Recent Advances and Challenges in Wireless QoE-Aware Multimedia Streaming Systems

Recent Advances and Challenges in Wireless QoE-Aware Multimedia Streaming Systems

Rosinei Oliveira (Federal University of Pará, Brazil), Ádamo L. Santana (Federal University of Pará, Brazil), João C. W. A. Costa (Federal University of Pará, Brazil), Carlos R. L. Frances (Federal University of Pará, Brazil), Elisangela Aguiar (Federal University of Pará, Brazil), Paulo Bezerra (Federal University of Pará, Brazil), Allan Costa (Federal University of Pará, Brazil), Eduardo Cerqueira (Federal University of Pará, Brazil) and Antônio J. G. Abelém (Federal University of Pará, Brazil)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61350-144-3.ch011
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It is expected that multimedia applications will be the most abundant application in the Internet and thousands of new wireless and mobile users will produce and share multimedia streaming content ubiquitously. In this multimedia-aware system, it is important to assure the end-to-end quality level support for video and voice applications in wireless systems. Traditional Quality of Service techniques assure the delivery of those services with packet differentiation assurance and indicate the impact of multimedia traffic only on the network performance; however, they do not reflect the user’s perception. Recent advances in multimedia are exploring new Quality of Experience approaches and including metrics and control schemes in wireless networking systems in order to increase the user´s satisfaction and optimize network resources. Operations based on Quality of Experience can be used as an indicator of how a networking environment meets the end-user’s needs and new assessment and packet control approaches are still important challenges. This chapter presents an overview of the most recent advances and challenges in assessment and traffic conditioner procedures for wireless multimedia streaming systems. In addition, an intelligent packet dropper mechanism for IEEE 802.11e systems is proposed and evaluated by using the Network Simulator 2, real video sequences and Evalvid tool. The benefit and the impact of the proposed solution is evaluated by using well-know objective and subjective Quality of Experience metrics, namely, Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio, Video Quality Metric, Structural Similarity Index and Mean Option Score.
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Recently, advances in multimedia and mobile communications have emerged to offer a novel and comfortable living style for users. In this context, the delivery of multimedia content, such as video streaming, anytime, anywhere and with an end-to-end quality level support is a key requirement. This fact explains the increase of wireless networking standards, such as the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 (Lidinsky, Chambers & Jeffree, 2001) and IEEE 802.16 (Marks, Stanwood, Eklund & Chang, 2004) as well as the emerging new multimedia streaming applications.

With respect wireless systems, the IEEE 802.11 standard provides communication coverage limited to an area of 100m and can also operate in mesh mode, IEEE802.11s (Akyildiz & Wang, 2005), to increase the coverage area. The IEEE 802.16 was designed to work in outdoor scenarios, with a range of up to 50km and rates of up to 75 Mbps for architectures fixed (IEEE 802.16d), and coverage of up to 4km and bandwidth up to 15 Mbps for mobile devices (IEEE 802.16e). The wireless facility can allow the ubiquitous access of multimedia content with low operational cost. It is expected that video-based services will account for 50 percent of all consumer network traffic in 2012 and 80 percent in 2020.

In order to keep and attract customers, wireless operators must also provide quality level assurance for multimedia applications in order to maximize the user's satisfaction and the usage of network resources, while increasing the profits of network providers. However, wireless and multimedia-aware Quality of Service (QoS) assessment and management schemes must be implemented to fulfill such important requirement.

To cope with QoS issues in Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), the IEEE802.11e working group was created, where the draft version brought new Media Access Control (MAC) improvements incorporated in the IEEE 802.11 standard (IEEE 802.11e, 2010). To provide QoS assurance, eight User Priorities (UPs) were defined. Each packet is assigned to an UP and mapped to an Access Category (AC). Each AC is directly mapped to a queue, where several queues have different priorities, and applications are assigned to them according to requirements, policies, content, among other parameters.

In the case of broadband access in Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN), the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) system (IEEE 802.16 standardized the architecture for all-Internet Protocol (IP) networks) is the most attractive solution to last mile connectivity to Internet with quality level assurance. The WiMAX system provides differentiated levels of QoS for multimedia applications, based on the combination of a set of communication service classes, supported in both wired IP-based and wireless IEEE 802.16-based links. In the former, network elements with standard IP QoS models, such as Differentiated Services (DiffServ), can be configured to guarantee QoS support for sessions crossing wired links. In the latter, several IEEE 802.16 QoS services are defined to provide packet differentiation in the wireless interface (Andrews, Ghosh & Muhamed, 2007).

As presented above, the current wired and wireless techniques that aim to maximize the quality level of multimedia services in a networking system are focused only on QoS aspects. QoS-based schemes define a set of network level (and packet level) measurement and control operations to guarantee the distribution of multimedia content over heterogeneous networks with an acceptable quality level (Zapter & Bressan, 2007).

Existing QoS metrics, such as packet loss rate, packet delay rate and throughput, are typically used to indicate the impact on multimedia streaming quality level from the network’s point of view, but do not reflect the user’s experience. Consequently, these QoS parameters fail in capturing subjective aspects associated with human perception (Perkis, Munkeby & Hillestad, 2006).

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Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Alvaro Suarez Sarmiento, Elsa Macias Lopez
Alvaro Suarez Sarmiento, Elsa Macias Lopez
Chapter 1
Ngozi V. Uti, Richard Fox
In recent years, mobile phones have become the de facto system of communication across the planet. Mobile phones have helped increase economic... Sample PDF
The Challenges of Compressing and Streaming Real Time Video Originating from Mobile Devices
Chapter 2
Martin Fleury, Salah S. Al-Majeed, Laith Al-Jobouri, Mohammed Ghanbari
Mobile WiMAX is suitable for video-on-demand as well as broadcast TV services. Delivery of video streams over an IP packet-switched network, which... Sample PDF
Multimedia Services for Mobile WiMAX: Data-Partitioned Single Connection and Multi-Connection Streaming
Chapter 3
Chun-Ting Chou
The multimedia content is migrating promptly from standard quality to high-definition and even 3D. As a result, existing wireless technologies can... Sample PDF
High-Speed Cable Replacement for Multimedia Streaming in Wireless Personal and Local Area Networks
Chapter 4
Ping-Cheng Yeh, Hung-Yun Hsieh, Zhung-Han Wu, Yen-Chi Lee, Chun-Cheng Chiang, Antonio Ou
Due to the time-varying nature of wireless channels and the Internet backbone traffic, it is a challenging task to maintain the quality of wireless... Sample PDF
Codec Adaptation for Wireless Multimedia Streaming
Chapter 5
Martin Zimmermann, Gilbert Seilheimer
The media streaming server technology have been developed in the recent past using free software and open source approaches. But commercial... Sample PDF
Reviewing HTTP and RTSP Work in Two Actual Commercial Media Delivery Platforms for Multimedia Services and Mobile Devices
Chapter 6
Luis Angel Galindo, Joaquín Salvachúa
Traditionally, Internet has offered multimedia services independently of the services offered by companies associated to Telco (companies that... Sample PDF
Multimedia Services Offer Mixing Telco and Internet Assets
Chapter 7
Tibor Szkaliczki
Nowadays an intensive diversification can be experienced among the devices that can display multimedia content to the user. Typically, clients are... Sample PDF
Media Resource Adaptation for Multimedia Services and Streaming Media for Mobile Telephones
Chapter 8
Gianluca Paravati, Fabrizio Lamberti, Andrea Sanna, Cesare Celozzi
Recent improvements in technology have opened new, intriguing, and challenging scenarios for the latest generation of mobile devices, and users are... Sample PDF
High-Performance Solutions for Adaptive and Customizable Streaming of Interactive Content to Mobile Devices
Chapter 9
Adam Dou, Vana Kalogeraki, Dimitrios Gunopulos, Taneli Mielikainen, Ville H. Tuulos
Most of today’s smart-phones are geared towards a single user experience, whether it is reading a book, watching a movie, playing a game or... Sample PDF
Using MapReduce Framework for Mobile Applications
Chapter 10
Ulrike Lucke
Applications and infrastructures of the future will have to be intelligent to some extent, which means that they should automatically adapt to the... Sample PDF
Context-Aware Multimedia Services for Mobile Lecture Streaming
Chapter 11
Rosinei Oliveira, Ádamo L. Santana, João C. W. A. Costa, Carlos R. L. Frances, Elisangela Aguiar, Paulo Bezerra, Allan Costa, Eduardo Cerqueira, Antônio J. G. Abelém
It is expected that multimedia applications will be the most abundant application in the Internet and thousands of new wireless and mobile users... Sample PDF
Recent Advances and Challenges in Wireless QoE-Aware Multimedia Streaming Systems
Chapter 12
Juan C. Guerri, Pau Arce, Patricia Acelas, Wilder E. Castellanos, Francisco Fraile
Video services are much demanded nowadays but bandwidth and delay requirements of this kind of services are very restrictive. Offering real-time... Sample PDF
Routing and Coding Enhancements to Improve QoS of Video Transmissions in Future Ad Hoc Networks
Chapter 13
Nadia N. Qadri, Martin Fleury, Mohammed Ghanbari
This Chapter proposes the concept of resilient multi-source streaming using a peer-to-peer overlay network over an urban vehicular ad-hoc network.... Sample PDF
Resilient P2P Video Streaming over an Urban VANET
Chapter 14
Elsa Macías, Alvaro Suarez, Francisco Espino
Video streaming technique is at present the key factor of some multimedia services. The efficient implementation of multimedia services in mobile... Sample PDF
Multi-Platform Video Streaming Implementation on Mobile Terminals
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