Reflective Ba and Refractive Ma in Cross-Cultural Learning
Tunç D. Medeni (Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Japan), Shunji Iwatsuki (Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Japan) and Steven A. Cook (Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Japan)
Copyright: © 2008
It is important to underline that learning and knowledge are relative in terms of space and time (Medeni, 2005). This notion of relativity and the inter-linkage of time and space is furthered by Costea,1 in his discussion of “time and the conceptual problems of the temporal dimension of business education discourse.” In conclusion, Costea’s analysis shows that: with regard to the problem of time, management education discourses originate in a paradigmatic framework which leads to the assimilation of human practices in the overall economic-functionalist view of human beings and of the world as space for history. Thus, time itself is rendered into a homogenous resource to be managed according to the agenda of the corporate organisation as main unit of analysis. The role of human beings involved in this process is to merely synchronize their actions and make more efficient use of time as an economic resource. (p. 38)
Key Terms in this Chapter
Refraction: The critical and creative reflection that supports across-boundary, cross-cultural interactions among various entities at different epistemological and societal levels.
Ma: The relative entity as a buffer zone composed of a series of separated space and/or time which emerges from the combination of emptiness and discrepancy.
Knowledges Sciences: Scientific studies of various knowledge, information and material sciences, each of which have their own unique culture, relying on a pluralistic epistemology.
Reflection: Contemplating and articulating otherwise tacit past experience and future purpose for present practice that is perceived within a context shaping and shaped by the individual or collective actions.
International Masters Program in Practicing Management (IMPM): A leading-edge management education program as an alternative to the existing Masters of Business Administration programs (MBA). The program is based on managerial mindsets, and pedagogy of experienced reflection that facilitates cross-cultural learning between academic institutions and business organizations as well as between participants that represent various cultural backgrounds from different societal levels.
Ba: The real, virtual, mental, relational and spiritual space for management of learning and knowledge creation.
Pluralistic Epistemology: Way of recognizing that we know things in many, different ways, in contrast to a monist epistemology
Interaction Seminar: Informal class setting designed to discuss formal issues in English.