An analysis of the role of government in e-business adoption is provided in this chapter, with empirical evidence from Australia included. It is shown that government influence is multi-faceted. Governments champion e-business adoption for national economic gain; they provide the physical network on which much of the e-business depends; and increasingly provide e-government services to improve regulation and compliance effectiveness. E-government in particular can act as a strong driver of organisational adoption for some types of e-business processes. Implications for theory from a DOI perspective are included. The authors hope that further research by IS professionals will guide future e-business project directions by improving the understanding of government’s role in e-business adoption in practice, which in turn will improve theoretical understanding of how the benefits can best be maximized.