Requirements for a Universal Image Analysis Tool in Dentistry and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

Requirements for a Universal Image Analysis Tool in Dentistry and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

Thomas Hierl (University of Leipzig, Germany), Heike Huempfner-Hierl (University of Leipzig, Germany), Daniel Kruber (University of Leipzig, Germany), Thomas Gaebler (University of Leipzig, Germany), Alexander Hemprich (University of Leipzig, Germany) and Gert Wollny (Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-292-3.ch005
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This chapter discusses the requirements of an image analysis tool designed for dentistry and oral and maxillofacial surgery focussing on 3D-image data. As software for the analysis of all the different types of medical 3D-data is not available, a model software based on VTK (visualization toolkit) is presented. VTK is a free modular software which can be tailored to individual demands. First, the most important types of image data are shown, then the operations needed to handle the data sets. Metric analysis is covered in-depth as it forms the basis of orthodontic and surgery planning. Finally typical examples of different fields of dentistry are given.
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Image Data In Dentistry

During the last decades, image analysis in dentistry was mostly confined to 2D bitmap images. Typical examples have been:

  • Plain X-rays → cephalometric analysis in orthodontics, caries diagnostics, endodontics etc.

  • Photographs → facial analysis in oral and maxillofacial surgery and orthodontics

The advent of 3D-scanning technologies has brought a wealth of new image data to dentistry. CT-scanning, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cone beam tomography, and optical scanning (e. g. laser scanning, fringe projection or stereophotogrammetry) are now widely used. A short and incomplete list of reasons why such data is acquired includes:

  • Optical scanning of dental crowns for prosthodontic work (CAD-CAM design and production of crowns and bridgework)

  • CT and CBT for implant surgery (ranging from planning of implant position to surgical navigation during implant placement)

  • CT, MRI, and optical scanning for 3D cephalometry

  • Optical scanning of dental plaster casts in orthodontics

  • CT, MRI, and optical scanning in epithetics (i. e. generating artificial missing facial parts after tumor surgery, accidents or due to syndromic diseases)

A key issue of most 3D scanners is the use of proprietary file formats with an inconsistent export possibility into common file formats. Most software functions of the programmes which come alongside the scanners, however, are confined to these proprietary file formats. This implies that missing import filters are limiting the use of these programmes in daily practise. Commercially used software is free of such constraints but rarely adapted to the needs of dental professionals, is rather expensive and requires profound training.


Requirements For A “Universal” Image Analysis Tool

An ideal image analysis tool should appeal to the typical software used by medical professionals (i.e. the look and feel of standard office software). Functions and drop down menus should be named in plain words, mathematical terms should be used sparsely. Regarding the data to be analysed, import filters for typical 2D and 3D format files should be available. These include:

  • Bitmap formats (BMP, JPEG, …)

  • Rdiologic images (DICOM standard)

  • Polygon based surface data derived from optical scanners (STL, VRML, OBJ, …)

Regarding the 3D image files export filters are required for special tasks. This includes production of rapid prototyping (RP) specimens for implant templates, epithetics or alloplastic implants (Ono et al. 2000). The most important format is STL, which is the standard language of RP-machines. Other export formats like VRML are useful in case of surgical planning if virtual skulls or bone segments are created which will undergo surgery. For DICOM data export formats are needed if the data have to be processed as the original DICOM data should not be changed (this is a key point of this format to keep the inherent medical information).

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Table of Contents
Petros Koidis
Andriani Daskalaki
Andriani Daskalaki
Chapter 1
Demetrios J. Halazonetis
Cephalometric analysis has been a routine diagnostic procedure in Orthodontics for more than 60 years, traditionally employing the measurement of... Sample PDF
Software Support for Advanced Cephalometric Analysis in Orthodontics
Chapter 2
Jorg Hendricks, Gert Wollny, Alexander Hemprich, Thomas Hierl
This chapter presents a toolchain including image segmentation, rigid registration and a voxel based non-rigid registration as well as 3D... Sample PDF
A New Software Environment for 3D-Time Series Analysis
Chapter 3
Antheunis Versluis, Daranee Tantbirojn
Residual stress due to polymerization shrinkage of restorative dental materials has been associated with a number of clinical symptoms, ranging from... Sample PDF
Relationship Between Shrinkage and Stress
Chapter 4
Andreas Vogel
This chapter introduces a computer-controlled method for mandible alignment. The exact positioning of the mandible in relation to the maxilla is... Sample PDF
An Objective Registration Method for Mandible Alignment
Chapter 5
Thomas Hierl, Heike Huempfner-Hierl, Daniel Kruber, Thomas Gaebler, Alexander Hemprich, Gert Wollny
This chapter discusses the requirements of an image analysis tool designed for dentistry and oral and maxillofacial surgery focussing on 3D-image... Sample PDF
Requirements for a Universal Image Analysis Tool in Dentistry and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Chapter 6
N.A. Borghese, I. Frosio
This chapter shows how large improvement in image quality can be obtained when radiographs are filtered using adequate statistical models. In... Sample PDF
Denoising and Contrast Enhancement in Dental Radiography
Chapter 7
Ralf K.W. Schulze
Established techniques for three-dimensional radiographic reconstruction such as computed tomography (CT) or, more recently cone beam computed... Sample PDF
3D Reconstructions from Few Projections in Oral Radiology
Chapter 8
Shital Patel, Yos Morsi
Tooth loss due to several reasons affects most people adversely at some time in their lives. A biological tooth substitute, which could not only... Sample PDF
Advances and Trends in Tissue Engineering of Teeth
Chapter 9
Wei-Bang Chen, Chengcui Zhang
Bacterial colony enumeration is an essential tool for many widely used biomedical assays. This chapter introduces a cost-effective and fully... Sample PDF
Automated Bacterial Colony Counting for Clonogenic Assay
Chapter 10
Michele Jacotti, Domenico Ciambrone
In this chapter the authors describe a new system for guided surgery in implantology. The aim of this system is to have a “user friendly”... Sample PDF
A New System in Guided Surgery: The Flatguide(TM) System
Chapter 11
Ferenc Pongracz
Intraoperative transfer of the implant and prosthesis planning in dentistry is facilitated by drilling templates or active, image-guided navigation.... Sample PDF
Visualization and Modelling in Dental Implantology
Chapter 12
Antonios Zampelis, George Tsamasphyros
Biomechanical research has gained recognition in medical sciences. Osseointegrated dental implants, being medical devices functioning under constant... Sample PDF
Finite Element Analysis and its Application in Dental Implant Research
Chapter 13
Amit Chattopadhyay, Tiago Coelho de Souza, Oscar Arevalo
Electronic Oral Health Records (EOHRs) contains all personal health information belonging to an individual and is entered and accessed... Sample PDF
Electronic Oral Health Records in Practice and Research
Chapter 14
Maxim Kolesnikov, Arnold D. Steinberg, Milos Zefran
This chapter describes the haptic dental simulator developed at the University of Illinois at Chicago. It explores its use and advantages as an... Sample PDF
Haptic-Based Virtual Reality Dental Simulator as an Educational Tool
Chapter 15
Anka Letic-Gavrilovic
In this chapter, the author will demonstrate and describe a project to develop a unique database with multilingual information and knowledge... Sample PDF
Digital Library for Dental Biomaterials
Chapter 16
Petros Koidis, Marianthi Manda
The present chapter deals with the introduction and implementation of rapid prototyping technologies in medical and dental field. Its purpose is to... Sample PDF
Rapid Prototyping and Dental Applications
Chapter 17
Hiroo Tamagawa, Hideaki Amano, Naoji Hayashi, Yasuyuki Hirose
In this chapter, the authors report the minimal set of characters from the Unicode Standard that is sufficient for the notation of human dentition... Sample PDF
Unicode Characters for Human Dentition: New Foundation for Standardized Data Exchange and Notation in Countries Employing Double-Byte Character Sets
Chapter 18
Nikos Nikolaidis, Ioannis Marras, Georgios Mikrogeorgis, Kleoniki Lyroudia, Ioannis Pitas
The availability of datasets comprising of digitized images of human body cross sections (as well as images acquired with other modalities such as... Sample PDF
Virtual Dental Patient: A 3D Oral Cavity Model and its Use in Haptics-Based Virtual Reality Cavity Preparation in Endodontics
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