Secure Online DNS Dynamic Updates: Architecture and Implementation

Secure Online DNS Dynamic Updates: Architecture and Implementation

Xunhua Wang (James Madison University, USA) and David Rine (George Mason University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-418-7.ch013
OnDemand PDF Download:
$37.50

Abstract

Domain Name System (DNS) is the system for the mapping between easily memorizable host names and their IP addresses. Due to its criticality, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has defined a DNS Security Extension (DNSSEC) to provide data-origin authentication. In this paper, we point out two drawbacks of the DNSSEC standard in its handling of DNS dynamic updates: 1) the on-line storage of a zone security key, creating a single point of attack for both inside and outside attackers, and 2) the violation of the role separation principle, which in the context of DNSSEC requires the separation of the roles of zone security managers from DNS name server administrators. To address these issues, we propose an alternative secure DNS architecture based on threshold cryptography. Unlike DNSSEC, this architecture adheres to the role separation principle without presenting any single point of attack. To show the feasibility of the proposed architecture, we developed a threshold cryptography toolkit based on the Java Cryptography Architecture (JCA) and built a proof-of-concept prototype with the toolkit. Our running results of the prototype on a representative platform show that the performance of our proposed architecture ranges from one to four times of DNSSEC’s performance. Thus, through small performance overhead, our proposed architecture could achieve very high level of security.
Chapter Preview
Top

Introduction

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a distributed database used in the Internet to map easily memorizable host names to their respective IP addresses (Mockapetris, 1987a, 1987b; Mockapetris & Dunlap, 1986, 1988, 1995).The DNS name space is organized into a hierarchy. Top-level domains include .com, .edu, .org, .biz, .info, .mil, .gov, .net, two-letter country codes like .ae and .jo (Postel, 1994). Second-level domain names typically designate individual institutions. For instance, Google Inc. is assigned a second-level domain name “google” under the top-level domain .com. In the domain name hierarchy, the subspace that is under a single administrative control is called a “zone.” In each zone, several predefined resources can be associated with a given domain name. Two example domain name resources are IP address and mail exchange server. The association of a domain name with a resource is called a resource record (RR). The most important RR of a domain name is the “type A” RR, which contains the host IP address of the domain name. All the RRs within a zone are stored in a master file to be published by the primary name server of that zone. Each zone also supports zero or more secondary name servers, which obtain RRs from the primary server. Secondary servers act as backup of the primary name server and can also reduce the workload of the primary server; they send appropriate RRs to clients in response to queries but are not involved in the maintenance of the master file.

Unfortunately, the DNS, a critical infrastructure component of the Internet, was designed without security considerations. In particular, the original DNS architecture provides no way for a client to authenticate a received RR. This loophole enables many security attacks (Bellovin, 1995; Schuba, 1993; Vixie, 1995). For example, an attacker in the middle can modify a DNS response to include a fake RR. By providing an incorrect IP address for the requested domain name (for instance, www.ebay.com), a malicious third party could cause the loss of business to the domain name owner (eBay Inc. in the example).

In response to the above concerns, the DNS Security Extension (DNSSEC) was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) (Arends, Austein, Larson, Massey, & Rose, 2005a, 2005b, 2005c). Throughout this article we use the terms IETF DNSSEC and DNSSEC interchangeably. The DNSSEC provides RR authentication by the use of digital signatures (Diffie & Hellman, 1976; Rivest, Shamir, & Adleman, 1978). With DNSSEC, each zone is equipped with a public/private key pair. Resource records of a zone with the same name are organized into RR sets (RRset) and the zone private key is used to digitally sign all the RRsets in that zone. For each RRset, its digital signature is stored in a newly defined resource record called “RRSIG RR.” The response to a DNS query comprises the requested RRsets and the corresponding RRSIG RR. The zone public key is disseminated through DNSKEY RR, a new RR defined by DNSSEC, and DNS clients use this key to verify RRSIG RRs. (Obviously, a zone’s DNSKEY RR should be also authenticated and this is accomplished by a corresponding RRSIG RR by its parent zone.)

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book:
Reset
Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Chapter 1
Olivier Berger, Christian Bac, Benoît Hamet
Libre software provides powerful applications ready to be integrated for the build-up of platforms for internal use in organizations. We describe... Sample PDF
Integration of Libre Software Applications to Create a Collaborative Work Platform for Researchers at GET
$37.50
Chapter 2
James Howison, Megan Conklin, Kevin Crowston
This paper introduces and expands on previous work on a collaborative project, called FLOSSmole (formerly OSSmole), designed to gather, share and... Sample PDF
FLOSSmole: A Collaborative Repository for FLOSS Research Data and Analyses
$37.50
Chapter 3
Luis López-Fernández, Gregorio Robles, Jesus M. Gonzalez-Barahona, Israel Herraiz
Source code management repositories of large, long-lived libre (free, open source) software projects can be a source of valuable data about the... Sample PDF
Applying Social Network Analysis Techniques to Community-Driven Libre Software Projects
$37.50
Chapter 4
Walt Scacchi, Chris Jensen, John Noll, Margaret Elliott
Understanding the context, structure, activities, and content of software development processes found in practice has been and remains a challenging... Sample PDF
Multi-Modal Modeling, Analysis, and Validation of Open Source Software Development Processes
$37.50
Chapter 5
B. B. Rossi, M. Scotto, A. Sillitti, G. Succi
The aim of the paper is to report the results of a migration to Open Source Software (OSS) in one Public Administration. The migration focuses on... Sample PDF
An Empirical Study on the Migration to OpenOffice.org in a Public Administration
$37.50
Chapter 6
Claudio Agostino Ardagna, Fulvio Frati, Gabriele Gianini
Business and recreational activities on the global communication infrastructure are increasingly based on the use of remote resources and services... Sample PDF
Open Source in Web-Based Applications: A Case Study on Single Sign-On
$37.50
Chapter 7
Qusay H. Mahmoud, Zakaria Maamar
Conventional desktop software applications are usually designed, built, and tested on a platform similar to the one on which they will be deployed... Sample PDF
Engineering Wireless Mobile Applications
$37.50
Chapter 8
G. Sivaradje, R. Nakkeeran, P. Dananjayan
In this paper, a novel prediction technique is proposed, which uses road topology information for prediction. The proposed scheme uses real time... Sample PDF
A Prediction Based Flexible Channel Assignment in Wireless Networks using Road Topology Information
$37.50
Chapter 9
Hesham A. Ali, Tamer Ahmed Farrag
Due to the rapidly increasing of the mobile devices connected to the internet, a lot of researches are being conducted to maximize the benefit of... Sample PDF
High Performance Scheduling Mechanism for Mobile Computing Based on Self-Ranking Algorithm (SRA)
$37.50
Chapter 10
Khaldoon Al-Zoubi
This paper proposes hierarchal scheduling schemes for Grid systems: a self-discovery scheme for the resource discovery stage and an adaptive child... Sample PDF
Hierarchical Scheduling in Heterogeneous Grid Systems
$37.50
Chapter 11
Amjad Mahmood, Taher S.K. Homeed
Object replication is a well-known technique to improve performance of a distributed Web server system. This paper first presents an algorithm to... Sample PDF
Object Grouping and Replication on a Distributed Web Server System
$37.50
Chapter 12
Saher S. Manaseer, Mohamed Ould-Khaoua, Lewis M. Mackenzie
In wireless communication environments, backoff is traditionally based on the IEEE binary exponential backoff (BEB). Using BEB results in a high... Sample PDF
On the Logarithmic Backoff Algorithm for MAC Protocol in MANETs
$37.50
Chapter 13
Xunhua Wang, David Rine
Domain Name System (DNS) is the system for the mapping between easily memorizable host names and their IP addresses. Due to its criticality, the... Sample PDF
Secure Online DNS Dynamic Updates: Architecture and Implementation
$37.50
Chapter 14
Osama H.S. Khader
In mobile ad hoc networks, routing protocols are becoming more complicated and problematic. Routing in mobile ad hoc networks is multi-hop because... Sample PDF
FSR Evaluation Using the Suboptimal Operational Values
$37.50
Chapter 15
Suet Chun Lee
Software product line (SPL) is a software engineering paradigm for software development. A software product within a product line often has specific... Sample PDF
Modeling Variant User Interfaces for Web-Based Software Product Lines
$37.50
Chapter 16
M. Brian Blake, Lisa Singh, Andrew B. Williams, Wendell Norman, Amy L. Sliva
Organizations are beginning to apply data mining and knowledge discovery techniques to their corporate data sets, thereby enabling the... Sample PDF
Experience Report: A Component-Based Data Management and Knowledge Discovery Framework for Aviation Studies
$37.50
Chapter 17
A. F. Tappenden, T. Huynh, J. Miller, A. Geras, M. Smith
This article outlines a four-point strategy for the development of secure Web-based applications within an agile development framework and... Sample PDF
Agile Development of Secure Web-Based Applications
$37.50
Chapter 18
D. Xuan Le, J. Wenny Rahayu, David Taniar
This paper proposes a data warehouse integration technique that combines data and documents from different underlying documents and database design... Sample PDF
Web Data Warehousing Convergence: From Schematic to Systematic
$37.50
Chapter 19
Haya El-Ghalayini, Mohammed Odeh, Richard McClatchey
This paper studies the differences and similarities between domain ontologies and conceptual data models and the role that ontologies can play in... Sample PDF
Engineering Conceptual Data Models from Domain Ontologies: A Critical Evaluation
$37.50
Chapter 20
John D. Ferguson, James Miller
It is now widely accepted that software projects utilizing the Web (e-projects) face many of the same problems and risks experienced with more... Sample PDF
Modeling Defects in E-Projects
$37.50
Chapter 21
Jaime Gomez, Alejandro Bia, Antonio Parraga
This paper describes the engineering foundations of VisualWADE, a CASE tool to automate the production of Web applications. VisualWADE follows a... Sample PDF
Tool Support for Model-Driven Development of Web Applications
$37.50
About the Editors