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Recent Advances in Intelligent Tutoring Systems: A Case Study

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DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-4249-2.ch037
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MLA

Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C., Pedro F. N. João and Isabel de la Torre Díez. "Recent Advances in Intelligent Tutoring Systems: A Case Study." Handbook of Research on Teaching and Learning in K-20 Education. IGI Global, 2013. 631-647. Web. 31 Oct. 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-4249-2.ch037

APA

Rodrigues, J. J., João, P. F., & Díez, I. D. (2013). Recent Advances in Intelligent Tutoring Systems: A Case Study. In V. Wang (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Teaching and Learning in K-20 Education (pp. 631-647). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference. doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-4249-2.ch037

Chicago

Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C., Pedro F. N. João and Isabel de la Torre Díez. "Recent Advances in Intelligent Tutoring Systems: A Case Study." In Handbook of Research on Teaching and Learning in K-20 Education, ed. Victor C.X. Wang, 631-647 (2013), accessed October 31, 2014. doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-4249-2.ch037

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Abstract

Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) include interactive applications with some intelligence that supports the learning process. Some of ITS have had a very large impact on educational outcomes in field tests, and they have provided an important ground for artificial intelligence research. This chapter elaborates on recent advances in ITS and includes a case study presenting an ITS called EduTutor. This system was created for the Web-Based Aulanet Learning Management System (LMS). It focuses on subjects for the first cycle of studies of the Portuguese primary education system, between the first and the fourth year. It facilitates the perception of the learning process of each student, individually, in a virtual environment, as a study guide. Moreover, EduTutor has been designed and its architecture prepared for being easily integrated into higher levels of studies, different subjects, and several languages. Currently, it is used in the Aulanet LMS platform.
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Introduction

Distance learning is based on an educational model in which teachers and students are physically present at the same place. In this context, the different agents exchange learning contents using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). In the past few decades, distance learning started to be important by the policies defined by the governments of the most developed countries. Furthermore, both companies and other organizations paid more attention to these technologies because they allow easy information access in asynchronous way (Woo, et al., 2006). Older examples of this kind of learning were the tele-school and teaching by mail. With the fast spreading of the Internet, these methods have been discarded and are being replaced by e-learning. The teaching-learning process is being more supported by technological resources that offer different ways of communication between persons, using sophisticated educational software applications.

E-learning term is usually understood as electronic learning or learning through computer assistance. Amaral and Leal (2006) define e-learning as: ”The process, by which the student learns through the content placed in the Internet and/or CD-Rom. The teachers at distance, using the Internet to communicate with the students, possibly intermediated with some face-to-face moments”.

It is important to assure that e-learning is not just one more tool for non-organized information delivery. From this perspective the importance of the distance learning methodologies and existence of systems that monitor the progress of learning of individual students in virtual learning environments is essential. According to Amaral and Leal (2007) we should consider five types of e-learning,): (1) asynchronous online teaching, (2) on-line teaching with synchronous moments, (3) mixed on-line teaching, (4) on-line teaching, and (5) computer based teaching.

Asynchronous on-line teaching is characterized by a teacher-student interaction with asynchronous moments, such as electronic mail exchange or discussion fora. Whereas in the online teaching with synchronous moments, teacher-student interaction needs synchronous moments, such as Internet relay chat IRC and videoconference. Mixed online teaching involves real-time and face-to-face interaction, and it is also known as blended learning (b-learning). In the pure online teaching, contents are available on the Internet without the teacher’s figure and it is not dependent on the time and space. Finally, in the computer based teaching, contents are available on CD-Rom and, similarly to the latter, with teacher support. In this kind of e-learning, the contents are independent of time and space.

Under e-learning, the following two main concepts or technological systems may be considered (Yuuichi et al., 2006): learning management systems (LMS) and Course Management System (CMS). But, what is the real difference between CMS (such as Blackboard (Blackboard Inc., 2008), and LMS (for example: NetDimensions EKP (NetDimensions, 2008), Saba (Saba, 2008), or SumTotal (SumTotal Systems, 2008)?” The answer to this question is the basis to understand the difference between the concepts CMS and LMS.

A CMS is characterized by online systems that were originally designed to support academic learning, such as universities or secondary schools. Traditionally, a CMS is defined as Web-based software that creates and distributes course content, manages student enrollment and tracks student performance. In this sense, the CMS enables instructors to extend the classroom beyond its traditional boundaries of time and space. With the advent of digital libraries and Web 2.0 technologies, the term CMS is being replaced by LMS. This term extends the previous CMS concept to include tools that allow easy access to digital resources and enable a wide range of collaborative activities. So, LMS is a software application or Web-based technology used to plan, implement, and assess a specific learning process. Typically, a LMS provides an instructor with a way to create and deliver content, monitor student participation, and assess student performance (Freedman et al., 2000). It may also confer students the ability to use interactive features such as threaded discussions, videoconferencing, and discussion fora.

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Complete Chapter List

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Table of Contents
Preface
Victor C. X. Wang
Chapter 1
Stephen Brookfield
This chapter reviews the core process of critical thinking—hunting assumptions—and explains how this process differs according to the context of... Sample PDF
Teaching for Critical Thinking
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Chapter 2
Patricia Cranton, Laurence Robert Cohen
The authors of this chapter explore how educators learn through teaching based on a transformative learning theoretical framework and a narrative... Sample PDF
Learning through Teaching: A Narrative Analysis
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Chapter 3
Patricia Maslin-Ostrowski, Eleanor Drago-Severson
The authors interviewed and surveyed principals from Bermuda and four regions of the US about what they name as their more pressing challenges and... Sample PDF
Learning to Lead in the Midst of Complex Times: A Window into the Nature of School Leaders’ Work Challenges
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Chapter 4
Carol Adamec Brown
Following the National Education Summit in 2000, the National Governors Association and the Council for Chief State School Officers proposed the... Sample PDF
Common Core State Standards: The Promise for College and Career Ready Students in the U.S.
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Chapter 5
Javier Sarsa, Rebeca Soler
E-Learning quality, as with many other theoretical developments about quality, is an open-ended issue. Depending on the perspective, on the way to... Sample PDF
Quality in K-20 E-Learning Processes: Frameworks and Variables
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Chapter 6
Amy L. Sedivy-Benton
The publication of A Nation at Risk in 1983 as well as the progression to a global society has created a national concern for the quality of... Sample PDF
The Impact of K-20 Policies on Teachers: From Effectiveness to Attrition
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Chapter 7
Krista Steinke, Valerie C. Bryan
This chapter is a qualitative meta-analysis that discusses the growing trend of teacher attrition in Title I schools. Recent literature on teacher... Sample PDF
Teaching as Literacy: The Discourses Required for Success in the Title I School
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Chapter 8
Victor C. X. Wang, Patricia Cranton
This chapter argues that adult educators need to adapt their philosophy and their teaching roles to foster adult learners’ transformative learning... Sample PDF
Adapting Adult Educators’ Teaching Philosophies to Foster Adult Learners’ Transformation and Emancipation
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Chapter 9
Maysaa Barakat, Maria Martinez Witte, James E. Witte
Culture is a core element in everyday living within the United States. The variety of races, traditions, languages, and religious beliefs contribute... Sample PDF
School Leaders and Cultural Competence
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Chapter 10
Stephen Brookfield
This chapter analyzes the way Jurgen Habermas, the German critical theorist, connects the development of democracy to the educational use of... Sample PDF
Democratizing Classroom Discussion
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Chapter 11
Wen-Hao David Huang
Considering the increasing enrollment in online education programs among higher education institutions in the U.S., many researchers and educators... Sample PDF
Online Learning Engagement System (OLES) Design Framework for Postsecondary Online Learning Environments: A Synthesis on Affordances from Game-Based Learning, Social Media-Enabled Learning, and Open Learning
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Chapter 12
Jo A. Tyler
This chapter suggests that there is value in placing a primacy on the stories of student experience in higher education classrooms. Student... Sample PDF
Opening the Learning Space: Giving Primacy to Students’ Stories of Experience
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Chapter 13
Gregory C. Petty
The question of what affective skills are needed for the job or occupation are continually raised by K-20 educators, but little research has focused... Sample PDF
The Development of the Occupational Work Ethic for K-20 Education
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Chapter 14
Maureen Ellis, Patricia J. Anderson
As technology natives, 21st Century students are dramatically different than their counterparts of the previous century when many university... Sample PDF
Learning in Second Life: Developmental Theory of Avatar Growth and Change
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Chapter 15
Olutoyin Mejiuni
Through a case study of the faculty of education of Obafemi Awolowo University, the authors argue that although the founders of the faculty... Sample PDF
Envisioning K-20 Education: Refractioning K-20 Education in a Nigerian University
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Chapter 16
Maria Martinez Witte, Azzam Abd-El Naby Ahmed, James E. Witte
Lifelong learning can be enhanced through the establishment of academic and societal community partnerships. Adults face a multitude of challenges... Sample PDF
Partnerships between University and Adult Education Providers
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Chapter 17
Lesley S. J. Farmer
As technology advances, so do the techniques for abusing it. While traditional crime has not increased in some countries, cyber crime is becoming... Sample PDF
Digital Citizenship Instruction in K-20 Education
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Chapter 18
Esther Ntuli, Lydia Kyei-Blankson
Technology integration in the early childhood curriculum has seen some improvement. Many teachers now report using technology in instruction and... Sample PDF
Teacher Assessment in Technology: Integrated Early Childhood Classrooms
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Chapter 19
Chen Kang Lee, Manjit Singh Sidhu
The paradigm shift in engineering education in response to the revolution of the knowledge society has created new challenges for education... Sample PDF
Computer-Aided Engineering Education: New Learning Approaches and Technologies
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Chapter 20
Teaching through Film  (pages 341-355)
Stephen Brookfield
Film can be used for multiple educational purposes in the support of students’ learning. It can be used at the beginning of a unit to generate... Sample PDF
Teaching through Film
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Chapter 21
Victor C. X. Wang, John A. Henschke, Karen M. Fay
The link between Confucian humanism, Mezirow’s theory of reflectivity, and the convergence of a worldwide concept of andragogy (the art and science... Sample PDF
A Critical Review of Reflectivity, Andragogy, and Confucianism
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Chapter 22
Lesley S. J. Farmer
Information constitutes a central element of education as K-20 teachers design and implement curriculum for students to gain knowledge and skills.... Sample PDF
K-20 Education in Relation to Library Science
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Chapter 23
Helen W. M. Yeh
Different learning theories including action learning, experiential learning, and project-based learning have been used in adult learning, which... Sample PDF
The Making of Adult Learners through Project-Based Learning
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Chapter 24
Jennifer Lynne Bird, Eric Wanner
This chapter uses the theory of narrative inquiry and the practice of multigenre writing to explain the implications of using writing to assist in... Sample PDF
Multigenre Narratives as a Healing Process
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Chapter 25
Carol Adamec Brown
A well-designed logic model shows inter-connections within components of outreach programs, community projects, grant proposals, and even the design... Sample PDF
Using Logic Models for Program Planning in K20 Education
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Chapter 26
Judith E. Parker
The concept of sustainability has reached numerous areas of our culture today. Learning, however, has been described as lifelong or continuous but... Sample PDF
Before K and Beyond 20: The Sustainable Learning Paradigm
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Chapter 27
Thomas G. Reio, Cyntianna C. Ledesma Ortega
Online education continues to grow appreciably to meet both institutional needs for short- and long-term viability and student personal and... Sample PDF
Online Learning: Demotivators and Motivators of Faculty Online Teaching Participation
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Chapter 28
Pellas Nikolaos, Kazanidis Ioannis
In the last thirty years, participation factors have particularly attracted the interest of Adult Education researchers, and it could be said that... Sample PDF
A Qualitative Research Approach for the Investigation and Evaluation of Adult Users’ Participation Factors through Collaborative E-Learning Activities in the Virtual World of “Second Life”
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Chapter 29
K. L. DeSutter
Educating a diverse population in America’s K-12 schools continues to receive attention in the media and professional literature. Consequently... Sample PDF
Minority Students in Teacher Education: Diversifying America’s K-12 Teaching Force
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Chapter 30
Valerie A. Storey, Marilyn A. Schiavo
Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is a pedagogical approach impacting instructional delivery in all tiers of K-20 education. The introduction of PBL in... Sample PDF
Redefining the Higher Education Landscape through Problem-Based Learning
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Chapter 31
Christina De Simone, Teresa Marquis, Jovan Groen
A long debate in education has been whether to separate the study of children's pedagogy from the study of adults' andragogy or whether it... Sample PDF
Optimizing Conditions for Learning and Teaching in K-20 Education
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Chapter 32
Gregory C. Petty
Most professional educators agree that K – 20 educators have difficult jobs. However, there has been little research conducted on whether the work... Sample PDF
The Perceived Work Ethic of K-12 Teachers by Grade Level Taught (K-6, 7-9, 10-12)
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Chapter 33
Chinmoy Sahu
A learner-centric approach to learning is widely known as active learning. This approach helps learners to develop higher order thinking skills and... Sample PDF
Facilitating Active Learning among Adult Learners
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Chapter 34
Cynthia J. Benton, Kathleen A. Lawrence
Effective presentation skills and communication competence are important developmental qualities for teachers’ professional success and K-12... Sample PDF
Teaching and Learning to Communicate: Methods for Developing K-20 Students’ Presentation and Communication Skills
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Chapter 35
Beth Kania-Gosche, Sherrie Wisdom, Lynda Leavitt
In the United States, the new Common Core standards intend for every high school senior to graduate “college and career ready.” However, the... Sample PDF
“They Didn’t Teach Them Anything!”: Learning from Each Other in K-20
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Chapter 36
David D. Carbonara
Online learning environments are offered in many modalities for many subjects. Students enter the environment as a novice and hopefully exit as more... Sample PDF
K-20 Learning along a Novice to Expert Continuum in Online Learning Environments
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Chapter 37
Joel J. P. C. Rodrigues, Pedro F. N. João, Isabel de la Torre Díez
Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) include interactive applications with some intelligence that supports the learning process. Some of ITS have had... Sample PDF
Recent Advances in Intelligent Tutoring Systems: A Case Study
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Chapter 38
Débora Nice Ferrari Barbosa, Jorge Luis Victória Barbosa
The application of ubiquitous technologies in the improvement of education strategies is called Ubiquitous Learning. The essence of Ubiquitous... Sample PDF
GlobalEdu: Towards a Model for Ubiquitous Learning
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Chapter 39
Matthew Eichler, Carrie J. Boden-McGill
The higher education landscape is facing a time of unprecedented challenges, and public higher education is under pressure to provide value relative... Sample PDF
In the Nexus: Learning Pods as Learning Micro-Societies
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Chapter 40
Lori M. Risley
This chapter addresses the necessity of a clearer understanding of the critical element of trust in all learning environments. Research on... Sample PDF
The Visualization of a Critical Element in K-20 Learning: Trust from the Learner’s Perspective
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Chapter 41
Crystal Loose
Professional development is a necessity for teachers in the K-20 system. To achieve effective teaching, teachers must be engaged in learning. On the... Sample PDF
Teachers as Researchers and Instructional Leaders
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Chapter 42
Marianne Robin Russo, Kristin Brittain
Reasons for public education are many; however, to crystalize and synthesize this, quite simply, public education is for the public good. The goal... Sample PDF
The Changing Mission and Nature of Partnerships in Public Universities
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Chapter 43
Erin L. Tabor
Plagiarism seems like a straightforward term that in institutions of higher education identifies an act of stealing ideas, usually in an assigned... Sample PDF
Education Can be Gained from Errors: Why Plagiarism Should Be Used as a Learning Opportunity for College Students
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Chapter 44
William R. Hamilton, Victor A. Padron, Jennifer A. Henriksen
The economic climate is pushing educational institutions toward larger class sizes and distance education. As both physical and virtual class sizes... Sample PDF
Engaging Students in a Large Classroom and Distance Environment
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Chapter 45
Cheryl McFadden
A yearlong journey resulted in a professor developing and implementing a course using a new emergent theory of adult learning that builds upon the... Sample PDF
Advancing Active Learning with Adult Learners
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Chapter 46
John K. Hope
The stance taken in this chapter is that globalization has become pervasive in every country, and K-20 education can no longer be separated from its... Sample PDF
K-20 Education and Globalization
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Chapter 47
Catherine M. Wehlburg
This chapter has as its focus the assessment of learning. Assessing learning has taken many forms, and understanding its history helps to explain... Sample PDF
Assessment and Learning: A Historical and Theoretical Discussion
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Chapter 48
Victor C. X. Wang, Marianne Robin Russo, Karen M. Fay
Drawing on the theory of transformational learning, its critique by other scholars, and the transformational experiences of three generations of... Sample PDF
Collective Transformation of Three Generations of Chinese Adult Learners in K-20 Education
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Chapter 49
John A. Henschke
The author’s research in andragogy started in the late 1960s. More serious in-depth attempts were launched in 1997, just after Malcolm S. Knowles... Sample PDF
Andragogy around the World in K-20 Education: It is All about Trust
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Chapter 50
María Vásquez-Colina
Assessment of education has been identified as an important component of educational systems in South America and the Caribbean. Promoted and guided... Sample PDF
Assessing the Quality of Education for All: The Case of South America and the Caribbean
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Key Terms in this Chapter

Content Management System (CMS): It is a computer system which allows editing, publishing and modifying contents in a collaborative environment.

E-Learning: The process, by which the student learns through the content placed in the Internet and/or digital medium. The teacher and/or tutor is at distance, using the Internet to communicate with the students, possibly intermediated with some face-to-face moments.

Personalized Learning: It is a tailoring of learning environments to find the needs and aspirations of individual students or learners.

Learning Management System (LMS): It is a software application or Web-based technology used to plan, implement, and assess a specific learning process. Some characteristics of LMS are: use self-service and self-guided service, consolidate training initiatives on a scalable Web-based system, support portability and standards, etc.

Tutor: A person who provides instruction in the problem-solving context, communicate the goal structure underlying the problem solving and provide immediate feedback on errors.

Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS): It is a computer program that contains some intelligence and it can be used in learning. Moreover, ITS is an outgrowth of the earlier computer-aided instruction.