This chapter presents some outcomes of current research on the role of contextwhen implementing learning environments. It first sets the theoretical and empiri-cal scene of current research on learning, which leads to the conclusion that thereis a general agreement on the fact that context influences learning activities. Sec-ondly, the chapter shows how theories of learning materialize and give form to thephysical and organizational structure of educational and training institutions.Then, it analyses why institutional praxis applying a given theory of learning mayconflict with the implementation of new learning environments. Finally, it providessome sociological guidelines to facilitate the implementation of a new learningparadigm within an organization. With this chapter, the author intends to promotethe use of sociology to better understand what is at stake when implementing newlearning environments.