We have discussed so far the decimation and interpolation where the sampling rate conversion factor is an integer. However, the need for a non-integer sampling rate conversion appears when the two systems operating at different sampling rates have to be connected, or when there is a need to convert the sampling rate of the recorded data into another sampling rate for further processing or reproduction. Such applications are very common in telecommunications, digital audio, multimedia and others. In this chapter, we consider the sampling rate conversion by a rational factor, called sometimes a fractional sampling rate conversion. We use MATLAB functions from the Signal Processing and Filter Design Toolbox to demonstrate the fractional sampling rate conversion. We present the technique for constructing efficient fractional sampling rate converters based on FIR filters and the polyphase decomposition. In the sequel, we consider the sampling rate alteration with an arbitrary conversion factor. We present the polynomial-based approximation of the impulse response of a hybrid analog/digital model, and the implementation based on the Farrow structure. We also consider the fractional-delay filter problem. This chapter concludes with MATLAB exercises for individual study.