Security Policies and Procedures

Security Policies and Procedures

Yvette Ghormley (Saint Leo University, USA)
Copyright: © 2009 |Pages: 11
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-855-0.ch027
OnDemand PDF Download:
$37.50

Abstract

The number and severity of attacks on computer and information systems in the last two decades has steadily risen and mandates the use of security policies by organizations to protect digital as well as physical assets. Although the adoption and implementation of such policies still falls far short, progress is being made. Issues of management commitment, flexibility, structural informality, training, and compliance are among the obstacles that currently hinder greater and more comprehensive coverage for businesses. As security awareness and security-conscious cultures continue to grow, it is likely that research into better methodologies will increase with concomitant efficiency of security policy creation and implementation. However, attacks are becoming increasingly more sophisticated. While the human element is often the weakest link in security, much can be done to mitigate this problem provided security policies are kept focused and properly disseminated, and training and enforcement are applied.
Chapter Preview
Top

Introduction

In the days of mainframes, users were given a username and password, and perhaps an electronic badge to admit them to a computer facility. Those days have long evaporated. With the advent of private broadcast networks, intranets, portable media devices, laptops, and the commercial development of the Internet, security for any kind of business has become a lot more complicated. Moreover, it is costing more. The average loss from unauthorized access to data increased by 488 percent from $51,545 in 2004 to $303,234 in 2005, according to the most recent Computer Security Institute/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey (McFadden, 2006). For larger companies, recent security breaches were estimated by Ernst and Young to range from $17 to $28 million per incident (Garg, Curtis, & Halper, 2003), and Austin & Darby (2003) reported that the cost of security breaches to businesses in the USA was $17 billion. Further, correcting the long-term damage, which includes loss of customer confidence, damage to the company’s image, and financial consequences, such as stock devaluation for public companies, can be extremely costly, although difficult to estimate. Therefore, developing an effective security policy, implementing it, and ensuring that it is understood and practiced by all employees is essential.

The Approach to Security Policies and Procedures

Companywide policies should be initiated and enforced from the top, and that includes IT security policies. That does not mean to say that technical policies, such as those developed by IT departments, cannot have a specific focus, but the level of technical complexity itself should not be regarded as a barrier that top management can ignore. Tuesday (2002) cites a case study in which an old approved policy was updated at a lower level but ignored by a CEO’s assistant, who was essentially acting as the gatekeeper. The eventual result was that the CEO applied for an exception dispensation; however, the antics of the assistant probably caused sufficient disruption that enforcing the updated policy was difficult.

Policies must focus on the most important aspects of security rather than comprise a long list of laundry items in a 200-page manual. For example, one of the most productive ways to review security from scratch is for each business unit to determine what devices and associated data (digital assets) are the most important (Austin & Darby, 2003). From this data, common policies can be formulated, with the establishment of exception procedures for those groups that are not impacted, or who require a different solution.

The creation of simple, nonspecific technology-dependent policies allows for the possibility of change, and flexible approaches. Tomorrow’s security problems are not necessarily going to be solved by today’s solutions. Both threats and technology change, and policies should be broad enough to accommodate these facts.

Enforcement of policies is also important. Policies can be written and implemented, but if breaches occur, they must be addressed. Not reacting to breaches in policy causes employees to think that a policy can be safely ignored, and increases the risk that real damage will be done the next time an incident occurs.

Last, the roles of individuals in shaping, implementing, and enforcing security policies must be delineated. If responsibilities are not created, there is a tendency for some individuals to assume roles and proceed unilaterally, and others to ignore situations that must be addressed.

This chapter comprises six main sections: (a) methods to determine the constitution of security policies (frameworks, scope, and creation), (b) adoption and implementation of policies into specific procedures, (c) exception procedures, (d) training in security policies, (e) enforcement of security policies, and (f) leadership roles in security policies. Rather than focusing on specific technologies, the intent of the chapter is to create a framework from which security policies and procedures can be derived for any type of business entity. These elements, with emphasis on the constitution of security policies, are discussed in terms of (a) the research that has been conducted, and (b) practical advice that can be utilized.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Information Security System (ISS): A framework that encompasses the methodology by which information will be identified as confidential and kept secure.

Information Security (IS): The securing of information identified as confidential by computer-based and human-based procedures.

Security Meta-Policy: A policy that describes what is permissible in broad terms of security issues without specifying exact technological solutions.

Information Security Policy (ISP): A written document specifying how the digital and electronic equipment assets of an organization will be protected through the use of individual procedures.

Alignment: The degree to which strategic or corporate goals are in harmony with security policies.

Security Awareness: The perception by individuals within an organization that security is important to the conduct of business.

Information technology (IT): The technology that supports access, processing, and dissemination of data (information).

Strategic Information Systems Plan (SISP): A plan that describes how information will be collected, processed, and disseminated within and outside of an organization.

Security Policy: A written document specifying how all assets of an organization will be protected through the use of individual procedures.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book:
Reset
Editorial Advisory Board
Table of Contents
Preface
Jatinder N. D. Gupta, Sushil Sharma
Acknowledgment
Jatinder N. D. Gupta, Sushil Sharma
Chapter 1
Xin Luo, Qinyu Liao
In computer virology, advanced encryption algorithms, on the bright side, can be utilized to effectively protect valuable information assets of... Sample PDF
Ransomware: A New Cyber Hijacking Threat to Enterprises
$37.50
Chapter 2
Joon S. Park
E-commerce has grown immensely with the increase in activity on the Internet, and this increase in activity, while immeasurable, has also presented... Sample PDF
E-Commerce: The Benefits, Security Risks, and Countermeasures
$37.50
Chapter 3
Pamela Ajoku
Even though weapons and money are considered important factors for running a modern world, at the end of the day, it is all about controlling and... Sample PDF
Information Warfare: Survival of the Fittest
$37.50
Chapter 4
Gaeil An, Joon S. Park
In this chapter, we discuss the evolution of the enterprise security federation, including why the framework should be evolved and how it has been... Sample PDF
Evolution of Enterprise Security Federation
$37.50
Chapter 5
Roy Ng
The hypergrowth of computing and communications technologies increases security vulnerabilities to organizations. The lack of resources training... Sample PDF
A Holistic Approach to Information Security Assurance and Risk Management in an Enterprise
$37.50
Chapter 6
John D’Arcy, Anat Hovav
A number of academic studies that focus on various aspects of information security management (ISM) have emerged in recent years. This body of work... Sample PDF
An Integrative Framework for the Study of Information Security Management Research
$37.50
Chapter 7
Aditya Ponnam
Organizations worldwide recognize the importance of a comprehensive, continuously evolving risk assessment process, built around a solid risk... Sample PDF
Information Systems Risk Management: An Audit and Control Approach
$37.50
Chapter 8
Udaya Kiran Tupakula
In this chapter we discuss Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks in networks such as the Internet, which have become significantly prevalent... Sample PDF
Distributed Denial of Service Attacks in Networks
$37.50
Chapter 9
Andy Luse
This chapter describes various firewall conventions, and how these technologies operate when deployed on a corporate network. Terms associated with... Sample PDF
Firewalls as Continuing Solutions for Network Security
$37.50
Chapter 10
Jamie Twycross
The immune system provides a rich metaphor for computer security: anomaly detection that works in nature should work for machines. However, early... Sample PDF
An Immune-Inspired Approach to Anomaly Detection
$37.50
Chapter 11
Wasim A. Al-Hamdani
This chapter introduces cryptography from information security phase rather than from deep mathematical and theoretical aspects, along with... Sample PDF
Cryptography for Information Security
$37.50
Chapter 12
Carlo Belletini
The chapter introduces and describes representative defense mechanisms to protect from both basic and advanced exploitation of low-level coding... Sample PDF
Memory Corruption Attacks, Defenses, and Evasions
$37.50
Chapter 13
Dalila Boughaci, Brahim Oubeka, Abdelkader Aissioui, Habiba Drias, Belaïd Benhamou
This chapter presents the design and the implementation of a decentralized firewall. The latter uses autonomous agents to coordinately control the... Sample PDF
Design and Implementation of a Distributed Firewall
$37.50
Chapter 14
Tom Coffey
This chapter concerns the correct and reliable design of modern security protocols. It discusses the importance of formal verification of security... Sample PDF
A Formal Verification Centred Development Process for Security Protocols
$37.50
Chapter 15
Ahsan Habib
This chapter develops a distributed monitoring scheme that uses edge-to-edge measurements to identify congested links and capture the misbehaving... Sample PDF
Edge-to-Edge Network Monitoring to Detect Service Violations and DoS Attacks
$37.50
Chapter 16
Doug White, Alan Rea
Hard disk wipes are a crucial component of computing security. However, more often than not, hard drives are not adequately processed before either... Sample PDF
A "One-Pass" Methodology for Sensitive Data Disk Wipes
$37.50
Chapter 17
Lijun Liao
This chapter deals with the issues concerning e-mail communication security. We analyze the most popular security mechanisms and standards related... Sample PDF
Securing E-Mail Communication with XML Technology
$37.50
Chapter 18
Li Yang, Raimund K. Ege, Lin Luo
This chapter describes our approach to handle security in a complex Distributed Virtual Environment (DVE). The modules of such an environment all... Sample PDF
Aspect-Oriented Analysis of Security in Distributed Virtual Environment
$37.50
Chapter 19
Information Availability  (pages 230-239)
Deepak Khazanchi
This chapter describes the concept of information availability (IAV) which is considered an important element of information security. IAV is... Sample PDF
Information Availability
$37.50
Chapter 20
Siraj Ahmed Shaikh
The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the reader to the research area of formal analysis of authentication protocols. It briefly introduces... Sample PDF
Formal Analysis and Design of Authentication Protocols
$37.50
Chapter 21
Rajeev R. Raje, Alex Crespi, Omkar J. Tilak, Andrew M. Olson
Component-based software development offers a promising technique for creating distributed systems. It does require a framework for specifying... Sample PDF
Access Control Frameworks for a Distributed System
$37.50
Chapter 22
Manish Gupta, JinKyu Lee, H. R. Rao
The Internet has emerged as the dominant medium in enabling banking transactions. Adoption of e-banking has witnessed an unprecedented increase over... Sample PDF
Implications of FFIEC Guidance on Authentication in Electronic Banking
$37.50
Chapter 23
Sue Conger
Historically, companies have automated a security model that analogizes the concept of a “guardian” who monitors incoming and outgoing activities... Sample PDF
Disruptive Technology Impacts on Security
$37.50
Chapter 24
Sushma Mishra
Internal auditing has become increasingly important in current business environments. In this era of the Sarbanes- Oxley Act and other similar... Sample PDF
Internal Auditing for Information Assurance
$37.50
Chapter 25
William H. Friedman
This chapter is management oriented. It first proposes a general theoretical context for IT disasters within the wider class of all types of... Sample PDF
IT Continuity in the Face of Mishaps
$37.50
Chapter 26
Yvette Ghormley
This chapter describes the tools that businesses can use to create a Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Plan. Utilizing business modeling... Sample PDF
Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Plans
$37.50
Chapter 27
Yvette Ghormley
The number and severity of attacks on computer and information systems in the last two decades has steadily risen and mandates the use of security... Sample PDF
Security Policies and Procedures
$37.50
Chapter 28
Arjmand Samuel
This chapter outlines the overall access control policy engineering framework in general and discusses the subject of validation of access control... Sample PDF
Enterprise Access Control Policy Engineering Framework
$37.50
Chapter 29
Sushil K. Sharma, Jatinder N.D. Gupta
The purpose of the information security policy is to establish an organization-wide approach to prescribe mechanisms that help identify and prevent... Sample PDF
Information Security Policies: Precepts and Practices
$37.50
Chapter 30
Paul D. Witman
This chapter provides a set of guidelines to assist information assurance and security researchers in creating, negotiating, and reviewing... Sample PDF
A Guide to Non-Disclosure Agreements for Researchers
$37.50
Chapter 31
Omkar J. Tilak
Software realization of a large-scale Distributed Computing System (DCS) is achieved through the Componentbased Software Development (CBSD)... Sample PDF
Assurance for Temporal Compatibility Using Contracts
$37.50
Chapter 32
Arjan Durresi
The latest estimates suggest that there are over two billion cell phone users worldwide. The massive worldwide usage has prompted technological... Sample PDF
Spatial Authentication Using Cell Phones
$37.50
Chapter 33
Sushil K. Sharma, Jatinder N.D. Gupta, Ajay K. Gupta
The ability to perform E-Commerce over the Internet has become the driver of the new digital economy. As it has opened up opportunities for... Sample PDF
Plugging Security Holes in Online Environment
$37.50
Chapter 34
Erik Graham, Paul John Steinbart
This chapter presents a step-by-step approach to improving the security of wireless networks. It describes the basic threats to achieving the... Sample PDF
Six Keys to Improving Wireless Security
$37.50
Chapter 35
Robert W. Proctor, E. Eugene Schultz, Kim-Phuong L. Vu
Many measures that enhance information security and privacy exist. Because these measures involve humans in various ways, their effectiveness... Sample PDF
Human Factors in Information Security and Privacy
$37.50
Chapter 36
Wm. Arthur Conklin
Software defects lead to security vulnerabilities, which cost businesses millions of dollars each year and threaten the security of both individuals... Sample PDF
Threat Modeling and Secure Software Engineering Process
$37.50
Chapter 37
Christopher M. Botelho, Joseph A. Cazier
The threat of social engineering attacks is prevalent in today’s society. Even with the pervasiveness of mass media’s coverage of hackers and... Sample PDF
Guarding Corporate Data from Social Engineering Attacks
$37.50
Chapter 38
Tom Clark
Data storage is playing an increasingly visible role in securing application data in the data center. Today virtually all large enterprises and... Sample PDF
Data Security for Storage Area Networks
$37.50
Chapter 39
Edgar Weippl
This chapter outlines advanced options for security training. It builds on previous publications (Weippl 2005, 2006) and expands them by including... Sample PDF
Security Awareness: Virtual Environments and E-Learning
$37.50
Chapter 40
Manish Gupta
Enterprises are increasingly interested in new and cost effective technologies to leverage existing investments in IT and extend capabilities to... Sample PDF
Security-Efficient Identity Management Using Service Provisioning (Markup Language)
$37.50
Chapter 41
Dwayne Stevens, David T. Green
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) networks signal an evolution in telecommunications that is accelerating the convergence of the Internet and the... Sample PDF
A Strategy for Enterprise VoIP Security
$37.50
Chapter 42
Jose M. Torres
This chapter presents an Information Systems Security Management Framework (ISSMF) which encapsulates eleven Critical Success Factors (CSFs) along... Sample PDF
Critical Success Factors and Indicators to Improve Information Systems Security Management Actions
$37.50
Chapter 43
Rebecca H. Rutherfoord
This chapter will deal with issues of privacy, societal, and ethical concerns in enterprise security. Security for a company is defined as... Sample PDF
Privacy, Societal, and Ethical Concerns in Security
$37.50
Chapter 44
Rodolfo Villarroel, Eduardo Fernández-Medina, Juan Trujillo, Mario Piattini
This chapter presents an approach for designing secure Data Warehouses (DWs) that accomplish the conceptual modeling of secure DWs independently... Sample PDF
An MDA Compliant Approach for Designing Secure Data Warehouses
$37.50
Chapter 45
Hai Wang
This chapter introduces the survivability evaluation, especially on the corresponding evaluation criteria and modeling techniques. The content of... Sample PDF
Survivability Evaluation Modeling Techniques and Measures
$37.50
Chapter 46
Art Taylor
With the rise of the Internet, computer systems appear to be more vulnerable than ever from security attacks. Much attention has been focused on the... Sample PDF
The Last Line of Defense: A Comparison of Windows and Linux Authentication and Authorization Features
$37.50
Chapter 47
M. Pradhan
Information Technology can be used at all levels to counter attack bioterrorism. This article gives an overview of use of Information Technology for... Sample PDF
Bioterrorism and Biosecurity
$37.50
About the Contributors