The use of innovative applications of technology in the highly regulated world of medicine requires compliance with various government regulations (Goldberg & Gordon, 1999; Health Information and Technology Practice Group, 2003). These regulations are intended to meet a public need. A “program” is defined in the dictionary as a system of projects intended to meet a public need. Thus, an organization’s system of projects to achieve compliance with government regulations is called a compliance program. This chapter explores issues germane to compliance in the healthcare enterprise and begins with the history of government regulation of business.