supported Network-Based Learning
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Chapter 315
Gary A. Berg
In most white-collar workplaces today, it is common for employees to have their own computer at their desk. Employees complete much of their work on... Sample PDF
Workplace Learning on the Internet
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Chapter 316
Young People's Net Cultures  (pages 2067-2074)
Elza Dunkels
Sweden has a large number of Internet users, and on a global scale only Iceland had more Internet users in 2002 (ITU, 2003). The European... Sample PDF
Young People's Net Cultures
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Chapter 317
Carol M. Lerch, Aandrea R. Bilics, Binta Colley
While developing our courses, we realized the importance of the zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1978) in supporting our students. Learners’... Sample PDF
Zone of Proximal Development and Scaffolding Online
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Index of Key Terms