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Programmed Instruction Resources

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DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-198-8.ch248
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MLA

Lazarus, Belinda Davis. "Programmed Instruction Resources." Encyclopedia of Distance Learning, Second Edition. IGI Global, 2009. 1693-1699. Web. 1 Nov. 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-60566-198-8.ch248

APA

Lazarus, B. D. (2009). Programmed Instruction Resources. In P. Rogers, G. Berg, J. Boettcher, C. Howard, L. Justice, & K. Schenk (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Distance Learning, Second Edition (pp. 1693-1699). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. doi:10.4018/978-1-60566-198-8.ch248

Chicago

Lazarus, Belinda Davis. "Programmed Instruction Resources." In Encyclopedia of Distance Learning, Second Edition, ed. Patricia L. Rogers, Gary A. Berg, Judith V. Boettcher, Caroline Howard, Lorraine Justice and Karen D. Schenk, 1693-1699 (2009), accessed November 01, 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-60566-198-8.ch248

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Abstract

Programmed Instruction (PI) has evolved from the rudimentary teaching machines of the 1920s to present- day computer programs and Internet activities that industry, military, and educational institutions use to teach everything from Hebrew to military law. Although PI was originally developed to teach basic academic skills, educators and trainers in business and industry have developed self-paced, independent PI modules that employees may use to learn a host of basic and advanced skills in fields as varied as medicine and military law. PI, one of the earliest teaching methods derived from behavior analysis, involves analyzing comprehensive concepts into small, sequential tasks that teach, test, and self-correct in units referred to as “frames”. A PI textbook often includes thousands of frames that require students to read a short statement, answer a question, and retrieve the correct answer before progressing to the next frame. Early PI lessons followed a linear sequence, however, the capabilities of the computer to “branch” based on correct and incorrect responses currently support non-linear PI. From the teaching machines of the 1920s to the modern information superhighway, PI has evolved while retaining its behavioral roots and approaches.
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Introduction

Programmed Instruction (PI) has evolved from the rudimentary teaching machines of the 1920s to present-day computer programs and Internet activities that industry, military, and educational institutions use to teach everything from Hebrew to military law. Although PI was originally developed to teach basic academic skills, educators and trainers in business and industry have developed self-paced, independent PI modules that employees may use to learn a host of basic and advanced skills in fields as varied as medicine and military law.

PI, one of the earliest teaching methods derived from behavior analysis, involves analyzing comprehensive concepts into small, sequential tasks that teach, test, and self-correct in units referred to as “frames”. A PI textbook often includes thousands of frames that require students to read a short statement, answer a question, and retrieve the correct answer before progressing to the next frame. Early PI lessons followed a linear sequence, however, the capabilities of the computer to “branch” based on correct and incorrect responses currently support non-linear PI. From the teaching machines of the 1920s to the modern information superhighway, PI has evolved while retaining its behavioral roots and approaches.

Background: History Of Programmed Instruction

Behavioral psychology provided the basis for PI with the application of Skinner’s behavior analysis to learning. It grew from the teaching machines and auto-instruction developed by Sidney L. Pressey during the 1920s and the early 1930s. Pressey’s machine was a simple multiple-choice testing device. A question and answer sheet was inserted into a simple wooden box with two levers. The question would appear in a window with the four choices for answers and students would select the lever that corresponded to their answer. If the students answered correctly, the next question appeared in the window. If they answered incorrectly, the question remained in the window and an error mark was tallied in a separate window on the box. In this manner, an accurate count of incorrect guesses could be tracked. However, Pressey’s approach focused on assessment and feedback only, and did not include instruction, a key element of PI.

B. F. Skinner (1986) perfected the use of the teaching machine to deliver the instruction, assessment, and feedback that defines PI. He described his machine as a frame of incomplete textual or numeric problems that appear in a square window with sliders that are used to move the opening over each problem. When the student completed one problem, he or she checked the response by turning a crank to reveal the correct answer. The machine was able to sense the setting of the slider, and, if the student’s answer was correct, moved a new problem into the window. Skinner recognized that his early machine was a low-tech device (evidenced by his statement that “a keyboard would be an obvious improvement” p. 384), however, his rudimentary machine enabled him to demonstrate the efficacy and simplicity of PI.

Skinner argued that PI is more effective than traditional teaching methods because it is individualized, provides students with immediate corrective and reinforcing feedback, and enables students to follow a coherent sequence of instruction that is designed by experts in the field. And, although PI was a popular mode of instruction in the 1960s, its popularity faded almost as quickly as it emerged. Early PI packages were boring, isolated the learner, and were only useful for learning factual information. Unfortunately, the technology that early PI developers needed was a remote and expensive concept.

In the 1950s, IBM’s Teaching Machines Project developed an IBM 650, a high-speed digital computer and interfaced it with a typewriter to teach math. The “IBM 650 Inquiry Station” was capable of transmitting typed information to the computer and receiving information from the computer. The student sat at the Inquiry Station and the program of instruction in the computer presented the problem to the student by way of the typewriter. The student, in turn, typed his answers, which were transmitted to the computer for evaluation. IBM also developed a program called COURSEWRITER, the first computer language devoted to Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) programming. However, the Inquiry Station was an expensive and cumbersome system that lacked present-day, high-speed interfaces and portability.

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Contents by Volume
Foreword
Murray Turoff
Preface
Patricia L. Rogers
Chapter 1
Geoffrey N. Dick
While distance education has been available in many forms for a long time, the technologies associated with the Internet are opening up new ways of... Sample PDF
Academic Workload in Online Courses
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Chapter 2
Nathan K. Lindsay, Peter B. Williams, Scott L. Howell
A number of prominent distance learning journals have established the need for administrators to be informed and prepared with strategic plans equal... Sample PDF
Academic, Economic, and Technological Trends Affecting Distance Education
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Chapter 3
Deborah W. Proctor
In systems thinking divisions apparent in science specializations are seen “as arbitrary and man made” (Checkland, 1981, p. 4). A key idea embedded... Sample PDF
Accessibility of Technology in Higher Education
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Chapter 4
E. Lea Witta
Universities and colleges constantly attempt to address student needs by offering courses in various time frames. Because it is difficult for... Sample PDF
Achievement in Online vs. Traditional Classes
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Chapter 5
Colla J. MacDonald, Emma J. Stodel, Terrie Lynn Thompson, Bill Muirhead, Chris Hinton
In 1997, Drucker suggested that due to the availability of the Internet for delivering university courses and programs, traditional higher education... Sample PDF
Addressing the E-Learning Contradiction
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Chapter 6
Gary E. Miller
The advent of online learning has transformed dramatically the administration of distance education in higher education. As online learning becomes... Sample PDF
The Administration of Online and Distance Education
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Chapter 7
Henryk Marcinkiewicz, Jennifer McLean
The establishment of a distance learning program is a significant effort. The prepossessing condition for such an undertaking is that distance... Sample PDF
Administrative Concerns for Distance Learning
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Chapter 8
Lisa A. Stephens
The advent of blended learning and digital recording options has complicated the challenge of administering technology classrooms. From students’... Sample PDF
Administrative Strategies for Designing and Supporting Large-Scale Digital Lecture Recording Environments
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Chapter 9
Adult Illiteracy  (pages 54-61)
Ann-Marie Trammell
The issue of illiteracy is a serious one, especially for adults. Worldwide, 880 million adults have been labeled as illiterate, and in the United... Sample PDF
Adult Illiteracy
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Chapter 10
Sally M. Johnstone
In 1989 the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) located in Boulder, Colorado, founded the Western Cooperative for Educational... Sample PDF
Advancing the Effective Use of Technology in Higher Education
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Chapter 11
Patricia M. Boechler
In response to changes in demographics and technology, education in North America is undergoing a transformation. Dorin (2007) summarizes several... Sample PDF
Aging and Online Learning
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Chapter 12
Esther E. Klein
Until recently, creativity has been a neglected research topic (Steinberg & Lubart, 1999), although it is a central concern for schools and... Sample PDF
Anonymity-Featured Group Support Systems and Creativity
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Chapter 13
Dale W. Lick, Roger Kaufman
Technology offers tremendous opportunities for increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of online learning in the future. Over the past few... Sample PDF
Applying Change Creation to Improve Online Learning
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Chapter 14
Rita-Marie Conrad
Collaborative learning is a strategy in which students work together in small groups with minimal guidance from the instructor in order to achieve... Sample PDF
Assessing Collaborative Learning
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Chapter 15
Mahnaz Moallem
One of the most challenging issues facing educators in all levels of formal schooling, particularly higher education, is assessment of complex... Sample PDF
Assessment of Complex Learning Outcomes in Online Learning Environments
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Chapter 16
Shijuan Liu
Assessment tasks refer to tasks that an instructor requires students to complete and that counts towards their final grades in a course. Assessment... Sample PDF
Assessment Tasks in Online Courses
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Chapter 17
Rena M. Palloff, Keith Pratt
One of the most difficult tasks the online instructor has is to assess student performance. Magennis and Farrell (2005) define teaching as a set of... Sample PDF
Assessment, Academic Integrity, and Community Online
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Chapter 18
Leticia L. McGrath, Mark Johnson
In 1999, the Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia (USG), in collaboration with a number of its member institutions, began developing... Sample PDF
Asynchronous Online Foreign Language Courses
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Chapter 19
Tiong Kung-Ming, Sim Khoon-Seng
The rapid development of technology greatly influences computer-based learning in distance education. One of the most important aspects is... Sample PDF
Asynchronous vs. Synchronous Interaction
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Chapter 20
Norbert Mundorf, Nikhilesh Dholakia, Ruby Roy Dholakia, Jing J. Xiao
In industrial societies, and also in developing countries, automobile travel is increasingly associated with pollution, congestion and urban sprawl... Sample PDF
Automobile Traffic Impact of Distance Learning
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Chapter 21
Thomas M. Brinthaupt, Maria A. Clayton, Barbara J. Draude
At most institutions of higher education, faculty members wear many “hats.” Among other responsibilities, they are expected to teach, conduct... Sample PDF
Barriers to and Strategies for Faculty Integration of IT
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Chapter 22
Peter Burrage, Leslee Francis Pelton
In Houghton’s (1989) review of educational paradigms, he highlights the gaining importance of chaos theory. Chaos theory is often characterized by... Sample PDF
The Beam Analysis Tool (BAT)
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Chapter 23
Irene Chen
The theory of behaviorism concentrates on the study of overt behaviors that can be observed and measured (Good & Brophy, 1990). In general, the... Sample PDF
Behaviorism and Developments in Instructional Design and Technology
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Chapter 24
Alicia Russell, Cathleen McCarron
A growing number of faculty teach courses online in addition to teaching traditional face-to-face (F2F) classes. Faculty developing course materials... Sample PDF
The Benefits for Faculty Teaching in Online and F2F Environments
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Chapter 25
Michael Simonson
Distance education is defined by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (Schlosser & Simonson, 2006) as: Institution-based... Sample PDF
Best Practices for Designing Distance Education and the U-M-T Approach
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Chapter 26
Antonio Cartelli
During the past few decades, the expanded use of PCs and the Internet introduced many changes in human activities and cooperated in the... Sample PDF
Between Tradition and Innovation in ICT and Teaching
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Chapter 27
Blended Learning  (pages 194-199)
Kathleen P. King
Blended learning has become a more widely discussed distance education concept and practice since the year 2000 and beyond. Also known as hybrid... Sample PDF
Blended Learning
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Chapter 28
D. R. Garrison
It is becoming clear that blended learning has the potential to transform higher education (Bonk & Graham, 2006; Garrison & Kanuka, 2004; Garrison &... Sample PDF
Blended Learning as a Transformative Design Approach
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Chapter 29
Janet Schoenfeld, Zane Berge
The use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) is more popular than ever in both educational and corporate settings. Schools and corporations are... Sample PDF
Bringing Out the Best in Virtual Teams
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Chapter 30
Tom Kennedy, Mary Brozovich
The Online Consortium of Independent Colleges and Universities (OCICU) was launched in January 2005 after several years of successful... Sample PDF
Build an Online Program Consortium
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Chapter 31
Kin Cheong Chu
There has been an increasing emphasis on enhancing students’ practical experience acquiring from the higher education, focusing not only on the... Sample PDF
Building an Interactive E-Lab
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Chapter 32
M. S. Vijay Kumar
In the new developing economies interest in distance education and in particular, in online distance education, is increasing. (Daniels, J, West P.... Sample PDF
The Case for Open Education Resources Distance and Distributed Education to Support the Growing Knowledge Economy in India
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Chapter 33
Colla J. MacDonald, Terrie Lynn Thompson
In order to satisfy the needs of growing numbers of adult learners, the availability of well-designed, effectively implemented, and efficiently... Sample PDF
A Case Study Exploring Quality Standards for Quality E-Learning
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Chapter 34
Danilo M. Baylen, Erping Zhu
Teaching and learning in the 21st century not only utilizes various technologies, but also takes place any time and any place. During the last... Sample PDF
Challenges and Issues of Teaching Online
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Chapter 35
Panayiotis Zaphiris, Sri Kurniawan
This entry starts with an argument on how computerbased learning (CBL) can benefit senior citizens, then reviews the effects of aging on CBL. It... Sample PDF
Challenges and Opportunities of Computer-Based Learning for Senior Citizens
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Chapter 36
Ana Maria R. Correia, Anabela Sarmento
The development and promotion of the strategic goal of the European Union to become a competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy and society... Sample PDF
Challenges for E-Learning and Adult Students in Higher Education
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Chapter 37
Parviz Partow-Navid, Ludwig Slusky
Higher Education, usually very slow in adopting changes, has become, in recent years, more receptive to them due to such external factors as... Sample PDF
Challenges of Change Management in E-Learning
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Chapter 38
Graham Shaw
The role of faculty within traditional teaching institutions worldwide has always been multidimensional, involving administrative duties, research... Sample PDF
The Changing Role of Faculty
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Chapter 39
Ed Hessler
My focus is both narrow and incomplete, for it is limited to a single area of learning: science, and it is in the form of a working list, a... Sample PDF
A Checklist for a New Millennium School Science Department
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Chapter 40
John M. Carroll, Dennis C. Neale, Philip L. Isenhour
Evaluating the quality and effectiveness of user interaction in networked collaborative systems is difficult. There is more than one user, and often... Sample PDF
Classroom Critical Incidents
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Chapter 41
Vanessa P. Dennen, Kerry J. Burner
As online learning has matured, it has increasingly used Web-based technologies to support communication and interactions among participants (e.g.... Sample PDF
Cognitive Apprenticeship and Writing in Distance and Online Learning
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Chapter 42
Jocelyn M. Wishart
Increased motivation amongst pupils has been readily observed in schools when they are allowed to use computers and other forms of information and... Sample PDF
Cognitive Approaches to Understanding the Challenge of Learning by Means of Computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs)
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Chapter 43
Taiyu Lin, Kinshuk, Kinshuk
Statistics indicate that the information stored in the world doubles every 2.8 years (Keegan, 2000). The problem every country faces now is not how... Sample PDF
Cognitive Profiling in Life-Long Learning
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Chapter 44
Kursat Cagiltay, Barbara A. Bichelmeyer, Michael A. Evans, Trena M. Paulus, Jae Soon An
Due to the increasingly widespread use of various information and communication technologies (ICT), individuals from different countries and... Sample PDF
Collaboration Among Multicultural Virtual Teams
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Chapter 45
Albert L. Ingram, Lesley G. Hathorn
Collaboration and cooperation have become firmly established as teaching methods in face-to-face classes (e.g., Johnson, Johnson, & Smith, 1998).... Sample PDF
Collaboration in Online Communications
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Chapter 46
Joanne M. McInnerney, Tim S. Roberts
The last few years have seen massive changes in how undergraduate and postgraduate courses are delivered. It is now expected that much, or perhaps... Sample PDF
Collaborative and Cooperative Learning
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Chapter 47
Betty Collis, Jef Moonen
Collaborative learning is a specific approach within the broader context of pedagogy. Collaborative learning encourages student participation via... Sample PDF
Collaborative Learning in a Contribution-Oriented Pedagogy
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Chapter 48
Maryam Alavi, Donna Dufner, Caroline Howard
Three basic categories of technologies are effective for extending collaborative learning beyond traditional face-to-face interactions to online... Sample PDF
Collaborative Learning Technologies
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Chapter 49
Dennis Harper
Directing a Technology Innovation Challenge Grant as well as a Preparing Tomorrow’s Teachers to Use Technology (PT3) Project, plus 35 years of... Sample PDF
Communicating Across Boundaries
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Chapter 50
Gary A. Berg
Communications theory dates to the Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle, but became a recognized academic field in the 1940s during World War II... Sample PDF
Communication and Media Theory
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Chapter 51
Johanna Pöysä, Joost Lowyck
The contemporary society addresses complex, interrelated, and interactive global situations to be faced by its citizens. Instead of pursuing... Sample PDF
Communities in Technology-Enhanced Environments for Learning
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Chapter 52
D. R. Garrison
The focus of this chapter is on a framework that has drawn considerable interest in creating collaborative communities of inquiry in online learning... Sample PDF
Communities of Inquiry in Online Learning
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Chapter 53
Janet Lear
Students enrolled in a face-to-face classroom have the opportunity to interact with their peers and develop a sense of community, feelings of... Sample PDF
Community in the Online Environment
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Chapter 54
Nathan K. Lindsay, Scott L. Howell, R. Dwight Laws
Critics of distance education frequently assert that completion rates are lower in distance education courses than in traditional courses. Such... Sample PDF
Completion Rates and Distance Learners
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Chapter 55
Andrew Laghos, Panayiotis Zaphiris
This entry provides a thorough introduction to computer- assisted and -aided language learning (CALL). It starts by providing the definition and... Sample PDF
Computer Assisted/Aided Language Learning
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Chapter 56
Andrew Laghos, Panayiotis Zaphiris
Gamper and Knapp (2002) define Computer-Aided Language Learning (CALL) as “a research field which explores the use of computational methods and... Sample PDF
Computer-Aided Language Learning
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Chapter 57
Hsien-Chin Liou
Recently, there has been an obvious blooming of the manufacturing of computer hardware and peripherals in Asian countries: to illustrate, Korea... Sample PDF
Computer-Assisted Language Learning in East Asia
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Chapter 58
Donald N. Bigelow
Just as steam displaced sails on ships; and the automobile, the horse; and just as TV has, to an unknown degree, replaced wholesale dependence on... Sample PDF
A Computer's Teacher Power
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Chapter 59
Kam Hou Vat
As online technologies and information resources rise in salience, experience has shown (Vat, 2000, 2001, 2002a, 2002b) that online education must... Sample PDF
Conceiving a Learning Organization Model in Online Education
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Chapter 60
Laura A.B. Dell
Videoconferencing is the latest distance learning technology to hit K-12 (elementary and secondary) education. Distance learning in all of its... Sample PDF
Connecting K-12 Schools in Higher Education
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Chapter 61
Adams Bodomo
Within the field of education, and in particular educational technology, dominant paradigms of instruction include active, interactive... Sample PDF
Constructing Knowledge through Online Bulletin Board Discussions
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Chapter 62
Diane L. Judd
This article presents four technology-integrated activities that engage elementary students in learning. These educational technology activities... Sample PDF
Constructing Technology Integrated Activities that Engage Elementary Students in Learning
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Chapter 63
Valerie N. Morphew
Web-based teaching and learning is on the rise in education and industry, challenging teachers and trainers to deliver instruction in new ways with... Sample PDF
Constructivist Teaching and Learning in a Web-Based Environment
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Chapter 64
Mark Notess
Contextual design is a human-centered methodology for designing information systems from a rich understanding of customer work practice (Beyer &... Sample PDF
Contextual Design of Online Learning Technologies
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Chapter 65
Leo Tan Wee Hin
Continuing education constitutes an important aspect of furthering the process of learning beyond the formal years of schooling. Leveraging mainly... Sample PDF
Continuing Science Education of the Global Public
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Chapter 66
Betty Collis, Jef Moonen
Pedagogy can be described as the art or science of teaching. The question of appropriate pedagogies for distance and computer-based learning when a... Sample PDF
Contribution-Oriented Pedagogy
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Chapter 67
Michaela Knust, Svenja Hagenhoff
E-learning gained a significant foothold in the field of higher education in the US and Europe during the last decade of the 20th Century. For the... Sample PDF
The Cooperation Solution for Universities
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Chapter 68
Leonard Barolli, Akio Koyama
In the last few years, we have observed an explosive growth of multimedia computing, communications, and applications. This revolution is... Sample PDF
Cooperative Agents in Web-Based Distance Learning
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Chapter 69
Stephen Marshall
Copyright has emerged in the 21st century as one of the hot topics reported on regularly by media. Hardly a month goes by without discussion about... Sample PDF
Copyright with an International Perspective for Academics
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Chapter 70
Alice Bedard-Voorhees
A number of online tools can now be used in courses for group interactions. This article focuses specifically on asynchronous discussion software... Sample PDF
Core Competencies for Facilitating Asynchronous Discussions
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Chapter 71
François Guillotte, Jacques Gaumond
As a form of Corporate – Higher Education Alliance (“Alliance”), Bridge-eLearning (www.bridge-elearning. com) is a consortium (“Consortium”) that... Sample PDF
Corporate - Higher Education Alliance
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Chapter 72
Cost-Effectiveness  (pages 498-504)
Saul Fisher
Online education offers strong intrinsic potential for advancing and augmenting teaching and learning through broadening and deepening access.... Sample PDF
Cost-Effectiveness
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Chapter 73
Matt Crosslin
Moodle is currently one of the more popular opensource course management systems in online education. Some evaluations have also indicated that... Sample PDF
Course Management Meets Social Networking in Moodle
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Chapter 74
Patricia A. Shaw, Susan Slick
Over time, student and teacher portfolios have taken several forms for a variety of purposes. Initially, portfolios were created in many educational... Sample PDF
Creating an Electronic Student Teaching Portfolio
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Chapter 75
Ryan Watkins
Online students can not always depend on the study habits and learning skills that made them successful in the traditional classroom to translate... Sample PDF
Creating Positive E-Learning Experiences for Online Students
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Chapter 76
Gretchen Irvine
These are my views derived from a long career teaching in the P-12, system as well as a decade spent preparing teachers at Augsburg College. The... Sample PDF
Critical Elements in Effective Teaching in the New Millennium
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Chapter 77
P. Clint Rogers, Minjuan Wang
The rapid pace of technological change and development in the world has given those working in the field of online and distance education great... Sample PDF
Cross-Cultural Issues in Online Learning
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Chapter 78
Ken Stevens
A cybercell describes the integration of actual and virtual groups in which face to face members extend their discussions to collaborate with... Sample PDF
Cybercells and the Integration of Actual and Virtual Groups
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Chapter 79
Diane P. Janes
Research is a quest, driven by a specific question, that needs an answer. Leedy (1993), in his book, Practical Research: Planning and Design, lists... Sample PDF
Delphi and NGT for Consensus Building E-Research
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Chapter 80
Diane Jass Ketelhut, Pamela Whitehouse, Chris Dede, Tara Brown-L’Bahy
With the availability of Internet and digital technologies, many universities are integrating new interactive media into course curricula, both to... Sample PDF
Designing a Distributed Learning Experience
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Chapter 81
Dazhi Yang, Jennifer C. Richardson
The fifth annual report on online education in the United States revealed that nearly 3.5 million college students enrolled in at least one online... Sample PDF
Designing and Developing Online and Distance Courses
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Chapter 82
Charles G. Graham, Stephanie Allen
The term “blended learning” is being used with increased frequency in academic publications and conferences, as well as in industry trade magazines... Sample PDF
Designing Blended Learning Environments
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Chapter 83
Mohamed Ally
This entry begins by discussing the history of computerbased learning (CBL), followed by a description of learning theories and instructional design... Sample PDF
Designing Effective Computer-Based Learning Materials
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Chapter 84
Mohamed Ally
Teaching and training has been going on for decades; however, the design methods and delivery technology have changed over the years. The invention... Sample PDF
Designing Instruction for Successful Online Learning
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Chapter 85
Judith V. Boettcher
This article describes a design process for online learning programs that builds on a philosophical base grounded in learning theory, instructional... Sample PDF
Designing Online Learning Programs
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Chapter 86
Emma J. Stodel, Laura G. Farres, Colla J. MacDonald
The idea of providing mental training1 (MT) and sport psychology services online is becoming more prevalent as technology continues to shape... Sample PDF
Designing Online Mental Training Using WebExcellence
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Chapter 87
Alan McCord
Student plagiarism inhibits student learning and damages institutional reputations. Online learning provides different opportunities for student... Sample PDF
Detection and Deterrence of Plagiarism in Online Learning Environments
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Chapter 88
Vincent Elliott Lasnik
One of the central problems and corresponding challenges facing the multidisciplinary fields of distance learning and instructional design has been... Sample PDF
Developing Prescriptive Taxonomies for Distance Learning Instructional Design
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Chapter 89
Petek Askar, Yasemin Kocak-Usleul
Every system is shaped by the prevailing paradigm. As society innovates itself, it also adjusts its mechanisms to new situations. The phrase... Sample PDF
Diffusion of Computers in Schools
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Chapter 90
Digital Divide  (pages 636-639)
Christiane Reilly
Distance education (DE) is a reality. Pop-up advertisements of online master’s degree programs appear with regularity on the Internet, and distance... Sample PDF
Digital Divide
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Chapter 91
Petek Askar, Oktay Dönmez, Gonca Kizilkaya, Volkan Çevik, Kerem Gültekin
This research studies on the evaluation of online courses are usually conducted for investigating the differences between face-to-face and Web-based... Sample PDF
Dimensions of Student Satisfaction on Online Programs
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Chapter 92
Christopher Newell, Margaret Debenham
Distance education may be seen as both enabling and disabling in its application to, and relationship with, people with disability and chronic... Sample PDF
Disability, Chronic Illness, and Distance Education
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Chapter 93
Michelle Kilburn, Martha Henckell, David Starrett
Online learning has quickly emerged and consumed much of the research and discussion regarding distance education. But what is it about online... Sample PDF
A Discussion of Online Learning and Pedagogical Frameworks
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Chapter 94
Ali Fawaz Shareef, Kinshuk
Small island nations, especially Maldives, encounter a number of limitations in providing services to their people due to their size. These services... Sample PDF
Distance Education in Small Island Nations
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Chapter 95
Petek Askar
Distance education is the educational process in which the instructor and learner are physically separated, and interaction between them is... Sample PDF
Distance Education in Turkey
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Chapter 96
Habibah Lateh, Arumugam Raman
Malaysia, in comparison to some of the other countries in South East Asia, is relatively small, with a size of 329,750 km2 and a population of 25.45... Sample PDF
Distance Learning and Educational Technology in Malaysia
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Chapter 97
Alan Altany
Distance learning and the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) are both ancient, yet both are new. Distance learning is now associated with... Sample PDF
Distance Learning and the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning
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Chapter 98
Sven A. Normann, Diane E. Beck
Although the number of distance learning courses and programs has grown exponentially in higher education, adoption has been slower within health... Sample PDF
Distance Learning for Health Professions Education
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Chapter 99
Christine Bagwell
The United States Justice Department’s Bureau of Justice Statistics reported that as of June 30, 2006, there are 1.6 million people serving... Sample PDF
Distance Learning in Incarcerated Populations
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Chapter 100
Caroline Howard, Richard Discenza, Murray Turoff
Colleges and universities around the country are scrambling to keep pace with the innovations in technology to engage a generation of students that... Sample PDF
Distance Learning in 21st Century Education
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Chapter 101
Boris Galitsky
Recent psychological studies have revealed that autistic children can neither reason properly about mental states of themselves and others, nor... Sample PDF
Distance Learning Rehabilitation of Autistic Reasoning
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Chapter 102
Sarah Guri-Rosenblit
Universities offering studies through distance teaching methods vary enormously in how they were initiated, the clienteles they aim to serve, how... Sample PDF
Diverse Models of Distance Teaching Universities
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Chapter 103
Document Delivery  (pages 734-735)
Robin L. Ewing
Document delivery is a service offered by academic libraries that allows distance education students to access or obtain the research materials... Sample PDF
Document Delivery
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Chapter 104
Donald A. Hantula, Donald Spangenberg
Download delay, also known as “download time” and “tolerable wait time (TWT),” is the amount of time needed for instructional materials to appear on... Sample PDF
Download Delay, Tolerable Wait Time, and Online Learning
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Chapter 105
Jared Bucker
Distance education has to compete for scarce resources within an educational institution. Not only does a distance education program compete against... Sample PDF
An Economic Model for Evaluating Costs and Benefits for Distance Education Programs
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Chapter 106
Colette Wanless-Sobel
Avatar (abbreviated Av) in online educational gaming refers to a virtual self or agent who, immersed in a real-time distributed, synthetic... Sample PDF
Educational Gaming Avatars
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Chapter 107
Robin H. Kay
It is undeniable that distance learning has grown rapidly over the past five years. With over 12 billion dollars spent on online learning in 1998... Sample PDF
Educational Mini-Clips in Distance Learning
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Chapter 108
Gary A. Berg
This overview briefly reviews the history of educational technology and surveys relevant learning theory. In order to understand fully... Sample PDF
Educational Technology and Learning Theory
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Chapter 109
Adrienne A. Reynolds
The countries of the Middle East are undergoing rapid change in many areas, and the field of education is illustrative. This is particularly the... Sample PDF
Educational Technology in the Middle East
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Chapter 110
Hsianghoo Steve Ching, Carmel McNaught, Paul W.T. Poon
This article will address several areas relating to online learning and technology. We will report on work done in the development of four models... Sample PDF
Effective Technology-Mediated Education for Adult Chinese Learners
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Chapter 111
Jonathan Frank, Janet Toland
Innovations in information and communication technologies (ICTs) and the development of global-knowledge- based economies are presenting... Sample PDF
The Effect of Cultural Differences and Educational Technology on Distance Education in the South Pacific
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Chapter 112
Stuart S. Gold
The purpose of this study was to answer the question: Is the level of achievement of working adult students in an online class directly related to... Sample PDF
Effects of Computer-Mediated Communication
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Chapter 113
Mahnaz Moallem
What does it mean when graduates of education systems are able to identify and solve problems, and make contributions to society throughout their... Sample PDF
The Efficacy of Current Assessment Tools and Techniques for Assessment of Complex and Performance-Based Learning Outcomes in Online Learning
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Chapter 114
Graeme Salter
The use of online teaching in education is expanding at a rapid rate. Some may be tempted to view technology as an educational panacea (Herrington &... Sample PDF
E-Learning and M-Learning Problems
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Chapter 115
Konstantinos Markellos, Penelope Markellou
Traditional teaching and learning methods have had to adapt to keep up with Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in modern society.... Sample PDF
E-Learning and Semantic Technologies
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Chapter 116
Rosemary Du Mont
The global knowledge-driven economy is characterized by both structural and personnel changes that are driving new models of teaching and learning.... Sample PDF
E-Learning as Organizational Strategy
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Chapter 117
E-Learning Design Quality  (pages 831-839)
Panagiotis Zaharias
A critical review of the literature was conducted which resulted in the formulation of an e-learning research agenda with a focus on quality and... Sample PDF
E-Learning Design Quality
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Chapter 118
E-Learning in India  (pages 840-846)
Ramesh C. Sharma
Education is an essential tool for the economical and social development of a nation. Proper development of human resources is crucial to that. To... Sample PDF
E-Learning in India
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Chapter 119
E-Learning Industry  (pages 847-854)
John Gordon, Zhangxi Lin
E-learning is the process of teaching and learning using electronic media, generally distributed over a network. For a thorough coverage of... Sample PDF
E-Learning Industry
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Chapter 120
Caitriona Bermingham, Abdulhussain E. Mahdi
Due to lack of effective study and learning skills, most leaving certificate students who enroll in degree courses in Ireland find it difficult to... Sample PDF
E-Learning Study Skills Training Using Proven Pedagogies
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Chapter 121
Ashok Banerji, Glenda Rose Scales
The key outcome of the current transition from the “old economy” to the “new economy” is the dramatic shift from investments in physical capital to... Sample PDF
Electronic Performance Support, E-Learning, and Knowledge Management
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Chapter 122
Electronic Portfolios  (pages 870-876)
Katherine C. Wieseman
A view in teacher preparation increasingly reported in the literature is that electronic portfolios can present an educator’s achievement... Sample PDF
Electronic Portfolios
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Chapter 123
Andrew Kitchenham
As a punishment from the Greek gods for his numerous trickeries, Sisyphus was condemned to roll an enormous rock up a hill for eternity. As he... Sample PDF
Electronic Portfolios in Teacher Education
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Chapter 124
E-Mentoring  (pages 885-889)
Jamie S. Switzer
Colleges and universities are adept at teaching students in the academic sense. Often what is lacking in a student’s education is a thorough grasp... Sample PDF
E-Mentoring
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Chapter 125
E-Moderating  (pages 890-897)
Gilly Salmon
In this article, the term “e-moderating” is used to capture the wide variety of roles and skills that the online teacher, lecturer, or trainer needs... Sample PDF
E-Moderating
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Chapter 126
Judith C. Simon, Jollean K. Sinclaire, Lloyd D. Brooks, Ronald B. Wilkes
The opportunities for students to take courses, and entire degree programs, online continue to increase, as many traditional colleges and... Sample PDF
Employers' Perceptions of Online Degree Programs
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Chapter 127
Leslee Francis Pelton, Timothy Ward Pelton, Bob St. Cyr
The development and growth of the Internet has revolutionized not only the way we access information, but the way we present it as well. Prior to... Sample PDF
Enhanced Instructional Presentations and Field-Webs
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Chapter 128
Monty McNair, Caroline Howard, Paul Watkins, Indira Guzman
Survival in the 21st century marketplace often depends on the creativity of organizational employees (Beckett, 1992; Hermann, 1993; Johnson, 1992;... Sample PDF
Enhancing Student Productivity Using a Creativity Tutorial
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Chapter 129
Marcie J. Bober
Few would argue that teachers exposed to technologyfocused professional development are better prepared to effectively and systematically integrate... Sample PDF
Ensuring Quality in Technology-Focused Professional Development
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Chapter 130
Enterprise Model  (pages 932-936)
Patrick R. Lowenthal, John W. White
Institutions of higher education find themselves in precarious times. First, they are being expected to do more with less; most public colleges and... Sample PDF
Enterprise Model
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Chapter 131
Han-Chieh Chao, Tin-Yu Wu, Michelle T.C. Kao
As we enter the electronic age, technologies enabling e-learning have increased flexibility of learning location. Wireless communication... Sample PDF
Environments for Mobile Learning
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Chapter 132
Kam Hou Vat
The potentialities of the information (or Internet) age have somehow exceeded many of our current calculations in education (Brown, 2000; Cornford &... Sample PDF
An E-Portfolio Scheme of Flexible Online Learning
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Chapter 133
Som Naidu
This article discusses approaches for evaluating distance education activities. It comprises a framework for evaluation that is based on widely... Sample PDF
Evaluating Distance Education
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Chapter 134
Kathleen D. Kelsey, James R. Lindner, Kim E Dooley
Systematic evaluation of distance-education programs is necessary for program improvement (formative) and accountability (summative). When... Sample PDF
Evaluating Online Programs
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Chapter 135
Barbara J. Keinath
Accountability pressures on higher education have increased in recent decades (Dill, 1999; Garvin, 2000; Jacob & Hellström, 2003). Pressure for... Sample PDF
Evaluating Online Programs Using a BSC Approach
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Chapter 136
Lesley Blicker
learning in higher education began at least a half-decade ago when Web-based distance education started expanding at an exponential rate.... Sample PDF
Evaluating Quality in the Online Classroom
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Chapter 137
David B. Glick
The Internet and its applications have challenged policy makers in seemingly all areas of public life, and as one of the applications of the... Sample PDF
The Evolution of K-12 Online Learning Policy from a Void to a Patchwork
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Chapter 138
Eileen I. Oliver
The evolution of composition pedagogy from teachercentered instruction to writing workshop and successful practices in online courses has been... Sample PDF
The Evolution of Online Composition Pedagogy
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Chapter 139
Donna Dufner, Maryam Alavi, Caroline Howard
Three basic categories of technologies are effective for extending collaborative learning beyond traditional face-to-face interactions to online... Sample PDF
Evolving Technologies Supporting of Collaborative Learning
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Chapter 140
Edward D. Garten, Donna K. Meyer
Virtual libraries, no longer a novelty, reflect the expectations of students in distance learning environments. The phenomenal growth of the... Sample PDF
Expanding Desktop Libraries
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Chapter 141
Holly McCracken
Generally believed critical to facilitating multi-dimensional instructional experiences for participants in a range of educational environments (for... Sample PDF
Facilitating Connected Knowing Through Virtual Learning Communities
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Chapter 142
Bonnie McCall Ordonez
Web-based courses have currently surpassed all other forms of distance education in the higher education field. One of the main reasons in growth is... Sample PDF
Facilitation of Web-Based Courses Designed for Adult Learners
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Chapter 143
Catherine C. Schifter
Distance education is not new to higher education. Correspondence courses have served students since the 19th century. What is different today is... Sample PDF
Faculty Participation in Distance Education Programs
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Chapter 144
Faculty Support Systems  (pages 1022-1026)
Jason D. Baker, Robert J. Schihl
One factor that has led institutions to develop online learning programs is the perception that they have lower production costs than campus-based... Sample PDF
Faculty Support Systems
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Chapter 145
Anne H. Moore
Colleges and universities have been actively engaged in integrating technology in teaching and learning activities since the early 1990s. These... Sample PDF
A Framework for Assessing Technology-Assisted Learning Outcomes
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Chapter 146
Harald Haugen, Bodil Ask
Four Norwegian higher educational institutions—the University Colleges at Agder, Stord/Haugesund, and Sør-Trøndelag, and the University in Trondheim... Sample PDF
From R&D Project to Virtual Universities
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Chapter 147
Howard Strauss
The evolution of a few critical technologies has the potential to change the way teaching and learning is done is the near future. Among those... Sample PDF
The Future of Teaching and Learning Technologies
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Chapter 148
Donna Wielbo, Ian Tebbett
Forensic science is the application of scientific principles to the legal process and the importance of such evidence in crime investigation has... Sample PDF
A Global Initiative in Forensic Education
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Chapter 149
Agnes Kukulska-Hulme
Online collaborative learning emphasizes student activity and is associated with changes in perceptions of who is responsible for leading groups of... Sample PDF
Group Leadership in Online Collaborative Learning
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Chapter 150
M. Haughey
In Canada, a country of vast landscapes, northern climates and relatively few people, the formal provision of education has always involved... Sample PDF
Growth of Online Schooling in Canada
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Chapter 151
Athanasis Karoulis, Andreas Pombortsis
The rapid establishment of third-generation distance learning environments, the so-called Web-based or tele-teaching environments, is nowadays a... Sample PDF
Heuristically Evaluating Web-Based ODL
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Chapter 152
High School Online Learning  (pages 1072-1078)
Renee Jesness
The question is not whether high school students should be taking online courses. It is whether they should get out of high school without taking... Sample PDF
High School Online Learning
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Chapter 153
Irene Chen
Most of the distance-learning professional associations were founded in the 1990s, at a time when most Internet backbone speeds were T1 or slower.... Sample PDF
History of Distance Learning Professional Associations
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Chapter 154
Yoram Eshet-Alkalai
The present paper presents an updated version of the holistic model of Eshet-Alkalai (2004), adding to it the real-time thinking skill. The paper... Sample PDF
A Holistic Model of Thinking Skills in the Digital Era
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Chapter 155
Clarke J. Hickman, Cheryl L. Bielema, Stephen G. Viola
This article examines the impact of blended course design for early career teachers enrolled in a teacher certification program, and the resulting... Sample PDF
How Blended Teacher Education Courses Impact Learning in K-12 Settings
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Chapter 156
Dan Baugher, Andrew Varanelli, Ellen Weisbord
The use of technology as a teaching tool, for example, self-paced programmed instruction, has a long history. However, developments in “high tech”... Sample PDF
Hybrid and Traditional Course Formats
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Chapter 157
Nicoletta Sala
The rapid evolution of digital, networked multimedia technology such as the Internet, e-mail, and computer based and video conferencing can open new... Sample PDF
Hypermedia Modules for Distance Education and Beyond
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Chapter 158
Evan T. Robinson
There has been a lot of change within pharmacy education over the past 15 years as schools and colleges of pharmacy, either independently or... Sample PDF
Implementing a Laptop Program within a College of Pharmacy
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Chapter 159
Paul Wasko
On August 1, 2002, after over a year of discussion, design, and development, the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities (MnSCU) launched eFolio... Sample PDF
Implementing a Statewide Electronic Portfolio Infrastructure
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Chapter 160
J. Bernardes, J. O’Donoghue
Kearsley (1998) writes that “technology is often seen as a quick fix, a siren song,” and warns that “educational technology is a distraction … from... Sample PDF
Implementing Learning Support Systems
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Chapter 161
Diane E. Beck, Sven A. Normann
In the last decade, the number of courses using online learning has increased significantly and based on student demand; continued growth is... Sample PDF
Implementing Successful Online Learning Communities
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Chapter 162
John B. Nash, Christoph Richter, Heidrun Allert
The call for the integration of program evaluation into the development of computer-supported learning environments is ever-increasing. Pushed not... Sample PDF
Improving Evaluations in Computer-Supported Learning Projects
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Chapter 163
Carol A. Twigg
Every college and university in the United States (US) is discovering exciting new ways of using information technology to enhance the process of... Sample PDF
Improving Learning and Reducing Costs for Online Learning
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Chapter 164
Gregg Asher
Although the lack of adequate funding is probably the most significant barrier to the effective infusion of technology (since bundles of money could... Sample PDF
Inadequate Infrastructure and the Infusion of Technology into K-12 Education
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Chapter 165
Barbara A. Frey, Ashli Molinero, Ellen Cohn
Just as wheelchair ramps and elevators provide access to wheelchair users, good Web design provides “electronic curb ramps” to the Internet for... Sample PDF
Increasing Web Accessibility and Usability in Higher Education
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Chapter 166
Werner Beuschel, Birgit Gaiser, Susanne Draheim
Learning environments increasingly become more diverse by the use of information technology. Thereby, the share of face-to-face situations between... Sample PDF
Informal Communication in Virtual Learning Environments
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Chapter 167
Nicholas Bowskill
This article seeks to explore the potential of online communities to support and develop new professionaldevelopment practices around collaborative... Sample PDF
Informal Learning Projects and World Wide Voluntary Co-Mentoring
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Chapter 168
Information Literacy  (pages 1178-1182)
Elaine Fabbro
The Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education defines information literacy... Sample PDF
Information Literacy
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Chapter 169
Alan Pritchard
Williams (2001) points out that plagiarism in pupils’ school work is widespread and, perhaps more importantly, that it has been made significantly... Sample PDF
Information-Rich Learning Concepts
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Chapter 170
Murray Turoff, Caroline Howard, Richard Discenza
What is happening to higher education? There is a search for increasing the effectiveness of learning and expanding educational opportunities by... Sample PDF
Innovation and Technology for 21st Century Education
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Chapter 171
Jane E. Klobas, Stefano Renzi
While virtual universities and remote classrooms have captured the headlines, there has been a quiet revolution in university education. Around the... Sample PDF
Innovation in Web-Enhanced Learning
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Chapter 172
Ioannis P. Chochliouros, George Heliotis, Anastasia S. Spiliopoulou, George Agapiou
Over the last years, the astonishing progress of modern telecommunication networks and the simultaneous spread of the Internet have brought about... Sample PDF
An Innovative E-Learning Platform for Vocational Training of European Local Police Forces
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Chapter 173
Sherri Melrose
Educators in both traditional and online learning events have consistently recognized a link between teachers who demonstrate warm, friendly... Sample PDF
Instructional Immediacy Online
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Chapter 174
Janet Lear
Instructor presence are words that call to mind a professor at the front of a classroom lecturing to a room full of students. Today the image... Sample PDF
Instructor Presence in Online Distance Classes
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Chapter 175
The Intangibles  (pages 1220-1221)
Robert Downs
In Nowhere in Technology: All Children Left Behind, Thomas Wilson dissects the nature of a typical educator by saying, “Educators have always... Sample PDF
The Intangibles
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Chapter 176
Mahesh S. Raisinghani, Cherie Hohertz
According to the U.S. Department of Education (1998- 1999), 78% of all four-year public institutions offer distance education courses. According to... Sample PDF
Integrating Library Services into the Web-Based Learning Curriculum
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Chapter 177
Zippy Erlich
The development and emergence of new technologies in distance learning has opened a broad range of options for promoting learning. New technologies... Sample PDF
Integrating New Technologies to Promote Distance Learning
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Chapter 178
Mary Bold
Interaction refers to the exchange of information between and among individuals in a distance learning (DL) environment, encompassing exchanges for... Sample PDF
Interaction in Distance Learning
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Chapter 179
Adams Bodomo
At the beginning of the 21s t century, we are faced with an age of rapid technological development in information and communication. Issues of... Sample PDF
Interaction in Web-Based Learning
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Chapter 180
Interactions Online  (pages 1259-1267)
Susan Wegmann
Success in online courses depends on quality interactions (Li & Akins, 2005; Shovein, Huston, Fox, & Damazo, 2005; Vrasidas, 2002). Interaction is... Sample PDF
Interactions Online
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Chapter 181
Brian F. Fox
When considering higher education and distance and online learning, the topic of the digital divide continues to be both important and vexing. While... Sample PDF
Internet Access and Software Alternatives for Students on the Wrong Side of the Digital Divide
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Chapter 182
Cynthia Gallatin
The Internet has changed the way we live and work as well as the way we are educating our next generation workforce. Technology-mediated distance... Sample PDF
Internet Marketing Techniques for Online Programs
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Chapter 183
Diane D. Chapman
Formal university-based distance education has been around for over 100 years. For example, Cornell University established the Correspondence... Sample PDF
Introduction to Learning Management Systems
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Chapter 184
Tim Bristol
This article highlights the issues that may arise when implementing online education in a developing country. In 2005, Faculté des Sciences... Sample PDF
Issues in Implementing Online Education in a Developing Country
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Chapter 185
M. Gordon Hunter, Peter Carr
The essence of distance education is the physical separation of teacher and learner (Sauve, 1993). In many countries, universities are increasingly... Sample PDF
IT to Facilitate Distance Education
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Chapter 186
Barbara Iannarelli
You are in a heated discussion with friends about the meaning and origin of a particular phrase. Someone uses his wireless computer to access the... Sample PDF
Just-in-Time Training (JITT) and its Implications for Teaching and Learning
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Chapter 187
Anita Dorniden
Alternative options to the traditional school setting abound and threaten the survival of some school districts. These alternatives include, but are... Sample PDF
K-12 Schools and Online Learning
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Chapter 188
Andrew Kitchenham
Since the first 1:1 laptop program was introduced in 1989 at the Ladies’ Methodist College in Australia (Johnstone, 2003), there have been numerous... Sample PDF
Laptops and Teacher Transformation
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Chapter 189
Judith A. Russo-Converso, Ronald D. Offutt
The evolution of complex and distributed commerce requires the implementation of training design and development models that capture and mold the... Sample PDF
A Large-Scale Model for Working with Subject Matter Experts
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Chapter 190
Deborah Petska, Zane Berge
As organizations race to increase their global market share, traditional face-to-face teams are evolving into virtual teams. Aided by swift advances... Sample PDF
Leadership Competency in Virtual Teams
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Chapter 191
Sue Burke
We have all heard the saying, “Follow the Leader,” but what if there is none? When humans learn a new skill or idea, the tendency is to look to... Sample PDF
Leadership in Technology Integration
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Chapter 192
Marc R. Robinson
The debate about learner perceptions of online courses can be divided roughly into two spheres: those that argue that learner perceptions are... Sample PDF
Learner Perceptions of Online Courses
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Chapter 193
Hyo-Jeong So, Curtis J. Bonk, Robert A. Wisher
For the past decade, e-learning has emerged as a prominent delivery mechanism in educational settings. Now, it is not uncommon to find courses that... Sample PDF
A Learner-Centered Perspective on E-Learning
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Chapter 194
Learning Management Systems  (pages 1355-1362)
Diane D. Chapman
E-learning has become a vibrant trend in technologyenhanced education. But the trend is not only with educational institutions. Business and... Sample PDF
Learning Management Systems
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Chapter 195
Bosede Aworuwa, Robert Owen
A discussion of distance learning usually entails a wide range of instructional and learning activities, instructional delivery modalities, and... Sample PDF
Learning Outcomes across Instructional Delivery Modes
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Chapter 196
Teresa Chambel, Nuno Guimarães
A learning style, or cognitive preference, is a consistent way of responding to and using stimuli in the context of learning. We can learn in many... Sample PDF
Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences
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Chapter 197
Elizabeth Buchanan
Contemporary distance education has its roots in early forms of postal correspondence study but has evolved to sophisticated, technologically... Sample PDF
Library Services for Distance Education Students in Higher Education
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Chapter 198
Debra A. Beazley, Riad Aisami, Elise L. Addison
For centuries, biologists have described the living world in terms of life cycles (Campbell & Reece, 2005; Quinn & Cameron, 1983; Lester, Parnell, &... Sample PDF
Life Cycle Challenges of Online Learning Support Systems
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Chapter 199
Allyson Washburn, Terri Pedersen Summey
“The ACRL Guidelines for Distance Learning Library Services (2000) assert ‘access to adequate library services and resources is essential for the... Sample PDF
Marketing Library Services to Distance Learners
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Chapter 200
Louis B. Swartz, Michele T. Cole, Daniel J. Shelley
To remain competitive, expand access to education, and meet the needs of students, institutions of higher education are offering larger numbers of... Sample PDF
Measuring Effectiveness in Online Instruction
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Chapter 201
Michael Herbert
The criminal justice profession is increasing demands that university graduates have not only the requisite professional knowledge, but also the... Sample PDF
Meeting the Academic and Practical Needs of a Criminal Justice DL Program
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Chapter 202
Gennaro Costagliola, Filomena Ferrucci, Vittorio Fuccella
Online Testing, also known as Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA), is a sector of e-learning aimed at assessing learner’s knowledge through... Sample PDF
Methods and Tools for Online Objective Testing
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Chapter 203
Craig Kissock
When preparing for a race, the coach will advise, “Do not look back at your competition; look forward to your goal.” Educators integrating... Sample PDF
Millennium Teachers in a Global Context
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Chapter 204
Kathy Enger
Throughout the literature on higher education, it has been shown that few minorities complete an undergraduate degree; even fewer complete master’s... Sample PDF
Minorities and the Online University
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Chapter 205
Chris Houser, Patricia Thornton
Mobile devices such as laptop computers, PDAs (personal digital assistants), and cell phones offer many features useful for learning both inside and... Sample PDF
Mobile Educational Technology
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Chapter 206
Boris Vilic
Mobile learning or “m-learning” is a relatively new learning modality in higher education and it refers to the delivery of educational content by... Sample PDF
Mobile Learning Implementation and Issues
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Chapter 207
Amy J. Nelson
According to the Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation (1994), “Program evaluation is a systematic investigation of the worth of... Sample PDF
A Model for Evaluating Online Programs
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Chapter 208
Cindy Beacham
Globalization of education has become a major focus of many universities and programs over the past several years. Providing international... Sample PDF
A Model for Global Distance Education Projects
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Chapter 209
Audrey J. Styer
An understanding of learner motivation is important to all educators, particularly those teaching online where learners need to be more motivated to... Sample PDF
Motivating the Adult Learner Online
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Chapter 210
Ramesh C. Sharma, Sanjaya Mishra
Around the world many communities have been constantly struggling to maintain their customs, traditions and language. Many communities have been on... Sample PDF
Multimedia as a Cross-Channel for Cultures and Languages
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Chapter 211
James E. Novitzki
Distance education programs/courses in some format have been available to students since the 1840s. Throughout most of this time there has been... Sample PDF
Necessities for Effective Asynchronous Learning
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Chapter 212
Thomas Lapping
As commonly defined, the “digital divide” means inadequate access to the Internet in urban or rural areas where telecommunications resources are... Sample PDF
The Need for a Well-Managed Technology Infrastructure
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Chapter 213
Carl A. Raschke
While critics of the new computer-mediated learning styles utter jeremiads about the impending apocalypse of higher education in general... Sample PDF
The New "Space" of the University in the Digital Age
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Chapter 214
Timothy Ward Pelton
Off-campus credit courses requiring substantial travel on the part of the instructor are often presented as a series of intense workshops (e.g., 36... Sample PDF
Normalizing an Off-Campus Course with Video-Conferencing
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Chapter 215
Tony W. Day
Learner interactions in the traditional classroom setting fail to develop leadership skills (Felser, 2005). Interactions occur in four ways: 1)... Sample PDF
Online Collaborative Learning and Leadership Development
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Chapter 216
Roy Rada, Heather Holden
Education is associated with standardization – determining how learning should occur and for what students, is the essence of education from the... Sample PDF
Online Education, Standardization, and Roles
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Chapter 217
Jeanine E. Gangeness
Online instruction has been approached with caution by nursing. Concerns range from unfamiliarity with online pedagogy to the potential for... Sample PDF
Online Instruction as a Caring Endeavor
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Chapter 218
Online Learner Expectations  (pages 1501-1505)
Gary W. Hawkins, Jason D. Baker
The rapid growth of online courses presents new opportunities and challenges for educational institutions. Thanks to online learning, increasing... Sample PDF
Online Learner Expectations
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Chapter 219
Online Learning Community  (pages 1506-1511)
Michelle M. Kazmer
The study and implementation of online learning communities emerges from two approaches related to the idea of “community.” The first approach was... Sample PDF
Online Learning Community
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Chapter 220
Johanna Lammintakanen, Sari Rissanen
The aim of this article is to provide an overview of university students’ experiences of online learning, based both on some previous empirical... Sample PDF
Online Learning Experiences of University Students
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Chapter 221
Online Learning Teams  (pages 1519-1524)
Carla J. Thompson
Team player, a familiar expression in many educational and workplace environments, is also an important component of online learning environments.... Sample PDF
Online Learning Teams
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Chapter 222
Online Mentoring  (pages 1525-1528)
Elizabeth Buchanan
The practice of mentoring has existed as long as civilization. Mentoring as a practice was noted in Homer’s The Odyssey, and a mentor, a word from... Sample PDF
Online Mentoring
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Chapter 223
Sue Bennett
Collaborative learning has long been part of university study; for example, through group discussion, laboratory work in pairs and group projects... Sample PDF
Online Support for Collaborative Authentic Activities
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Chapter 224
Joel M. Smith
The Open Learning Initiative (OLI) at Carnegie Mellon University is a new evolutionary form of eLearning that derives from a particular tradition in... Sample PDF
The Open Learning Initiative, Scientifically Designed and Feedback Driven eLearning
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Chapter 225
Open Student Models  (pages 1541-1545)
Eshaa M. Alkhalifa
When a student makes an error, the instructor wonders what possible misconception caused that error (Self, 1990) and attempts to correct it through... Sample PDF
Open Student Models
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Chapter 226
Zippy Erlich, Judith Gal-Ezer
The Open University of Israel (OUI) is a distance education institution with open admissions that offers academic studies to students throughout... Sample PDF
The Open University of Israel
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Chapter 227
Gary A. Berg
The British Open University has been a leader in nontraditional higher education for years and has influenced the development of distance learning... Sample PDF
The Open University, United Kingdom
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Chapter 228
Sarah Guri-Rosenblit
Distance teaching universities are often referred to as “open universities”, even if they are not called an “open university”. The use of the term... Sample PDF
Openness Dimension of Distance Teaching Universities
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Chapter 229
Lawrence C. Ragan
Demand for online education continues to grow as technology provides viable methods for the delivery of a wide range of learning experiences. The... Sample PDF
Operational Performance Guidelines for Online Instructors
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Chapter 230
Michael Hartoonian, Vivian Johnson
The millennium teacher is presented with two powerful conceptions. One is expressed in Pogo’s observation that “…we always seem to be confronted... Sample PDF
Opportunities and Opportunity Cost in Preparing Millennium Teachers
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Chapter 231
Henryk Marcinkiewicz, Jennifer McLean
The process of organizing faculty for distance learning shares characteristics with planning for classroom instruction. It is necessary to... Sample PDF
Organizing Faculty for Distance Learning
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Chapter 232
Al P. Mizell, Cecil Sugarman
We all know that technology has become a dominant force in today’s society for people of all ages. However, certain elements of society have less... Sample PDF
Overcoming the Digital Divide
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Chapter 233
Eduardo Costa, Jamil S. Barbar, Reny Cury, Junia M. Rocha
The main negative criticism against distance learning is that laboratory work is an essential part of all branches of technology and natural... Sample PDF
Participation of Distance Learning Students in Experiments
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Chapter 234
Michael Bieber, Jia Shen, Dezhi Wu, Starr Roxanne Hiltz
The Participatory Learning Approach (PLA, pronounced “play”) engages students as active participants in the full life cycle of homework, projects... Sample PDF
Participatory Learning Approach
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Chapter 235
Partnerships  (pages 1597-1604)
Linda L. Baer, Ann Hill Duin
The rapidly changing environment in society is cause for higher education to reassess approaches to meeting educational needs. Many key factors are... Sample PDF
Partnerships
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Chapter 236
Leone E. Snyder, Leonard L. Snyder
The recent, rapid growth of online higher education is well-documented. For example, Kiernan (August 8, 2003) mentions a U.S. Department of... Sample PDF
Part-Time Faculty Affiliation with the Virtual University
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Chapter 237
Leslie Jarmon
Second Life® is a computer-based 3-D virtual world environment that is accessible over the Internet and that features massively user-created... Sample PDF
Pedagogy and Learning in the Virtual World of Second Life®
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Chapter 238
Robert H. Woods, Jason D. Baker
Optimal learning outcomes, whether in face-to-face or online settings, are inextricably intertwined with the establishment of social networks among... Sample PDF
The Pedagogy of Social Development in Online Learning
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Chapter 239
Riad S. Aisami
Generally, online courses intend to present a non-traditionallearning approach for non-traditional students. Working adults can achieve success in... Sample PDF
Planning and Teaching Online Courses
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Chapter 240
F. Meena Lakhavani, Brian S.R. Bennett
For over a decade, videoconferencing has been developing as a key component of distance learning in a variety of subject areas (Wang, 2006;... Sample PDF
Planning for the Present and Future of Videoconferencing
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Chapter 241
Kathleen P. King
Debuting as “audio-blogging” in September 2004, podcasting has evolved to a much more stalwart technology and a greater societal adoption (Geoghegan... Sample PDF
Podcasting as Mobile Learning
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Chapter 242
Tiong Kung-Ming
Distance learning provides a wide opportunity for learners to access postgraduate qualifications. With the establishment of such open and distance... Sample PDF
Postgraduate Degree by Distance Learning
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Chapter 243
Mohamed Ally
Due to the recent development of delivery and communication technology and the success of distance learning, educational organizations are starting... Sample PDF
Preparing Faculty for Distance Learning Teaching
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Chapter 244
Gregory C. Sales
The vast majority of today’s teachers were never taught using computers. They have no firsthand experience using computers for teaching and learning... Sample PDF
Preparing Teachers to Teach Online
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Chapter 245
Glenn Russell
Virtual schools are an alternative to the “bricks-andmortar” schools that have been synonymous with school education for hundreds of years.... Sample PDF
The Problems and Possibilities of Virtual Schools
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Chapter 246
Xinchun Wang
Although the pedagogical advantages of online interactive learning are well known, much needs to be done in instructional design of applicable... Sample PDF
Process and Product Oriented Online Collaborative Learning Tasks
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Chapter 247
David E. Leasure, Amy Peterson, Richard Kettner-Polley, Scott Van Tonningen
Late in 2003, Colorado Technical University prepared to develop a large number of programs for online delivery. As part of the planning, the... Sample PDF
The Professional Learning Model (PLM™)
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Chapter 248
Belinda Davis Lazarus
Programmed Instruction (PI) has evolved from the rudimentary teaching machines of the 1920s to present- day computer programs and Internet... Sample PDF
Programmed Instruction Resources
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Chapter 249
Edward D. Garten, Tedi Thompson
For higher education, the assurance of quality to others in what it does is a deeply held value. Yet, marks surrounding quality are not easily... Sample PDF
Quality Assurance and Online Higher Education
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Chapter 250
William H. Riffee, Christopher Sessums
With today’s advances and capabilities in electronic communications, distance learning is a natural extension to any quality educational program... Sample PDF
Quality Distance Learning Programs and Processes
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Chapter 251
Arthur B. Jeffery, Mary F. Bratton-Jeffery
Since the 1950s, the designers of training systems have embraced the logical and deliberate methodology of the Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement... Sample PDF
Quality Function Deployment in Training Design
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Chapter 252
The Quality Matters Program  (pages 1723-1727)
Ronald Legon
The Quality Matters™ Program (www.qualitymatters. org) is a set of standards (or rubric) for the design of online college-level courses and the... Sample PDF
The Quality Matters Program
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Chapter 253
Alistair Inglis
Practitioners and providers in distance education owe a great debt to the founders of the UK Open University (UKOU). The history of distance... Sample PDF
Quality Processes in Distance Education
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Chapter 254
Martha Henckell, Michelle Kilburn, David Starrett
Different aspects of education have been evaluated by the government since 1897 (Patton, 1997). Educators have also adopted this means to collect... Sample PDF
Questions for the Student Evaluation of Distance Courses
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Chapter 255
Gary Mcl. Boyd, Dai Zhang
Entwistle (1981) found it was possible and useful to categorize students in three categories: surface learners who want to acquire and use specific... Sample PDF
Re-Enacted Affiliative Meanings and "Branding" in Open and Distance Education
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Chapter 256
Religion and Online Learning  (pages 1744-1748)
P. Clint Rogers, Scott L. Howell
Internationally, religious institutions are developing online learning for a variety of reasons and purposes. The overall interaction of religion... Sample PDF
Religion and Online Learning
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Chapter 257
Elizabeth Murphy, María A. Rodríguez-Manzanares
Compared to the post-secondary level, distance education at the elementary and secondary levels has received little attention from researchers... Sample PDF
Research on the E-Teacher in the K-12 Distance Education Classroom
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Chapter 258
Dietmar Kennepohl
For scientists and engineers, the idea of remote controlled experiments is not a new. Remote control is often used when an experiment or instrument... Sample PDF
Remote Teaching Laboratories in Science and Engineering
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Chapter 259
Evan T. Robinson
The intent of action is the achievement of something decisive. Within any business, decisiveness is hopefully linked to the successful generation of... Sample PDF
Repurposing Educational Content into an International Market
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Chapter 260
Donald Stepich, Seung Youn (Yonnie) Chyung, Allison Smith-Hobbs
Simply put, e-learning refers to Internet-based learning. E-learning can take place by reading a piece of information, such as a Web page, or... Sample PDF
Research on Cultural Factors in Global E-Learning
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Chapter 261
Lou Yiping
Do media influence learning? This is a historical debate in the field of educational technology, which started when Clark (1983, 1994) argued that... Sample PDF
Research on the Effects of Media and Pedagogy in Distance Education
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Chapter 262
Steve Baxendale
In the developed world, lifelong learning is considered necessary in the fields of education and health. Webbased technologies are used to update... Sample PDF
Research-Based Distance Learning Services in the Northern Pacific
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Chapter 263
Som Naidu
This chapter offers a framework for prosecuting research in distance education. The proposed framework is based on widely acknowledged practices in... Sample PDF
Researching Distance Education
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Chapter 264
Tad Waddington
In 1992, the economist, Gary Becker, won the Nobel prize for his work that demonstrated the importance to organizations of human capital and of... Sample PDF
Return on Investment in Training
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Chapter 265
Seung Youn (Yonnie) Chyung, Joann Swanson
While the concept of utilizing learning objects has been addressed in instructional design for some time, slightly different definitions of the term... Sample PDF
A Reusable Learning-Object Approach to Designing Online Courses
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Chapter 266
Augusta Droste, Bruce Droste
In the constantly growing and changing realm of teaching, learning, and technology, teachers are expected to embrace strange new technological... Sample PDF
Riding the School Bus Called Technology
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Chapter 267
Robin H. Kay
In the past 10 years, a considerable amount of money and effort has been directed toward distance education, with growth estimated as high as... Sample PDF
The Role of Learning Objects in Distance Learning
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Chapter 268
Bonnie L. MacGregor
Effective communication of the grading process to students is a concern that many online instructors face. The purpose of this entry is to show how... Sample PDF
Rubrics as an Assessment Tool in Distance Education
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Chapter 269
Neal Shambaugh
Instructional design models address important issues of learning, content, and context during the development of instruction. The prescriptive... Sample PDF
A Scenario-Based Instructional Design Model
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Chapter 270
David B. Glick
been underway that has led to new standards, new choices for students, and new forms of accountability. In the last few years, online learning has... Sample PDF
School Reform and the Maturing of Online Learning
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Chapter 271
Ronald E. Anderson, Sara Dexter
We focus our remarks about recommendations for overcoming barriers to technology integration and implementation at the school level, that is... Sample PDF
School-Wide Factors Facilitating Technology Integration and Implementation
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Chapter 272
George Yee
Many applications and tools have been developed to support the design and delivery of distance learning courses. Unfortunately, many of these... Sample PDF
Security and Privacy in Distance Education
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Chapter 273
Wan Ng, Howard Nicholas
Society today is characterized by, among other things, two main factors: (i) the abundance of information and large variety of resources freely... Sample PDF
Self-Directed Learning with Web-Based Resources
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Chapter 274
Eduardo Costa, Reny Cury, Junia Magellan
Communication system designers minimize noise with self-correcting codes that add redundant information to the signal, increasing the probability of... Sample PDF
Self-Normalizing Distance Learning Tools
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Chapter 275
Sharable Learning Objects  (pages 1858-1864)
Tina Stavredes
As we look to the future, we are poised at the edge of an ever-expanding universe of opportunities to learn. The Internet has opened the door for... Sample PDF
Sharable Learning Objects
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Chapter 276
Roisin Donnelly, Timo Portimojärvi
This article is aimed at supporting academic staff in universities and colleges who have begun or are considering introducing online problem-based... Sample PDF
Shifting Perceptions within Online Problem-Based Learning
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Chapter 277
Ni Chang
Students’ engagement in completing written assignments or learning activities may, in part, serve the purpose of achieving their learning goals.... Sample PDF
Significance and Uniqueness of Personalized E-Coaching
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Chapter 278
The Sloan Consortium  (pages 1884-1893)
Janet C. Moore, John R. Bourne, A. Frank Mayadas
The purpose of the Sloan Consortium (Sloan-C) is to help learning organizations continually improve quality, scale, and breadth according to their... Sample PDF
The Sloan Consortium
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Chapter 279
Deana L. Molinari
Scholars in business, psychology, education, psychiatry have tried to understand face-to-face (F2F) group process since World War II (Poole, 1985;... Sample PDF
Social Connection Theory for Online Problem-Solving Groups
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Chapter 280
Social Presence  (pages 1900-1906)
Patrick R. Lowenthal
Learning is a social process (Harasim, 2002; Swan & Shea, 2005; Tu, 2000). Discourse plays a key role in the social process of learning (Harasim... Sample PDF
Social Presence
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Chapter 281
Brian Newberry
Online learning can be seen as a form of distance education. Though online education is relatively new, distance education is not. According to... Sample PDF
Social Presence in Distance Learning
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Chapter 282
David Paulson
For many years, we have attempted to teach teachers technology for their own personal use and to help them use technology effectively with their... Sample PDF
Soft Technology Skills and the Teacher of the 21st Century
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Chapter 283
Felix Kayode Olakulehin
The term quality is a difficult concept to define. The concept is easily misconstrued because of its rather nebulous characteristics. While many... Sample PDF
Strengthening the Internal Quality Assurance Mechanisms in Open and Distance Learning Systems
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Chapter 284
Deana L. Molinari, Alice E. Dupler, Naomi Lungstrom
Stress impacts both quality and length of life (Bowman, 2005; Sapolsky, 1998), but the stress of learning is yet to be understood. Recent... Sample PDF
Stress of Nursing Students Studying Online
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Chapter 285
Deana L. Molinari, Alice E. Dupler, Naomi Lungstrom
Stress is recognized today as impacting both quality and length of life (Kiecolt-Glaser, McGuire, Robles, & Glaser, 2002). Stress was defined by... Sample PDF
The Stress of Online Learning
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Chapter 286
Pankaj Shah, Kate M. Carey
This article presents a snapshot of one state’s experience with connectivity from the early 1980s to the present and illustrates how distance... Sample PDF
Strong Networks Grow Distance Learning
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Chapter 287
Mac Adkins, Wanda B. Nitsch
Successful program completion in an online education context is a combination of learner attributes, the university’s focus on meeting the needs of... Sample PDF
Student Retention in Online Education
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Chapter 288
Student Support Services  (pages 1951-1956)
Scott L. Howell, Wendi Wilcken
Success secret number one for a successful online learning program, according to Jeffrey Feldberg, chairman and CEO of Embanet Corp. and who has... Sample PDF
Student Support Services
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Chapter 289
Doris Gomez, Mihai C. Bocarnea
Student attrition, although some to be expected, comes at a high cost. Failure to complete studies is recognized as a personal loss for the... Sample PDF
Success Predictors in Graduate Online Learning
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Chapter 290
Yair Levy, Michelle M. Ramim
The Greek philosopher Aristotle indicated that learning is the outcome of both teaching and practice. Clearly, learning is not confined to classroom... Sample PDF
Successful Self-Funding E-Learning Programs
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Chapter 291
Linda W. Cooper
Working adults are becoming an increasingly large percentage of the college population; with their busy schedules, they are insisting on “more... Sample PDF
Successful Strategies in Online Courses
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Chapter 292
Mohamed Salah Hamdi
Distance learning through the Internet is changing educational paradigms. Learning approaches, teaching methods, students’ expectations with... Sample PDF
Support of Online Learning through Intelligent Programs
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Chapter 293
Rod Nason, Earl Woodruff
Most school math problems do not require multiple cycles of designing, testing and refining (Lesh & Doerr, 2003), and therefore, do not elicit the... Sample PDF
Supporting Online Collaborative Learning in Mathematics
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Chapter 294
Daniel W. Surry, David C. Ensminger
Technology plays an important role in modern society. It is hard to imagine living in a world without such essential technologies as wireless... Sample PDF
Supporting the Implementation of Online Learning
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Chapter 295
Dilermando Piva Jr., Ricardo Luís de Freitas, Gilberto S. Nakamiti
In the last decade, the use of Internet and wide-band access have supported the spread of distance learning through the Web, which we will call... Sample PDF
Surpassing Online Learning Obstacles
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Chapter 296
Charles E. Beck, Gary R. Schornack
Distance education involves a wide range of elements, including students, instructors, institutions, classroom technology, state agencies and... Sample PDF
Systems Model of Educational Processes
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Chapter 297
Malu Roldan
Tablet PCs are recent additions to the range of portable, connected devices that comprise mobile computing. Although the devices are just now... Sample PDF
Tablet PCs as Online Learning Tools
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Chapter 298
Kyung-Sun Kim, Joi L Moore
The number of institutions offering online courses has been growing steadily. According to the U.S. National Center for Education Statistics (NCES... Sample PDF
Task-Oriented Information Organization and Retrieval in Online Learning
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Chapter 299
Susan Slick, Patricia A. Shaw
Over time, student and teacher portfolios have taken several forms for a variety of purposes. Initially, portfolios were created in many educational... Sample PDF
Teacher Electronic Portfolios
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Chapter 300
James Lerman
They say if you drop a live frog into a pot of boiling water, it will jump right out. But, if you place the same frog into a pot of water at room... Sample PDF
Teachers for the New Millennium
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Chapter 301
Y. J. Zhang
It is said that “one picture is worth more than ten thousand words” (Gonzalez & Woods, 2002). Human beings observe the majority of the information... Sample PDF
Teaching and Learning Image Courses with Visual Forms
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Chapter 302
Kirk St.Amant
As international online access grows, students are increasingly participating in a global community. Cultural groups, however, can have different... Sample PDF
Teaching Culture and Communication with Online Media
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Chapter 303
Rachael Knight, Kate Whittington, W. Chris L. Ford, Julian M. Jenkins
The potential for computers to assist learning has been recognised for many years (Jenkins, 1997), with reproductive medicine benefiting greatly... Sample PDF
Teaching Medical Statistics over the Internet
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Chapter 304
Debra Campbell, Zane Berge
As with the long line of learning technologies that preceded it, the integration of online classrooms has progressed beyond the experimental stage... Sample PDF
Teaching Style in the Online Classroom
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Chapter 305
Ray Kurzweil
I have been involved in inventing since I was five, and I quickly realized that for an invention to succeed, you have to target the world of the... Sample PDF
Technology and Disabilities in the Century Ahead
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Chapter 306
John C. Wilkinson
It is comforting to know that some things are timeless. The sound of the ocean surf. And now, the gulf between the highly trained networking and... Sample PDF
Technology Barriers and Opportunities
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Chapter 307
Technology Diffusion  (pages 2086-2088)
Pete Nelson
American education is facing a growing crisis. Confidence in public education is decreasing, as many schools appear unable to deliver quality... Sample PDF
Technology Diffusion
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Chapter 308
Marilyn J. Morrow, Paulette Miller
Faculty within academic departments, colleges, and universities are now routinely faced with the decision to offer courses or programs in an online... Sample PDF
Technology Enriched Active Learning (TEAL) for Summer Sessions
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Chapter 309
R. Dwight Laws, Scott L. Howell, Nathan K. Lindsay
The institutional decision about how much technology should be used to scale distance education enrollments, reduce costs, maximize profits, and... Sample PDF
Ten Scalability Factors in Distance Education
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Chapter 310
Text-Only Web Techniques  (pages 2103-2107)
Jody Condit Fagan
Text-only Web techniques are an important set of tools in every Web developer’s repertoire. When fully utilized, they allow developers to render... Sample PDF
Text-Only Web Techniques
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Chapter 311
Rick Krueger
One major barrier is that educators often view themselves as “people persons” and not “technology persons,” which ends up being an excuse for not... Sample PDF
There are So Many More than Three Barriers
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Chapter 312
Threaded Discussion  (pages 2110-2118)
Karen Swan
Threaded discussion is a kind of computer-mediated communication (CMC). Specifically, it is an online dialog or conversation that takes the form of... Sample PDF
Threaded Discussion
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Chapter 313
Gary A. Berg
In considering various management approaches internationally for the delivery of computer-based learning, there is an interest in total quality... Sample PDF
Total Quality Management in Higher Education
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Chapter 314
Elvis Wai Chung Leung, Qing Li
To cope with the increasing trend of learning demand and limited resources, most universities are taking advantage of Web-based technology for their... Sample PDF
Towards a Personalized E-Learning System
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Chapter 315
Stewart Marshall, Shirley Gregor
As the world moves online, various pressures drive changes in the way industries and organizations do business: market pressures, for example... Sample PDF
Transforming Universities in the Online World
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Chapter 316
Belinda Davis Lazarus
Increasingly, K-12 schools are delivering instruction via Internet courses that allow students to access course content and complete assignments... Sample PDF
Trends and Issues of Virtual K–12 Schools
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Chapter 317
Luis Barrera
This article reviews the history, state of the art, and future trends in distance education, in South American countries, through an overview of the... Sample PDF
Trends in Distance Education in South America
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Chapter 318
Geraldine Clarebout, Jan Elen, Joost Lowyck, Jef Van den Ende, Erwin Van den Enden
Educational goals have generally shifted from knowing everything in a specific domain to knowing how to deal with complex problems. Reasoning and... Sample PDF
Tropical Medicine Open Learning Environment
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Chapter 319
Gary R. Langer
Developments in information technology and distance learning are revolutionizing the way postsecondary education is organized and delivered in the... Sample PDF
21st Century E-Student Services
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Chapter 320
Thomas Lapping
Of all of the levers for educational reform and improvement in this new technologically rich millennium, clearly the two most powerful are students... Sample PDF
The Two Most Important Competencies for Millennium Teachers
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Chapter 321
Howard Nicholas, Wan Ng
The concept of ubiquitous computing or Ubicomp was first articulated by Mark Weiser in 1988 at the Computer Science Lab at Xerox PARC (Palo Alto... Sample PDF
Ubiquitous Learning and Handhelds
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Chapter 322
Seung Youn (Yonnie) Chyung
Distance learning is often referred to as taking training or education courses that are either synchronously or asynchronously delivered via various... Sample PDF
Understanding Different Categories of Attrition in Distance Education Programs
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Chapter 323
Vivian Johnson
In a letter to the editor of the New York Times, Mark Peck (May 6, 2007), a 10th grade student, notes “it’s too bad that students have to take the... Sample PDF
Understanding Dynamic Change and Creation of Learning Organizations
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Chapter 324
Frances G. Smith, Pamela LeConte
Buckminster Fuller, a multi-talented innovator of the 20th century, contributed to society as a scientist, engineer, and inventor (left... Sample PDF
Universal Design for Learning
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Chapter 325
Sheryl Burgstahler
Internet-based distance-learning courses have the potential to make learning opportunities available to anyone. This potential cannot be realized... Sample PDF
Universal Design of Distance and Online Learning
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Chapter 326
Tina Parscal
Cognitive apprenticeship (Collins, Brown, & Newman, 1989) is an instructional framework that uses the underlying principles of traditional... Sample PDF
Use of Cognitive Apprenticeship Framework in Online Learning
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Chapter 327
Muhammet Demirbilek
Playing game is the basic nature of human beings. Though the concept of learning through game is not a new one, it is generally acknowledged that... Sample PDF
The Use of Electronic Games in Distance Learning as a Tool for Teaching and Learning
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Chapter 328
Carol Knicker
What are assistive technologies (ATs) and how will millennium teachers use ATs to assist all learners? Assistive technologies can be defined as... Sample PDF
Using Assistive Technologies in Millennium Teaching
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Chapter 329
Stephanie J. Etter, Lisa T. Byrnes
Online learning is the fastest growing segment in the educational marketplace (Conhaim, 2003). As the number of online courses increases and... Sample PDF
Using Course Maps for Easy Classroom to Computer Transition
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Chapter 330
Marc R. Robinson
Student perceptions of online courses are likely influenced by two overarching aspects of quality: instructor quality and course design quality... Sample PDF
Using Gagné's Events of Instruction to Analyze Online Course Quality
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Chapter 331
Jane Eberle, Marcus Childress
In 2002, approximately 1,680 institutions offered over 54,000 online courses (Simonson, Smaldino, Albright & Zvacek, 2003). While there has been a... Sample PDF
Using Heutagogy to Address the Needs of Online Learners
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Chapter 332
Kausalai Kay Wijekumar
Online and distance learning environments have changed dramatically over the last 20 years and are now sophisticated interactive learning... Sample PDF
Using Intelligent Tutoring Technologies to Enhance Online Learning Environments
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Chapter 333
Karen Lee
Recent changes in nursing in the UK have been designed to produce a new type of practitioner who will be emancipated, critically reflective... Sample PDF
Using Simulation with Wikis and Journals to Teach Advanced Clinical Practice
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Chapter 334
Vicarious Learning  (pages 2261-2267)
John R. Lee
In computer-based learning, we often find ourselves addressing our technology to an unexpectedly complex Web of issues in learning and instruction.... Sample PDF
Vicarious Learning
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Chapter 335
Carol C. Dudding
This article describes the use of two-way videoconferencing for providing live clinical supervision of graduate students. It includes the rationale... Sample PDF
Videoconferencing for Supervision of Graduate Students
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Chapter 336
Sherif Kamel
New online learning techniques lead to improved ways to investing in larger numbers of people and optimizing the use of resources. Respectively... Sample PDF
Virtual Organizations in Post-Graduate Education in Egypt
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Chapter 337
Gaye Lang
The Houston Independent School District (HISD) is the largest district in Texas and has often served as a model in the implementation of new... Sample PDF
Virtual School Administration
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Chapter 338
Donna L. Jones
In modern organizational environments, education included, teamwork is an essential skill that employees must possess to work effectively with... Sample PDF
Virtual Teamwork in Distance Education
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Chapter 339
Web Accessibility  (pages 2293-2297)
Harriette LaVarre Spiegel
The development of the Internet has changed a purely text-based environment with relatively simple presentation features to one driven by graphics... Sample PDF
Web Accessibility
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Chapter 340
M. Michelle Panton
Web conferencing is a technology that allows groups of individuals in a variety of diverse locations to communicate and share information without... Sample PDF
Web Conferencing in Distance Education
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Chapter 341
C. C. Ko, Ben M. Chen, C. D. Cheng
From the angle of computer based education, the Internet extends the power of personal computers (PC) from being a standalone machine to one that is... Sample PDF
Web-Based Remote Experimentation
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Chapter 342
Efstratios T. Diamadis, George C. Polyzos
Over the past few years, distance education supported by computers and communication networks has emerged as an innovative and productive delivery... Sample PDF
Web-Based Collaborative Assessment Systems
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Chapter 343
Hui-Ling Wu
Web-based course development tools are software programs that facilitate the creation of online instructional material. These tools have become... Sample PDF
Web-Based Course Development Tools
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Chapter 344
Hao-Tung Lin, Herng-Yow Chen
With the rapid advance in Web and multimedia technologies, authoring various types of multimedia content and distributing them on the Web has been... Sample PDF
Web-Based Multimedia Children's Art Cultivation
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Chapter 345
Nurul I. Sarkar
Wireless communication and networking courses are becoming increasingly popular in universities, polytechnical institutions, postsecondary colleges... Sample PDF
A Web-Based Tool for Teaching WLAN Design Fundamentals to Undergraduates
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Chapter 346
Douglas B. Johnstone
Western Governors University (WGU) was formally established in 1996 by the governors of 19 western states. From its inception it was committed to... Sample PDF
Western Governors University and Competency-Based Education
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Chapter 347
Pamela Solvie