Pseudo Independent Models

Pseudo Independent Models

Yang Xiang (University of Guelph, Canada)
Copyright: © 2005 |Pages: 6
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59140-557-3.ch176
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Abstract

Graphical models such as Bayesian networks (BNs) (Pearl, 1988) and decomposable Markov networks (DMNs) (Xiang, Wong & Cercone, 1997) have been applied widely to probabilistic reasoning in intelligent systems. Figure1 illustrates a BN and a DMN on a trivial uncertain domain: A virus can damage computer files, and so can a power glitch. A power glitch also causes a VCR to reset. The BN in (a) has four nodes, corresponding to four binary variables taking values from {true, false}. The graph structure encodes a set of dependence and independence assumptions (e.g., that f is directly dependent on v, and p but is independent of r, once the value of p is known). Each node is associated with a conditional probability distribution conditioned on its parent nodes (e.g., P(f | v, p)). The joint probability distribution is the product P(v, p, f, r) = P(f | v, p) P(r | p) P(v) P(p). The DMN in (b) has two groups of nodes that are maximally pair-wise connected, called cliques. Each clique is associated with a probability distribution (e.g., clique {v, p, f} is assigned P(v, p, f)). The joint probability distribution is P(v, p, f, r) = P(v, p, f) P(r, p) / P(p), where P(p) can be derived from one of the clique distributions. The networks, for instance, can be used to reason about whether there are viruses in the computer system, after observations on f and r are made.

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