Team Reciprocity / Team Coherency
Team reciprocity was measured by using the team-member exchange construct (TMX) developed by Seers, 1989, Seers, Petty, and Cashman, 1995, which was designed to asses employees’ exchange relationship to the peer group as a team. The TMX assesses the reciprocity among team members with respect to the member’s contribution of ideas, feedback and assistance to other members, constituted by 34 questionnaire items with a 5-point scale, as -2, -1, 0, +1, and +2 respectively. Team reciprocity was used for assessing organizational performance in our empirical studies.
Communication Accuracy and Team Member Resources
Regarding communication accuracy, communication accuracy-1 which means that problem-solutions were made immediately and at the place occurred, and communication accuracy-2 which means to take time for confirmation on patient care information, were extracted. Regarding team member resources, specialist’s decision-making and job decision-making representing team member resources-1 and -2 respectively were obtained as latent factors extracted from self-administered questionnaires we had prepared for our studies.